Special Issue "Vibrio parahaemolyticus Extracellular Toxins: Potential Virulence Factors and Its Role in Disease"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.
Interests: aquaculture; health management; microbial management
2. Aquatic Environmental Biotechnology and Nanotechnology (AEBN) Division, ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), Barrackpore 700120, India
Interests: aquaculture; shrimp immunology and microbiology; disease diagnosis; fish and shellfish health management
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important microbial pathogen, and several strains are capable of causing vibriosis, resulting in significant mortality and economic losses in animal production. V. parahaemolyticus is a heterogenous, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming and comma-shaped bacterium with a polar flagellum or several flagella. This pathogen is part of the autochthonous microflora of estuarine and coastal environments, as well as fish, bivalves and crustaceans in tropical-to-temperate zones all over the world. Apart from being found in fish and shellfish species (including shrimp and molluscs), this bacterium has been isolated from water, sediments, plankton, and marine mammals. The level of V. parahaemolyticus in the environment and various fish and shellfish species may vary depending on environmental and geographical factors. Interestingly, the production of extracellular virulence products by V. parahaemolyticus has been identified as one of the important factors for its pathogenesis. In addition, various exo-enzymes—such as lipase, phospholipase, caseinase, elastase, and hemolysin—determine the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus strains and have been found to be responsible for host mortality.
Apart from “classical” vibriosis, V. parahaemolyticus also cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), originally known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), with a devastating impact on the shrimp aquaculture industry. V. parahaemolyticus becomes a virulent AHPND-causing strain by acquiring a pVA1 plasmid (63–70 kb) encoding the binary toxin PirAVp/PirBVp, homologous to the Photorhabdus luminescens insect-related (Pir) toxins PirA/PirB. The secreted binary PirAVp and PirBVp toxins are the primary virulence factor of AHPND-causing bacteria mediating AHPND and mortality in shrimp. Although the PirAVp and PirBVp toxins are directly responsible for shrimp mortality during AHPND, several other pathogenic extracellular proteins (ECPs) have been identified in V. parahaemolyticus strains—hemin; enterobactin; vibrioferrin; type I, II, and VI secretion system proteins; chemotaxis protein (60 kDa); flagellin (40 kDa); metalloproteases (PrtV protein, 62 kDa; VppC protein, 90 kDa; and VPM protein, 90 kDa); and serine proteases (VPP1, 43 kDa; VpSP37, 37 kDa; and PrtA, 71 kda)—that might contribute to the toxicity of AHPND-causing bacteria. Hence, deciphering the roles of virulence factors will help to improve our understanding of the V. parahaemolyticus infection process in host animals.
In this Special Issue, we cordially invite scientists from across the world to contribute their cutting-edge research on V. parahaemolyticus and its virulence factors responsible for the pathogenesis of the bacterium. Original research articles and short communications advancing the knowledge on virulence factors and how they interact with one another, either synergistically or antagonistically, and influence the toxicity of V. parahaemolyticus in the host are welcome. We also invite scientists to write reviews for this Special Issue.
Prof. Dr. Peter Bossier
Dr. Vikash Kumar
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Vibrio parahaemolyticus
- virulence factors
- PirAVP/PirBVP toxins