Special Issue "The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Chiara Dall'Asta
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Guest Editor
Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
Interests: natural toxic compounds; bioactives and phytochemicals; modified mycotoxins; metabolomics; HR-MS; food fingerprinting; plant–pathogen interaction; mechanisms of resistance in cereals
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Philippe Guerre
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UR Mycotoxicologie, F-31076 Toulouse, France
Interests: mycotoxins; contaminants; animal toxicology; analytical toxicology; oxidative stress; sphingolipids; toxicokinetics; metabolism of toxic substances - drug-metabolizing enzymes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The health effects of mycotoxins have been known for many years. Maximum tolerated or recommended doses in food and feed are set for the most well-known mycotoxins in humans and animals. However, few data are available on the impact these compounds could have on the intestinal microbiota.

Knowledge in the field has evolved, particularly in recent years, allowing a fine analysis of the problem. New techniques for identifying the microorganisms that populate the intestine based on the study of genes (DNA) provide a better knowledge of these populations. The digestive tract contains more bacteria than there are cells in the body, some bacteria being involved in the digestion of food, others in barrier effects, and still others, present in small quantities, can develop and lead to various pathological processes. At the same time, analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins and their metabolites have progressed considerably. The measurement of the effects of toxins in mixtures, but also the study of the metabolites of the main toxins are now possible at low levels of food contamination, compatible with realistic exposure thresholds.

The objective of this Special Issue is to focus on mycotoxin–microbiota interactions, with a particular interest in the following points:

(a) In vitro mechanistic studies showing molecular effects of mycotoxins on the gut microbiota;

(b) Measurement of the effects of mycotoxins on the microbiota in controlled situations (experimental studies in animal models);

(c) Effect of mycotoxins on the gut microbiota under normal conditions of exposure to the risk (surveys showing the impact of a diet containing mycotoxins on the gut microbiota);

(d) Role of the gut microbiota on the bioavailability and metabolism of mycotoxins;

(e) Strategies to avoid the adverse effects of mycotoxins through the use of probiotics (adsorbent-type effects are not envisaged in this Special Issue);

(f) Health consequences the change in the gut microbiota due to the presence of mycotoxins could have (impaired performance, immuno-modulating effects, reduced capacity to defend against stress, etc.);

(g) Impact of genetic and epigenetic factors on mycotoxin–microbiota interactions;

(h) Literature review articles on this special topic.

Prof. Dr. Chiara Dall'Asta
Prof. Dr. Philippe Guerre
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food contaminants or food safety
  • mycotoxins
  • microbiome or microbiota
  • gut or intestine
  • interactions
  • health
  • bacteria
  • flora

