Special Issue "Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maciej Gajęcki
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13,10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: mycotoxins; detection; feed; low doses; mycotoxicosis; diagnostics; animal pathology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Magdalena Gajęcka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: mycotoxins; detection; feed; mycotoxicosis; diagnostics; animal pathology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and their metabolites are among the most frequently encountered mycotoxins in plant materials. Their presence compromises the health quality of foodstuffs and feedstuffs, and increases the risk of ischemia and reperfusion injury, stress-related intestinal disorders, as well as endocrine, metabolic, and immune disorders. These problems are resolved on an individual basis by selecting the appropriate combination of measures. The symptoms and health consequences of high mycotoxin doses are generally known. However, small doses can cause disease without clinical symptoms or they can interact with the host body at various stages of life. Due to this ambiguous dose–response relationship, the symptoms associated with high mycotoxin doses cannot be easily extrapolated to low doses. The interactions between mycotoxins and between mycotoxins and physiological processes in cells, tissues, and microorganisms are also problematic. Mycotoxins present in feed come into direct contact with the intestinal mucosa. A healthy gastrointestinal tract comprises active cells and tissues with high protein metabolic turnover rates. Cells and tissues are often targeted by mycotoxins. Some mycotoxins inhibit protein synthesis. For instance, deoxynivalenol ingested in small doses inhibits the uptake of substrates responsible for protein transport across intestinal walls. On the other hand, zearalenone has estrogenic properties, and low doses of this mycotoxin stimulate proliferative processes. Mycotoxins also influence the activity of local and general immune systems, and their adverse effects become manifested in immunosuppressed hosts. Mycotoxins can also suppress the host’s immune system, thus increasing the risk of disorders caused by microorganisms, intestinal enzymes, and other toxins in the digestive tract without the clinical symptoms that are characteristic of mycotoxicoses.

To address these important concerns, we will be leading the Special Issue of Toxins, titled “The Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health”, as Guest Editors. We invite you to submit manuscripts to this issue.

Prof. Dr. Maciej T. Gajęcki
Prof. Dr. Magdalena Gajęcka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • detection
  • feed
  • low doses
  • mycotoxicosis
  • diagnostics
  • gastroenterology
  • endocrinology
  • animal pathology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Occurrence of Zearalenone and Its Metabolites in the Blood of High-Yielding Dairy Cows at Selected Collection Sites in Various Disease States
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 446; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070446 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites, alpha-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and beta-zearalenol (β-ZEL), are ubiquitous in plant materials used as feed components in dairy cattle diets. The aim of this study was to confirm the occurrence of ZEN and its selected metabolites in blood [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites, alpha-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and beta-zearalenol (β-ZEL), are ubiquitous in plant materials used as feed components in dairy cattle diets. The aim of this study was to confirm the occurrence of ZEN and its selected metabolites in blood samples collected from different sites in the hepatic portal system (posthepatic–external jugular vein EJV; prehepatic–abdominal subcutaneous vein ASV and median caudal vein MCV) of dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis, ovarian cysts and pyometra. The presence of mycotoxins in the blood plasma was determined with the use of combined separation methods involving immunoaffinity columns, a liquid chromatography system and a mass spectrometry system. The parent compound was detected in all samples collected from diseased cows, whereas α-ZEL and β-ZEL were not identified in any samples, or their concentrations were below the limit of detection (LOD). Zearalenone levels were highest in cows with pyometra, where the percentage share of average ZEN concentrations reached 44%. Blood sampling sites were arranged in the following ascending order based on ZEN concentrations: EJV (10.53 pg/mL, 44.07% of the samples collected from this site), ASV (14.20 pg/mL, 49.59% of the samples) and MCV (26.67 pg/mL, 67.35% of the samples). The results of the study indicate that blood samples for toxicological analyses should be collected from the MCV (prehepatic vessel) of clinically healthy cows and/or cows with subclinical ZEN mycotoxicosis. This sampling site increases the probability of correct diagnosis of subclinical ZEN mycotoxicosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health)
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Article
Concentration of Zearalenone, Alpha-Zearalenol and Beta-Zearalenol in the Myocardium and the Results of Isometric Analyses of the Coronary Artery in Prepubertal Gilts
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060396 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
The carry-over of zearalenone (ZEN) to the myocardium and its effects on coronary vascular reactivity in vivo have not been addressed in the literature to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low ZEN doses (MABEL, NOAEL [...] Read more.
The carry-over of zearalenone (ZEN) to the myocardium and its effects on coronary vascular reactivity in vivo have not been addressed in the literature to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low ZEN doses (MABEL, NOAEL and LOAEL) administered per os to prepubertal gilts for 21 days affect the accumulation of ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL in the myocardium and the reactivity of the porcine coronary arteries to vasoconstrictors: acetylcholine, potassium chloride and vasodilator sodium nitroprusside. The contractile response to acetylcholine in the presence of a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin and / or an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME was also studied. The results of this study indicate that the carry-over of ZEN and its metabolites to the myocardium is a highly individualized process that occurs even at very low mycotoxin concentrations. The concentrations of the accumulated ZEN metabolites are inversely proportional to each other due to biotransformation processes. The levels of vasoconstrictors, acetylcholine and potassium chloride, were examined in the left anterior descending branch of the porcine coronary artery after oral administration of ZEN. The LOAEL dose clearly decreased vasoconstriction in response to both potassium chloride and acetylcholine (P < 0.05 for all values) and increased vasodilation in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (P = 0.021). The NOAEL dose significantly increased vasoconstriction caused by acetylcholine (P < 0.04), whereas the MABEL dose did not cause significant changes in the vascular response. Unlike higher doses of ZEN, 5 μg/kg had no negative influence on the vascular system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health)
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Review

