Special Issue "Venom-Induced Tissue Damage"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Venoms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ketan Patel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading,Reading RG5 4EW, UK
Interests: regeneration; stem cells; muscle; venom; human; necrosis; therapy; snake
Dr. Sakthivel Vaiyapuri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB, UK
Interests: venom research; sequence, structure and functional analysis of venom proteins; development of diagnostic and improved therapeutic strategies for snakebites; impact of venoms on cardiovascular system
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Venoms from diverse species including snakes, spiders, scorpions, centipedes and jellyfish contain a complex mixture of toxins. While the systemic effects (such as coagulotoxicity and neurotoxicity) of venoms are relatively well understood, there is a paucity of information regarding their impacts on specific tissues or cell types. Therefore, this Special Issue focusses on the direct effects of a broad range of venoms and/or their toxins from any venomous species (both vertebrates and invertebrates) on tissue damage. We welcome manuscripts reporting the cytotoxic actions of venoms and/or their isolated components on any tissues including, but not limited to, skeletal muscle, vasculature, lymphatic system, kidneys, lungs, liver and heart. The manuscript may report robust results using experimental animals under in vivo settings, cultured or isolated cells in ex vivo conditions or any tissue damage-related issues from envenomed human victims. We hope to build this Special Issue with a range of different articles reporting the toxicity of distinctive venoms on various tissues to exemplify the spectrum of venom-induced damage in several tissues/organs. Hence, we would be very grateful if colleagues in the field of venom research could consider submitting their manuscripts to this Special Issue, in order to make this a beneficial to a wide range of researchers in this field.

Prof. Dr. Ketan Patel
Dr. Sakthivel Vaiyapuri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • venom
  • venom-induced tissue damage
  • venomous animals
  • tissue damage
  • muscle damage
  • kidney damage
  • liver damage
  • snakebite
  • venomous bite
  • invertebrate venom

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Analysis of the Necrosis-Inducing Components of the Venom of Naja atra and Assessment of the Neutralization Ability of Freeze-Dried Antivenom
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 619; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090619 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Patients bitten by Naja atra who are treated with bivalent freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom in Taiwan have an improved survival rate but develop necrotic wound changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested using the minimum necrotizing dose (MND) of venom as a method [...] Read more.
Patients bitten by Naja atra who are treated with bivalent freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom in Taiwan have an improved survival rate but develop necrotic wound changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested using the minimum necrotizing dose (MND) of venom as a method of evaluating the neutralization effect of antivenom. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antivenom for the prevention of necrosis based on the MND and clarify which component of the venom of N. atra induces necrosis. The neurotoxins (NTXs) were removed from the crude venom (deNTXs), and different concentrations of deNTXs were injected intradermally into the dorsal skin of mice. After three days, the necrotic lesion diameter was found to be approximately 5 mm, and the MND was calculated. A reduction in the necrotic diameter of 50% was used to identify the MND50. Furthermore, both phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cytotoxins (CTXs) were separately removed from the deNTXs to identify the major necrosis-inducing factor, and the necrotic lesions were scored. All mice injected with deNTXs survived for three days and developed necrotic wounds. The MND of the deNTXs for mice was 0.494 ± 0.029 µg/g, that of the deNTXs-dePLA2 (major component retained: CTXs) was 0.294 ± 0.05 µg/g, and that of the deNTX-deCTX (major component retained: PLA2) venom was greater than 1.25 µg/g. These values show that CTX is the major factor inducing necrosis. These results suggest that the use of the deNTXs is necessary to enable the mice to survive long enough to develop venom-induced cytolytic effects. CTXs play a major role in N. atra-related necrosis. However, the MND50 could not be identified in this study, which meant that the antivenom did not neutralize venom-induced necrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom-Induced Tissue Damage)
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Article
A Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of Phospholipase A2 and Metalloproteinase Fractions from Eastern Russell’s Viper (Daboia siamensis) Venom: Two Major Components Associated with Acute Kidney Injury