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Metaproteomics Reveals Alteration of the Gut Microbiome in Weaned Piglets Due to the Ingestion of the Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080583 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
The ingestion of mycotoxins can cause adverse health effects and represents a severe health risk to humans and livestock. Even though several acute and chronic effects have been described, the effect on the gut metaproteome is scarcely known. For that reason, we used [...] Read more.
The ingestion of mycotoxins can cause adverse health effects and represents a severe health risk to humans and livestock. Even though several acute and chronic effects have been described, the effect on the gut metaproteome is scarcely known. For that reason, we used metaproteomics to evaluate the effect of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the gut microbiome of 15 weaned piglets. Animals were fed for 28 days with feed contaminated with different concentrations of DON (DONlow: 870 μg DON/kg feed, DONhigh: 2493 μg DON/kg feed) or ZEN (ZENlow: 679 μg ZEN/kg feed, ZENhigh: 1623 μg ZEN/kg feed). Animals in the control group received uncontaminated feed. The gut metaproteome composition in the high toxin groups shifted compared to the control and low mycotoxin groups, and it was also more similar among high toxin groups. These changes were accompanied by the increase in peptides belonging to Actinobacteria and a decrease in peptides belonging to Firmicutes. Additionally, DONhigh and ZENhigh increased the abundance of proteins associated with the ribosomes and pentose-phosphate pathways, while decreasing glycolysis and other carbohydrate metabolism pathways. Moreover, DONhigh and ZENhigh increased the abundance of the antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin. In summary, the ingestion of DON and ZEN altered the abundance of different proteins associated with microbial metabolism, genetic processing, and oxidative stress response, triggering a disruption in the gut microbiome structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
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Article
Prevalent Human Gut Bacteria Hydrolyse and Metabolise Important Food-Derived Mycotoxins and Masked Mycotoxins
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100654 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Mycotoxins are important food contaminants that commonly co-occur with modified mycotoxins such as mycotoxin-glucosides in contaminated cereal grains. These masked mycotoxins are less toxic, but their breakdown and release of unconjugated mycotoxins has been shown by mixed gut microbiota of humans and animals. [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are important food contaminants that commonly co-occur with modified mycotoxins such as mycotoxin-glucosides in contaminated cereal grains. These masked mycotoxins are less toxic, but their breakdown and release of unconjugated mycotoxins has been shown by mixed gut microbiota of humans and animals. The role of different bacteria in hydrolysing mycotoxin-glucosides is unknown, and this study therefore investigated fourteen strains of human gut bacteria for their ability to break down masked mycotoxins. Individual bacterial strains were incubated anaerobically with masked mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside, DON-Glc; nivalenol-3-β-glucoside, NIV-Glc; HT-2-β-glucoside, HT-2-Glc; diacetoxyscirpenol-α-glucoside, DAS-Glc), or unconjugated mycotoxins (DON, NIV, HT-2, T-2, and DAS) for up to 48 h. Bacterial growth, hydrolysis of mycotoxin-glucosides and further metabolism of mycotoxins were assessed. We found no impact of any mycotoxin on bacterial growth. We have demonstrated that Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Roseburia intestinalis and Eubacterium rectale hydrolyse DON-Glc, HT-2 Glc, and NIV-Glc efficiently and have confirmed this activity in Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (DON-Glc only). Prevotella copri and B. fibrisolvens efficiently de-acetylated T-2 and DAS, but none of the bacteria were capable of de-epoxydation or hydrolysis of α-glucosides. In summary we have identified key bacteria involved in hydrolysing mycotoxin-glucosides and de-acetylating type A trichothecenes in the human gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
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Article
The Effects of Deoxynivalenol on the Ultrastructure of the Sacculus Rotundus and Vermiform Appendix, as Well as the Intestinal Microbiota of Weaned Rabbits
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 569; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090569 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in grains that poses a potential threat to human and animal health, and the gastrointestinal tract is the primary target organ. There are few studies focused on the toxicology of DON to rabbits, especially on the relation [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in grains that poses a potential threat to human and animal health, and the gastrointestinal tract is the primary target organ. There are few studies focused on the toxicology of DON to rabbits, especially on the relation among DON, microbiota, and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A total of 30 weaned rabbits (35 d) were evenly divided into the control group and DON group (1.5 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)) based on their body weight. After a 24-day trial, the ultrastructures of the sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix were observed using a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology and microflora in the ileum, caecum, and colon were also examined. The results proved that the ultrastructure of the sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix, as well as the integrity of the intestinal barrier (especially for the ileum), were impaired after DON was administrated to the rabbits. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance and diversity of the microflora decreased in all three intestinal segments in the DON group, particularly in the ileum and caecum. In conclusion, the toxic effect of DON on weaned rabbits may be performed by destroying the structure of the sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix, as well as affecting the structure and diversity of the intestinal flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
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Review