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Review
Biosensors for Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Determination in Feed Quality Control
Toxins 2021, 13(7), 499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070499 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 846
Abstract
Mycotoxin contamination of cereals used for feed can cause intoxication, especially in farm animals; therefore, efficient analytical tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic fungal metabolites in feed are required. Current trends in food/feed analysis are focusing on the application of [...] Read more.
Mycotoxin contamination of cereals used for feed can cause intoxication, especially in farm animals; therefore, efficient analytical tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic fungal metabolites in feed are required. Current trends in food/feed analysis are focusing on the application of biosensor technologies that offer fast and highly selective and sensitive detection with minimal sample treatment and reagents required. The article presents an overview of the recent progress of the development of biosensors for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone determination in cereals and feed. Novel biosensitive materials and highly sensitive detection methods applied for the sensors and the application of these sensors to food/feed products, the limit, and the time of detection are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health)
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Other

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Study Protocol
Correlations between Low Doses of Zearalenone, Its Carryover Factor and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Different Segments of the Intestines in Pre-Pubertal Gilts—A Study Protocol
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 379; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060379 - 26 May 2021
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Abstract
Plant materials can be contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives, whose toxic effects on humans and animals may remain subclinical. Zearalenone (ZEN), a low-molecular-weight compound, is produced by molds in crop plants as a secondary metabolite. The objective of this study will [...] Read more.
Plant materials can be contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives, whose toxic effects on humans and animals may remain subclinical. Zearalenone (ZEN), a low-molecular-weight compound, is produced by molds in crop plants as a secondary metabolite. The objective of this study will be to analyze the in vivo correlations between very low monotonic doses of ZEN (5, 10, and 15 μg ZEN/kg body weight—BW for 42 days) and the carryover of this mycotoxin and its selected metabolites from the intestinal contents to the intestinal walls, the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor alfa (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) genes, and the mRNA expression of genes modulating selected colon enzymes (CYP1A1 and GSTP1) in the intestinal mucosa of pre-pubertal gilts. An in vivo experiment will be performed on 60 clinically healthy animals with initial BW of 14.5 ± 2 kg. The gilts will be randomly divided into a control group (group C, n = 15) and three experimental groups (group ZEN5, group ZEN10, and group ZEN15; n = 15). Group ZEN5 will be administered per os 5 μg ZEN/kg BW (MABEL), group ZEN10—10 μg ZEN/kg BW (NOAEL), and group ZEN15—15 µg ZEN/kg BW (low LOAEL). In each group, five animals will be euthanized on analytical dates 1 (exposure day 7), 2 (exposure day 21), and 3 (exposure day 42). Samples for in vitro analyses will be collected from an intestinal segment resected from the following regions: the third (horizontal) part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon. The experimental material will be collected under special conditions, and it will be transported to specialist laboratories where samples will be obtained for further analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health)
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