Special Issue "Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maciej Gajęcki
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13,10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: mycotoxins; detection; feed; low doses; mycotoxicosis; diagnostics; animal pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Magdalena Gajęcka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: mycotoxins; detection; feed; mycotoxicosis; diagnostics; animal pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Łukasz Zielonka
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13,10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: mycotoxins; detection; mycotoxicosis; diagnostics; animal pathology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animal feeds, feedstuffs, and feed materials are frequently contaminated with undesirable substances, such as mycotoxins. According to various organizations evaluating the quality of plant materials, exposure to various mycotoxin doses in feed can have unpredictable consequences during mycotoxicosis. This uncertainty is associated with both the dose and the duration of exposure. Small and moderate doses often produce surprising effects, as follows: (i) the body fails to recognize the presence of undesirable substances, such as mycotoxins, and the underlying principle is similar to the T-regs theory; (ii) mycotoxin absorption increases during prolonged per os exposure; (iii) a compensatory effect is observed, which inhibits the activity of the analyzed factors, and homeostasis is restored despite ongoing exposure; and (iv) biomarkers of gastrointestinal functionality are detected. Mycotoxins alter the gut microbiome, and they can contribute to immune, endocrine, and metabolic disorders. These symptoms are difficult to identify and more difficult to interpret correctly.

For this reason, the Special Issue of Toxins will focus on the responses of selected bodily systems and functionality biomarkers in animals to various doses of mycotoxins causing mycotoxicosis. The resulting knowledge will deepen our understanding of mycotoxins’ impact on animal health, and it will facilitate decision making in risk management. Your scientific input into the Special Issue will be much appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Maciej Gajęcki
Prof. Dr. Magdalena Gajęcka
Dr. Łukasz Łukasz Zielonka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Feed
  • Mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxicosis
  • Animal pathology
  • Detection Diagnostics
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Intestinal microbiome
  • Intestinal mycobiome
  • Intestinal genotoxicity

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
The Presence of Mycotoxins in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100663 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
The Effect of Using New Synbiotics on the Turkey Performance, the Intestinal Microbiota and the Fecal Enzymes Activity in Turkeys Fed Ochratoxin A Contaminated Feed
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090578 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
The feed supplementation of probiotic microorganisms is a promising method for detoxification of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of newly elaborated synbiotics on the turkey performance, the intestinal microbiota and its enzymatic activity [...] Read more.
The feed supplementation of probiotic microorganisms is a promising method for detoxification of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of newly elaborated synbiotics on the turkey performance, the intestinal microbiota and its enzymatic activity in turkeys (0–15 weeks) fed OTA contaminated feed (198.6–462.0 µg/kg) compared to control group (OTA-free feed). The studies determined the composition of intestinal microorganisms by the culture method and the activity of fecal enzymes by spectrophotometry. It was found that OTA had an adverse effect on the body weight, the intestinal microbiota and the fecal enzymes activity in turkeys. On the other hand, synbiotics resulted in an increase in the count of beneficial bacteria while reducing the number of potential pathogens in the digestive tract. Moreover, synbiotics caused an increase in the activity of α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase, while decreasing the activity of potentially harmful fecal enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase) in the turkey’s excreta. Results indicate a beneficial effect of elaborated synbiotics on the health of turkeys and a reduction of the negative impact of OTA contaminated feed. These synbiotics can be successfully used as feed additives for turkeys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Histology and Ultrastructure of Pig Liver
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 463; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070463 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined administrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the histology and ultrastructure of pig liver. The study was performed on immature gilts, which were divided into four equal groups. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined administrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the histology and ultrastructure of pig liver. The study was performed on immature gilts, which were divided into four equal groups. Animals in the experimental groups received DON at a dose of 12 μg/kg body weight (BW) per day, ZEN at 40 μg/kg BW per day, or a mixture of DON (12 μg/kg BW per day) and ZEN (40 μg/kg BW). The control group received vehicle. The animals were killed after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of experiment. Treatment with mycotoxins resulted in several changes in liver histology and ultrastructure, including: (1) an increase in the thickness of the perilobular connective tissue and its penetration to the lobules in gilts receiving DON and DON + ZEN; (2) an increase in the total microscopic liver score (histology activity index (HAI)) in pigs receiving DON and DON + ZEN; (3) dilatation of hepatic sinusoids in pigs receiving ZEN, DON and DON + ZEN; (4) temporary changes in glycogen content in all experimental groups; (5) an increase in iron accumulation in the hepatocytes of gilts treated with ZEN and DON + ZEN; (6) changes in endoplasmic reticulum organization in the hepatocytes of pigs receiving toxins; (7) changes in morphology of Browicz–Kupffer cells after treatment with ZEN, DON, and DON + ZEN. The results show that low doses of mycotoxins used in the present study, even when applied for a short period, affected liver morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Zearalenone on the Cytokine Environment, Oxidoreductive Balance and Metabolism in Porcine Ileal Peyer’s Patches
