Special Issue "Venom and Pain"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Venoms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Sun Kwang Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02453, Republic of Korea

Special Issue Information

Venom is a kind of toxin mixture produced by animals, such as snakes, wasps, bees, and snails, for survival from predators or for feeding on preys. It generally induces pathological conditions and symptoms (e.g., pain and paralysis) and even deaths in animals and humans. However, the venom itself or specific toxins and molecules (e.g., peptides and enzymes) contained in venoms can be used to treat a wide range of intractable diseases.

Pain relief is a major challenge in the current health care system. The market of pain killers is becoming close to the market of anticancer drugs. Although many efforts have been made, the development of specific analgesic drugs is still limited. Opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are being prescribed for patients with pathological pain, but they have their own adverse effects.

In this regard, venoms and their compounds may have potential to treat pathological pain, as recent scientific reports have suggested. This Special Issue is devoted to understanding the analgesic mechanisms of venoms and their components in all scientific aspects (e.g., pharmacology, neuroscience, immunology, cellular/molecular biology, electrophysiology, and ion channels and receptors).

Prof. Sun Kwang Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • venom
  • pain
  • analgesic

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
N58A Exerts Analgesic Effect on Trigeminal Neuralgia by Regulating the MAPK Pathway and Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Sodium Channel
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 357; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050357 - 17 May 2021
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Abstract
The primary studies have shown that scorpion analgesic peptide N58A has a significant effect on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and plays an important role in neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of N58A on trigeminal neuralgia [...] Read more.
The primary studies have shown that scorpion analgesic peptide N58A has a significant effect on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and plays an important role in neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of N58A on trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and its possible mechanism. The results showed that N58A could significantly increase the threshold of mechanical pain and thermal pain and inhibit the spontaneous asymmetric scratching behavior of rats. Western blotting results showed that N58A could significantly reduce the protein phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, P38, JNK, and ERK5/CREB pathways and the expression of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The changes in current and kinetic characteristics of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channels in TG neurons were detected by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that N58A significantly decreased the current density of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in model rats, and shifted the activation curve to hyperpolarization and the inactivation curve to depolarization. In conclusion, the analgesic effect of N58A on the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital (IoN-CCI) model rats may be closely related to the regulation of the MAPK pathway and Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 sodium channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom and Pain)
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Article
The Involvement of Central Noradrenergic Pathway in the Analgesic Effect of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Vincristine-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats
Toxins 2020, 12(12), 775; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120775 - 06 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid anti-mitotic drug with a broad spectrum of effects on solid and hematologic cancers. The major dose-limiting factor of this anti-cancer regimen is painful peripheral neuropathy. However, no gold-standard analgesic option has been used clinically. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid anti-mitotic drug with a broad spectrum of effects on solid and hematologic cancers. The major dose-limiting factor of this anti-cancer regimen is painful peripheral neuropathy. However, no gold-standard analgesic option has been used clinically. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) to alleviate peripheral neuropathic pain induced by repeated intraperitoneal infusions of vincristine (1 mg/kg/day, days 1–5 and 8–12) in rats. Subcutaneous injection with bee venom (BV, 1.0 mg/kg) at the ST36 acupoint ameliorated cold and mechanical hypersensitivity (i.e., aberrant withdrawal responses in acetone drop and von Frey hair tests, respectively). In vivo extracellular recording demonstrated that BVA inhibited cutaneous cold (acetone) and mechanical (brush, press, and pinch) stimuli-elicited abnormal hyperexcitation of the spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in vincristine-treated rats. In addition, the microinjection of lidocaine into the ipsilateral locus coeruleus or the antagonism of the spinal α2-adrenergic receptors clearly reversed the effects of BVA on cold and mechanical hypersensitivity, indicating a vital role of the descending noradrenergic modulation in analgesia. These findings suggest that BVA could be a potential therapeutic option for vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom and Pain)
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Review

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Review
Bee Venom Acupuncture Effects on Pain and Its Mechanisms: An Updated Review
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090608 - 29 Aug 2021
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Abstract
Bee venom (BV) is a complex natural toxin that contains various pharmaceutical compounds. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), involving a BV injection into a certain acupuncture point, has been utilized to relieve a range of pain conditions. Regardless of whether pain is caused by [...] Read more.
Bee venom (BV) is a complex natural toxin that contains various pharmaceutical compounds. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA), involving a BV injection into a certain acupuncture point, has been utilized to relieve a range of pain conditions. Regardless of whether pain is caused by disease or injury, if not effectively treated, pain can exert a detrimental effect on all aspects of life. In the past decade, many researchers have investigated the anti-nociceptive effects of BVA through clinical use and experimental evaluation. This report reviews the existing knowledge on the analgesic effects of BVA, focusing on musculoskeletal pain, inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, and its analgesic mechanisms. Although further clinical trials are needed to clinical application of experimental results, this review will contribute to the standardization and generalization of BVA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom and Pain)
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