Special Issue "The Role of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Central Nervous System"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.
Interests: synapses; trafficking; plasticity; motoneurons; physiology; hyperexcitability; visual system; electrical activity
2. University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Interests: movement disorders; Parkinson’s disease; dystonia; botulinum neurotoxin; motor cortex plasticity; neurophysiology; neurosonography
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are clostridial neurotoxins and are among the most potent toxins known. Despite this, BoNTs, in particular BoNT type A, are an established therapy for a variety of clinical conditions, such as dystonia or spasticity, but also pain syndromes such as chronic migraines or neuropathic pain. BoNT has also gained importance in other non-neurological disorders such as in urology, dermatology, or surgery. BoNT is known to primarily act peripherally at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in a biochemical denervation of the treated muscle or at sensory pain neurons, preventing pain sensitization. However, there is more and more evidence from animal and human studies or experimental models that BoNT may not only act peripherally at the injection site but may also have central effects. The effects of BoNT on the central nervous system (CNS) may be due to direct central actions via retrograde axonal trafficking or the consequence of indirect mechanisms via changes to axonal afferents. However, the exact mechanisms are still not known. These BoNT-related central effects may not only be considered secondary or side effects, but may potentially contribute to the clinical, therapeutic effect of BoNT.
This Special Issue aims to describe and prove BoNTs-related effects on the CNS in different neurological and non-neurological conditions and their positive, therapeutic but also potentially negative clinical implications. Another aim is to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved in these central effects. Human studies based on clinical observations, neurophysiological investigations, or neuroimaging studies are welcome, as well as animal studies and experimental models. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are both encouraged.
We look forward to receiving your contributions.
Dr. Laura Restani
Dr. David Weise
Manuscript Submission Information
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- botulinum neurotoxin
- central nervous system
- clinical application
- therapeutic implications
- human studies
- experimental models
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Tentative title: Botulinum neurotoxins in central nervous system: an overview from animal models to possible humans therapy
Type of paper: Review
Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle fusion and transmitter release. The natural target of BoNTs is the peripheral neuromuscular junction where, by blocking the release of acetylcholine (ACh), they functionally denervate muscles and alter muscle tone. This leads them to be an excellent drug for the therapy of muscle hyperactivity disorders, such as dystonia, spasticity and many other movement disorders. BoNTs are also effective in inhibiting the release of ACh at sites other than the neuromuscular junction and in inhibiting release of neurotransmitters other than ACh. Furthermore, numerous evidences show that BoNTs can act not only on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) but also on the central nervous system (CNS). Under this view, central changes may result from secondary sensory input from the PNS, or retrograde transport of BoNT from the PNS, or direct injection of BoNT into the CNS. The objective of this review is to analyze all available data, both from animal models or human studies, on the central alterations induced by BoNTs treatment. The data will be discussed with particular emphasis on possible therapeutic applications to pathological conditions and degenerative diseases of the CNS.
Author: Siro Luvisetto