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12060350 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zearalenone (ZEN), administered per os to gilts at doses equivalent to 50%, 100%, and 150% of no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) values for 14, 28, and 42 days during weaning, on changes in [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zearalenone (ZEN), administered per os to gilts at doses equivalent to 50%, 100%, and 150% of no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) values for 14, 28, and 42 days during weaning, on changes in the parameters of the oxidoreductive balance, cytokine secretion, and basal metabolism in ileal Payer’s patches. Immunoenzymatic ELISA tests and biochemical methods were used to measure the concentrations of interleukin 1α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 12/23p40, interleukin 2, interferon γ, interleukin 4, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, malondialdehyde, sulfhydryl groups, fructose, glucose, and proline, as well as the activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The study demonstrated that ZEN doses corresponding to 50%, 100%, and 150% of NOAEL values, i.e., 5 µg, 10 µg, and 15 µg ZEN/kg BW, respectively, have proinflammatory properties, exacerbate oxidative stress responses, and disrupt basal metabolism in ileal Payer’s patches in gilts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Article
The Effect of Different Doses of Zearalenone in Feed on the Bioavailability of Zearalenone and Alpha-Zearalenol, and the Concentrations of Estradiol and Testosterone in the Peripheral Blood of Pre-Pubertal Gilts
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12030144 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (48 days), per os administration of specific zearalenone (ZEN) doses (20 and 40 μg ZEN/kg BW in experimental groups EI and EII, which were equivalent to 200% and 400% of the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (48 days), per os administration of specific zearalenone (ZEN) doses (20 and 40 μg ZEN/kg BW in experimental groups EI and EII, which were equivalent to 200% and 400% of the upper range limit of the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), respectively) on the bioavailability of ZEN and the rate of changes in estradiol and testosterone concentrations in the peripheral blood of pre-pubertal gilts. ZEN and α-ZEL levels were similar until day 28. After day 28, α-ZEL concentrations increased significantly in group EI, whereas a significant rise in ZEN levels was noted in group EII. The presence of estradiol in peripheral blood plasma was not observed until day 20 of the experiment. Spontaneous secretion of estradiol was minimal, and it was determined at very low levels of up to 10 pg/mL in EI and EII groups. Testosterone concentrations ranged from 4 to 9 ng/mL in all groups. A decrease in the concentrations of both analyzed hormones was reported in the last stage of the experiment. The results of the experiment indicate that: (i) The bioavailability of ZEN in peripheral blood has low diagnostic value, (ii) exposure to low doses of ZEN induces minor changes in the concentrations of the analyzed hormones, which could lead to situational supraphysiological hormone levels and changes in endogenous hormonal balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Contamination of Pet Food with Mycobiota and Fusarium Mycotoxins—Focus on Dogs and Cats
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12020130 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
A wide range of pet food types are available on the market; the dominant type is dry food formulated in croquets. One of the most common ingredients of dry food are cereals—vectors of harmful mycotoxins posing the risk to pet health. In this [...] Read more.
A wide range of pet food types are available on the market; the dominant type is dry food formulated in croquets. One of the most common ingredients of dry food are cereals—vectors of harmful mycotoxins posing the risk to pet health. In this study, 38 cat and dog dry food samples available on the Polish market were investigated. Morphological and molecular methods were applied to identify fungal genera present in pet food. Quantification of ergosterol and Fusarium mycotoxins: Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Obtained results indicated five genera of mycotoxigenic fungi: Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp., and Fusarium sp., including Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. Ergosterol and mycotoxins of interest were detected in both cat and dog food samples in the amounts ranging from 0.31 to 4.05 µg/g for ergosterol and 0.3–30.3, 1.2–618.4, 29.6–299.0, and 12.3–53.0 ng/g for zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and fumonisin B1, respectively. The conclusion is the presence of mycotoxins in levels much lower than recommended by EU regulations does not eliminate the risk and caution is advised concerning that long-term daily intake of even small doses of mycotoxins can slowly damage pet’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Deoxynivalenol Induces Inflammatory Injury in IPEC-J2 Cells via NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 733; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11120733 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure on the inflammatory injury nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway in intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) of pig. The different concentrations of DON (0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 ng/mL) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure on the inflammatory injury nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway in intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) of pig. The different concentrations of DON (0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 ng/mL) were added to the culture solution for treatment. The NF-κB pathway inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used as a reference. The results showed that when the DON concentration increased, the cell density decreased and seemed damaged. With the increase of DON concentration in the culture medium, the action of diamine oxidase (DAO) in the culture supernatant also increased. The activities of IL-6, TNF-α, and NO in the cells were increased with the increasing DON concentration. The relative mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 were increased in the cells. The mRNA relative expression of NF-κB p65, IKKα, and IKKβ were upregulated with the increasing of DON concentration, while the relative expression of IκB-α mRNA was downregulated. At the same time, the expression of NF-κB p65 protein increased gradually in the cytoplasm and nucleus with a higher concentration of DON. These results showed that DON could change the morphology of IPEC-J2 cells, destroy its submicroscopic structure, and enhance the permeability of cell membrane, as well as upregulate the transcription of some inflammatory factors and change the expression of NF-κB-related gene or protein in cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Co-Occurrence of DON and Emerging Mycotoxins in Worldwide Finished Pig Feed and Their Combined Toxicity in Intestinal Cells
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 727; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11120727 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Food and feed can be naturally contaminated by several mycotoxins, and concern about the hazard of exposure to mycotoxin mixtures is increasing. In this study, more than 800 metabolites were analyzed in 524 finished pig feed samples collected worldwide. Eighty-eight percent of the [...] Read more.