Toxins 2021, 13(8), 521; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080521 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) following Eastern Russell’s viper (Daboia siamensis) envenoming is a significant symptom in systemically envenomed victims. A number of venom components have been identified as causing the nephrotoxicity which leads to AKI. However, the precise mechanism of nephrotoxicity [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) following Eastern Russell’s viper (Daboia siamensis) envenoming is a significant symptom in systemically envenomed victims. A number of venom components have been identified as causing the nephrotoxicity which leads to AKI. However, the precise mechanism of nephrotoxicity caused by these toxins is still unclear. In the present study, we purified two proteins from D. siamensis venom, namely RvPLA2 and RvMP. Protein identification using LCMS/MS confirmed the identity of RvPLA2 to be snake venom phospholipase A2 (SVPLA2) from Thai D. siamensis venom, whereas RvMP exhibited the presence of a factor X activator with two subunits. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies demonstrated myotoxicity and histopathological changes of kidney, heart, and spleen. RvPLA2 (3–10 µg/mL) caused inhibition of direct twitches of the chick biventer cervicis muscle preparation. After administration of RvPLA2 or RvMP (300 µg/kg, i.p.) for 24 h, diffuse glomerular congestion and tubular injury with minor loss of brush border were detected in envenomed mice. RvPLA2 and RvMP (300 µg/kg; i.p.) also induced congestion and tissue inflammation of heart muscle as well as diffuse congestion of mouse spleen. This study showed the significant roles of PLA2 and SVMP in snake bite envenoming caused by Thai D. siamensis and their similarities with observed clinical manifestations in envenomed victims. This study also indicated that there is a need to reevaluate the current treatment strategies for Thai D. siamensis envenoming, given the potential for irreversible nephrotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom-Induced Tissue Damage)
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Article
Influential Factors of Local Tissue Necrosis after Taiwan Cobra Bites: A Secondary Analysis of the Clinical Significance of Venom Detection in Patients of Cobra Snakebites
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050338 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Local tissue swelling, inflammation, and wound necrosis are observed in Taiwan cobra bites. Knowledge of the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites might improve the cobra bite treatment strategy. Therefore, we aimed to explore the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after [...] Read more.
Local tissue swelling, inflammation, and wound necrosis are observed in Taiwan cobra bites. Knowledge of the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites might improve the cobra bite treatment strategy. Therefore, we aimed to explore the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. All patients clinical presentations including serum venom levels for determining the influential factors in this study were obtained from Hung et al.’s previous study. Clinical features, such as bite information, initial swelling, patient presentation time, serum venom levels, and antivenom, use were extracted. The measurement outcome was the development of wound necrosis. The factors influencing wound necrosis were investigated using univariate and logistic regression analyses. The influential factors of local tissue necrosis and their areas under the curve were: initial limb swelling, 0.88; presentation time × serum level, 0.80; initial necrosis, 0.75; patient presentation time, 0.70. Serum venom level alone cannot be used as a predictive factor. The development of tissue necrosis might be associated with the venom factor, time factor, and their interaction. These influential factors can be used in future studies to evaluate antivenom efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom-Induced Tissue Damage)
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Article
A Comprehensive Study Monitoring the Venom Composition and the Effects of the Venom of the Rare Ethiopian Endemic Snake Species Bitis parviocula
Toxins 2021, 13(5), 299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050299 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
The Ethiopian endemic snake of the species Bitis parviocula, recognized for its colorful patterns, might be more interesting as we look deeper into the venom activity. We assayed the effects of venoms from the most widespread venomous African Bitis arietens and closely related [...] Read more.
The Ethiopian endemic snake of the species Bitis parviocula, recognized for its colorful patterns, might be more interesting as we look deeper into the venom activity. We assayed the effects of venoms from the most widespread venomous African Bitis arietens and closely related species Bitis parviocula using The Hen’s Egg Test—Chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM) and Chicken embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) analysis, cytotoxicity assay performed on cell lines and protein analysis of selected venoms. Our results indicated that B. parviocula venom contains vasoactive compounds that have a direct effect on blood vessels. The AChE analysis showed significant ability inhibiting AChE activity in embryonic tissue. Cytotoxicity observed on A549 ATCC® CCL-185™ cells indicates the possible presence of cytotoxic agents in B. parviocula venom. We proved previously described differences in the composition of venom obtained from B. arietans and B. parviocula by using electrophoresis and total protein concentration. Based on similarities in vasoactive effects observed after administration of venoms onto a chicken chorioallantoic membrane, we suggest that venom from B. arietans and B. parviocula might share certain venom proteins responsible for haemotoxicity. The main active components of B. parviocula venom are unknown. Our results suggest that it might be worth performing proteomic analysis of B. parviocula venom as it might contain medically valuable compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom-Induced Tissue Damage)
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