Special Issue "The Role of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Central Nervous System"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Laura Restani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Neuroscience Institute, National Research Council (CNR), 56124 Pisa, Italy
Interests: synapses; trafficking; plasticity; motoneurons; physiology; hyperexcitability; visual system; electrical activity
Dr. David Weise
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Asklepios Fachklinikum Stadtroda, Department of Neurology, Stadtroda, 07646 Stadtroda, Germany
2. University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Interests: movement disorders; Parkinson’s disease; dystonia; botulinum neurotoxin; motor cortex plasticity; neurophysiology; neurosonography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are clostridial neurotoxins and are among the most potent toxins known. Despite this, BoNTs, in particular BoNT type A, are an established therapy for a variety of clinical conditions, such as dystonia or spasticity, but also pain syndromes such as chronic migraines or neuropathic pain. BoNT has also gained importance in other non-neurological disorders such as in urology, dermatology, or surgery. BoNT is known to primarily act peripherally at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in a biochemical denervation of the treated muscle or at sensory pain neurons, preventing pain sensitization. However, there is more and more evidence from animal and human studies or experimental models that BoNT may not only act peripherally at the injection site but may also have central effects. The effects of BoNT on the central nervous system (CNS) may be due to direct central actions via retrograde axonal trafficking or the consequence of indirect mechanisms via changes to axonal afferents. However, the exact mechanisms are still not known. These BoNT-related central effects may not only be considered secondary or side effects, but may potentially contribute to the clinical, therapeutic effect of BoNT.

This Special Issue aims to describe and prove BoNTs-related effects on the CNS in different neurological and non-neurological conditions and their positive, therapeutic but also potentially negative clinical implications. Another aim is to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved in these central effects. Human studies based on clinical observations, neurophysiological investigations, or neuroimaging studies are welcome, as well as animal studies and experimental models. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are both encouraged.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Laura Restani
Dr. David Weise
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • botulinum neurotoxin
  • central nervous system
  • clinical application
  • therapeutic implications
  • human studies
  • experimental models

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

Review
Botulinum Neurotoxins in Central Nervous System: An Overview from Animal Models to Human Therapy
by
Toxins 2021, 13(11), 751; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13110751 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2021
Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle fusion and transmitter release. The natural target of BoNTs is the peripheral neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where, by blocking the release of acetylcholine (ACh), they functionally denervate muscles and alter muscle tone. This leads them [...] Read more.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle fusion and transmitter release. The natural target of BoNTs is the peripheral neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where, by blocking the release of acetylcholine (ACh), they functionally denervate muscles and alter muscle tone. This leads them to be an excellent drug for the therapy of muscle hyperactivity disorders, such as dystonia, spasticity, and many other movement disorders. BoNTs are also effective in inhibiting both the release of ACh at sites other than NMJ and the release of neurotransmitters other than ACh. Furthermore, much evidence shows that BoNTs can act not only on the peripheral nervous system (PNS), but also on the central nervous system (CNS). Under this view, central changes may result either from sensory input from the PNS, from retrograde transport of BoNTs, or from direct injection of BoNTs into the CNS. The aim of this review is to give an update on available data, both from animal models or human studies, which suggest or confirm central alterations induced by peripheral or central BoNTs treatment. The data will be discussed with particular attention to the possible therapeutic applications to pathological conditions and degenerative diseases of the CNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Central Nervous System)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative title: Botulinum neurotoxins in central nervous system: an overview from animal models to possible humans therapy
Type of paper: Review
Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent inhibitors of synaptic vesicle fusion and transmitter release. The natural target of BoNTs is the peripheral neuromuscular junction where, by blocking the release of acetylcholine (ACh), they functionally denervate muscles and alter muscle tone. This leads them to be an excellent drug for the therapy of muscle hyperactivity disorders, such as dystonia, spasticity and many other movement disorders. BoNTs are also effective in inhibiting the release of ACh at sites other than the neuromuscular junction and in inhibiting release of neurotransmitters other than ACh. Furthermore, numerous evidences show that BoNTs can act not only on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) but also on the central nervous system (CNS). Under this view, central changes may result from secondary sensory input from the PNS, or retrograde transport of BoNT from the PNS, or direct injection of BoNT into the CNS. The objective of this review is to analyze all available data, both from animal models or human studies, on the central alterations induced by BoNTs treatment. The data will be discussed with particular emphasis on possible therapeutic applications to pathological conditions and degenerative diseases of the CNS.
Author: Siro Luvisetto

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Research Council of Italy, 00015 - Monterotondo Scalo (Roma), Italy
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