Food and feed can be naturally contaminated by several mycotoxins, and concern about the hazard of exposure to mycotoxin mixtures is increasing. In this study, more than 800 metabolites were analyzed in 524 finished pig feed samples collected worldwide. Eighty-eight percent of the samples were co-contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and other regulated/emerging mycotoxins. The Top 60 emerging/regulated mycotoxins co-occurring with DON in pig feed shows that 48%, 13%, 8% and 12% are produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Alternaria species, respectively. Then, the individual and combined toxicity of DON and the 10 most prevalent emerging mycotoxins (brevianamide F, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Tyr), tryptophol, enniatins A1, B, B1, emodin, aurofusarin, beauvericin and apicidin) was measured at three ratios corresponding to pig feed contamination. Toxicity was assessed by measuring the viability of intestinal porcine epithelial cells, IPEC-1, at 48-h. BRV-F, Cyclo and TRPT did not alter cell viability. The other metabolites were ranked in the following order of toxicity: apicidin > enniatin A1 > DON > beauvericin > enniatin B > enniatin B1 > emodin > aurofusarin. In most of the mixtures, combined toxicity was similar to the toxicity of DON alone. In terms of pig health, these results demonstrate that the co-occurrence of emerging mycotoxins that we tested with DON does not exacerbate toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mycotoxin Occurrence in Maize Silage—A Neglected Risk for Bovine Gut Health?
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 577; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11100577 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Forages are important components of dairy cattle rations but might harbor a plethora of mycotoxins. Ruminants are considered to be less susceptible to the adverse health effects of mycotoxins, mainly because the ruminal microflora degrades certain mycotoxins. Yet, impairment of the ruminal degradation [...] Read more.
Forages are important components of dairy cattle rations but might harbor a plethora of mycotoxins. Ruminants are considered to be less susceptible to the adverse health effects of mycotoxins, mainly because the ruminal microflora degrades certain mycotoxins. Yet, impairment of the ruminal degradation capacity or high ruminal stability of toxins can entail that the intestinal epithelium is exposed to significant mycotoxin amounts. The aims of our study were to assess (i) the mycotoxin occurrence in maize silage and (ii) the cytotoxicity of relevant mycotoxins on bovine intestinal cells. In total, 158 maize silage samples were collected from European dairy cattle farms. LC-MS/MS-based analysis of 61 mycotoxins revealed the presence of emerging mycotoxins (e.g., emodin, culmorin, enniatin B1, enniatin B, and beauvericin) in more than 70% of samples. Among the regulated mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were most frequently detected (67.7%). Overall, 87% of maize silages contained more than five mycotoxins. Using an in vitro model with calf small intestinal epithelial cells B, the cytotoxicity of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fumonisin B1 and enniatin B was evaluated (0–200 µM). Absolute IC50 values varied in dependence of employed assay and were 1.2–3.6 µM, 0.8–1.0 µM, 8.6–18.3 µM, and 4.0–6.7 µM for deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fumonisin B1, and enniatin B, respectively. Results highlight the potential relevance of mycotoxins for bovine gut health, a previously neglected target in ruminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Imbalance in the Blood Concentrations of Selected Steroids in Pre-pubertal Gilts Depending on the Time of Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11100561 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that not only binds to estrogen receptors, but also interacts with steroidogenic enzymes and acts as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low doses, minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL), [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that not only binds to estrogen receptors, but also interacts with steroidogenic enzymes and acts as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low doses, minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL), no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and lowest-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), of ZEN administered orally for 42 days can induce changes in the peripheral blood concentrations of selected steroid hormones (estradiol, progesterone and testosterone) in pre-pubertal gilts. The experiment was performed on 60 clinically healthy gilts with average BW of 14.5 ± 2 kg, divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Group ZEN5 animals were orally administered ZEN at 5 μg ZEN/kg BW, group ZEN10 — at 10 μg ZEN/kg BW, group ZEN15 — at 15 μg ZEN/kg BW, whereas group C received a placebo. Five gilts from every group were euthanized on analytical dates 1, 2 and 3 (days 7, 14 and 42 of the experiment). Qualitative and quantitative changes in the biotransformation of low ZEN doses were observed. These processes were least pronounced in group ZEN5 (MABEL dose) where ZEN metabolites were not detected on the first analytical date, and where β-ZEL was the predominant metabolite on successive dates. The above was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of estradiol (E2) which, together with “free ZEN”, probably suppressed progesterone (P4) and testosterone (T) levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Mycotoxins and the Enteric Nervous System