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Review
Feedborne Mycotoxins Beauvericin and Enniatins and Livestock Animals
Toxins 2021, 13(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010032 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi, including the Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium species. Currently, more than 300 structurally diverse mycotoxins are known, including a group called minor mycotoxins, namely enniatins, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin. Beauvericin and enniatins possess [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several species of fungi, including the Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium species. Currently, more than 300 structurally diverse mycotoxins are known, including a group called minor mycotoxins, namely enniatins, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin. Beauvericin and enniatins possess a variety of biological activities. Their antimicrobial, antibiotic, or ionoforic activities have been proven and according to various bioassays, they are believed to be toxic. They are mainly found in cereal grains and their products, but they have also been detected in forage feedstuff. Mycotoxins in feedstuffs of livestock animals are of dual concern. First one relates to the safety of animal-derived food. Based on the available data, the carry-over of minor mycotoxins from feed to edible animal tissues is possible. The second concern relates to detrimental effects of mycotoxins on animal health and performance. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the relation of minor mycotoxins to livestock animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
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Review
Mycotoxin and Gut Microbiota Interactions
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 769; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120769 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The interactions between mycotoxins and gut microbiota were discovered early in animals and explained part of the differences in susceptibility to mycotoxins among species. Isolation of microbes present in the gut responsible for biotransformation of mycotoxins into less toxic metabolites and for binding [...] Read more.
The interactions between mycotoxins and gut microbiota were discovered early in animals and explained part of the differences in susceptibility to mycotoxins among species. Isolation of microbes present in the gut responsible for biotransformation of mycotoxins into less toxic metabolites and for binding mycotoxins led to the development of probiotics, enzymes, and cell extracts that are used to prevent mycotoxin toxicity in animals. More recently, bioactivation of mycotoxins into toxic compounds, notably through the hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins, revealed that the health benefits of the effect of the gut microbiota on mycotoxins can vary strongly depending on the mycotoxin and the microbe concerned. Interactions between mycotoxins and gut microbiota can also be observed through the effect of mycotoxins on the gut microbiota. Changes of gut microbiota secondary to mycotoxin exposure may be the consequence of the antimicrobial properties of mycotoxins or the toxic effect of mycotoxins on epithelial and immune cells in the gut, and liberation of antimicrobial peptides by these cells. Whatever the mechanism involved, exposure to mycotoxins leads to changes in the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, genus, and species level. These changes can lead to disruption of the gut barrier function and bacterial translocation. Changes in the gut microbiota composition can also modulate the toxicity of toxic compounds, such as bacterial toxins and of mycotoxins themselves. A last consequence for health of the change in the gut microbiota secondary to exposure to mycotoxins is suspected through variations observed in the amount and composition of the volatile fatty acids and sphingolipids that are normally present in the digesta, and that can contribute to the occurrence of chronic diseases in human. The purpose of this work is to review what is known about mycotoxin and gut microbiota interactions, the mechanisms involved in these interactions, and their practical application, and to identify knowledge gaps and future research needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
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Review
Beauvericin and Enniatins: In Vitro Intestinal Effects
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110686 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Food and feed contamination by emerging mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins is a worldwide health problem and a matter of great concern nowadays, and data on their toxicological behavior are still scarce. As ingestion is the major route of exposure to mycotoxins in food [...] Read more.
Food and feed contamination by emerging mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins is a worldwide health problem and a matter of great concern nowadays, and data on their toxicological behavior are still scarce. As ingestion is the major route of exposure to mycotoxins in food and feed, the gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier encountered by these natural contaminants and the first structure that could be affected by their potential detrimental effects. In order to perform a complete and reliable toxicological evaluation, this fundamental site cannot be disregarded. Several in vitro intestinal models able to recreate the different traits of the intestinal environment have been applied to investigate the various aspects related to the intestinal toxicity of emerging mycotoxins. This review aims to depict an overall and comprehensive representation of the in vitro intestinal effects of beauvericin and enniatins in humans from a species-specific perspective. Moreover, information on the occurrence in food and feed and notions on the regulatory aspects will be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mutual Interaction between Mycotoxins and Gut Microbiome)
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