Special Issue "Mycotoxins in Feeds and Their Effects on Fish"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Constanze Pietsch-Schmied
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hochschule für Agrar-, Forst- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften (HAFL), Applied University Berne (BFH), 3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The inclusion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed ingredients in, or periods of unfavorable storing conditions for, fish feeds can result in the occurrence of relevant mycotoxin levels in aquaculture feeds. The feeding of fish with mycotoxin-contaminated feeds often has detrimental effects on them. A better description of the effects that can be expected from the exposure of different fish species to single mycotoxins or mycotoxin mixtures will help us to better understand the impact that these compounds have on aquaculture. In addition, more detailed insights into the cellular or molecular targets of different mycotoxins in fishes may lead to improved strategies to mitigate the detrimental effects of mycotoxins in fish feed in the future. Therefore, we invite you to make a contribution to this Special Issue, in the form of an original research paper, a case study, or a review paper, that sheds light on the occurrence of mycotoxins in feed and their implications for health impairment in fish.

Dr. Constanze Pietsch-Schmied
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquaculture
  • fish farming
  • feed production
  • feed quality
  • fish nutrition
  • toxicological endpoints
  • mycotoxin binders

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Individual and Combined Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Sterigmatocystin on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Redox System of Common Carp Liver
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020109 - 02 Feb 2021
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the short-term effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 100 µg/kg feed) and sterigmatocystin (STC 1000 μg/kg feed) exposure individually and in combination (100 μg AFB1 + 1000 μg STC/kg feed) on the parameters of lipid peroxidation [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the short-term effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 100 µg/kg feed) and sterigmatocystin (STC 1000 μg/kg feed) exposure individually and in combination (100 μg AFB1 + 1000 μg STC/kg feed) on the parameters of lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system both in biochemical and gene expression levels in one-year-old common carp. Lipid peroxidation parameters were slightly affected, as significant differences were observed only in conjugated diene and triene concentrations. Reduced glutathione content decreased more markedly by STC than AFB1 or AFB1+STC, but glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Expression of gpx4a, gpx4b, gss, and gsr genes was down-regulated due to STC compared to AFB1 or AFB1+STC, while an induction was found as effect of AFB1+STC in the case of gpx4a, but down-regulation for gpx4b as compared to AFB1. Expression of the glutathione biosynthesis regulatory gene, gss, was higher, but glutathione recycling enzyme encoding gene, gsr, was lower as an effect of AFB1+STC compared to AFB1. These results are supported by the changes in the expression of transcription factors encoding genes, nrf2, and keap1. The results revealed that individual effects of AFB1 and STC on different parameters are synergistic or antagonistic in multi-toxin treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feeds and Their Effects on Fish)
Article
Co-Occurrence and Levels of Mycotoxins in Fish Feeds in Kenya
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 627; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100627 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
This study determined the presence, levels and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in fish feeds in Kenya. Seventy-eight fish feeds and ingredients were sampled from fish farms and fish feed manufacturing plants and analysed for 40 mycotoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine [...] Read more.
This study determined the presence, levels and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in fish feeds in Kenya. Seventy-eight fish feeds and ingredients were sampled from fish farms and fish feed manufacturing plants and analysed for 40 mycotoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine (73%) mycotoxins were identified with 76 (97%) samples testing positive for mycotoxins presence. Mycotoxins with the highest prevalences were enniatin B (91%), deoxynivalenol (76%) and fumonisin B1 (54%) while those with the highest maximum levels were sterigmatocystin (<30.5–3517.1 µg/kg); moniliformin (<218.9–2583.4 µg/kg) and ergotamine (<29.3–1895.6 µg/kg). Mycotoxin co-occurrence was observed in 68 (87%) samples. Correlations were observed between the fumonisins; enniatins B and zearalenone and its metabolites. Fish dietary exposure estimates ranged between <0.16 and 43.38 µg/kg body weight per day. This study shows evidence of mycotoxin presence and co-occurrence in fish feeds and feed ingredients in Kenya. Fish exposure to these levels of mycotoxins over a long period of time may lead to adverse health effects due to their possible additive, synergistic or antagonist toxic effects. Measures to reduce fish feed mycotoxin contamination should be taken to avoid mycotoxicosis in fish and subsequently in humans and animals through residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feeds and Their Effects on Fish)
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Review

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Review
The Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Raw Materials and Fish Feeds in Europe and the Potential Effects of Deoxynivalenol (DON) on the Health and Growth of Farmed Fish Species—A Review
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060403 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
The first part of this study evaluates the occurrence of mycotoxin patterns in feedstuffs and fish feeds. Results were extrapolated from a large data pool derived from wheat (n = 857), corn (n = 725), soybean meal (n = 139) [...] Read more.
The first part of this study evaluates the occurrence of mycotoxin patterns in feedstuffs and fish feeds. Results were extrapolated from a large data pool derived from wheat (n = 857), corn (n = 725), soybean meal (n = 139) and fish feed (n = 44) samples in European countries and based on sample analyses by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the period between 2012–2019. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was readily present in corn (in 47% of the samples) > wheat (41%) > soybean meal (11%), and in aquafeeds (48%). Co-occurrence of mycotoxins was frequently observed in feedstuffs and aquafeed samples. For example, in corn, multi-mycotoxin occurrence was investigated by Spearman’s correlations and odd ratios, and both showed co-occurrence of DON with its acetylated forms (3-AcDON, 15-AcDON) as well as with zearalenone (ZEN). The second part of this study summarizes the existing knowledge on the effects of DON on farmed fish species and evaluates the risk of DON exposure in fish, based on data from in vivo studies. A meta-analytical approach aimed to estimate to which extent DON affects feed intake and growth performance in fish. Corn was identified as the ingredient with the highest risk of contamination with DON and its acetylated forms, which often cannot be detected by commonly used rapid detection methods in feed mills. Periodical state-of-the-art mycotoxin analyses are essential to detect the full spectrum of mycotoxins in fish feeds aimed to prevent detrimental effects on farmed fish and subsequent economic losses for fish farmers. Because levels below the stated regulatory limits can reduce feed intake and growth performance, our results show that the risk of DON contamination is underestimated in the aquaculture industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feeds and Their Effects on Fish)
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