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 461; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070461 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various fungal species. They are commonly found in a wide range of agricultural products. Mycotoxins contained in food enter living organisms and may have harmful effects on many internal organs and systems. The gastrointestinal tract, which first [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various fungal species. They are commonly found in a wide range of agricultural products. Mycotoxins contained in food enter living organisms and may have harmful effects on many internal organs and systems. The gastrointestinal tract, which first comes into contact with mycotoxins present in food, is particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of these toxins. One of the lesser-known aspects of the impact of mycotoxins on the gastrointestinal tract is the influence of these substances on gastrointestinal innervation. Therefore, the present study is the first review of current knowledge concerning the influence of mycotoxins on the enteric nervous system, which plays an important role, not only in almost all regulatory processes within the gastrointestinal tract, but also in adaptive and protective reactions in response to pathological and toxic factors in food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Bioactive Metabolites and Potential Mycotoxins Produced by Cordyceps Fungi: A Review of Safety
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12060410 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Ascomycete Cordyceps fungi such as C. militaris, C. cicadae, and C. guangdongensis have been mass produced on artificial media either as food supplements or health additives while the byproducts of culture substrates are largely used as animal feed. The safety concerns [...] Read more.
Ascomycete Cordyceps fungi such as C. militaris, C. cicadae, and C. guangdongensis have been mass produced on artificial media either as food supplements or health additives while the byproducts of culture substrates are largely used as animal feed. The safety concerns associated with the daily consumption of Cordyceps fungi or related products are still being debated. On the one hand, the known compounds from these fungi such as adenosine analogs cordycepin and pentostatin have demonstrated different beneficial or pharmaceutical activities but also dose-dependent cytotoxicities, neurological toxicities and or toxicological effects in humans and animals. On the other hand, the possibility of mycotoxin production by Cordyceps fungi has not been completely ruled out. In contrast to a few metabolites identified, an array of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are encoded in each genome of these fungi with the potential to produce a plethora of as yet unknown secondary metabolites. Conservation analysis of BGCs suggests that mycotoxin analogs of PR-toxin and trichothecenes might be produced by Cordyceps fungi. Future elucidation of the compounds produced by these functionally unknown BGCs, and in-depth assessments of metabolite bioactivity and chemical safety, will not only facilitate the safe use of Cordyceps fungi as human food or alternative medicine, but will also benefit the use of mass production byproducts as animal feed. To corroborate the long record of use as a traditional medicine, future efforts will also benefit the exploration of Cordyceps fungi for pharmaceutical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040222 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed and have a significant negative impact on human and animal health and productivity. The tropical condition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) together with poor storage of feed promotes fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed and have a significant negative impact on human and animal health and productivity. The tropical condition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) together with poor storage of feed promotes fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin production. Aflatoxins (AF) produced by Aspergillus species, fumonisins (FUM), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium species, and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species are well-known mycotoxins of agricultural importance. Consumption of feed contaminated with these toxins may cause mycotoxicoses in animals, characterized by a range of clinical signs depending on the toxin, and losses in the animal industry. In SSA, contamination of dairy feed with mycotoxins has been frequently reported, which poses a serious constraint to animal health and productivity, and is also a hazard to human health since some mycotoxins and their metabolites are excreted in milk, especially aflatoxin M1. This review describes the major mycotoxins, their occurrence, and impact in dairy cattle diets in SSA highlighting the problems related to animal health, productivity, and food safety and the up-to-date post-harvest mitigation strategies for the prevention and reduction of contamination of dairy feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Back to TopTop