Special Issue "SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 2 September 2023.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tiziana Ramaci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Enna “Kore,” 94100 Enna, Italy
Interests: health; safety; organizational wellbeing; stress; compliance; risk perception; HCWs; careers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Massimiliano Barattucci
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Psychology, e-Campus University, 22060 Novedrate, CO, Italy
Interests: risk perception and work stress; leadership; climate and outcomes; selection procedures and recruitment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It has been demonstrated that vaccination of health professionals against COVID-19 is effective in reducing the incidence of the disease among health professionals, saving financial resources and preventing mortality among patients; vaccination is also included in the prevention plans for the pandemic. The aim of this Special Issue is to identify what factors, such as stress, influence workers’ compliance and can guide management communication strategies relating to prevention plans for vaccination against COVID-19.

Prof. Tiziana Ramaci
Dr. Massimiliano Barattucci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • vaccination
  • stress
  • emotion
  • resilience
  • trust in vaccine
  • compliance
  • communication
  • engagement
  • work
  • pandemic

Published Papers (39 papers)

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Article
Knowledge, Perception, and Willingness towards Immunization among Bangladeshi Population during COVID-19 Vaccine Rolling Period
by , , , , , , , , , , and
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1449; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9121449 (registering DOI) - 07 Dec 2021
Abstract
Vaccine willingness among the mass populace, as well as their proper knowledge and perception regarding vaccines and the vaccination process, may contribute extensively towards attaining their anticipated vaccination rates. The current study endeavored to ascertain the Bangladeshi population’s knowledge, perception, and willingness towards [...] Read more.
Vaccine willingness among the mass populace, as well as their proper knowledge and perception regarding vaccines and the vaccination process, may contribute extensively towards attaining their anticipated vaccination rates. The current study endeavored to ascertain the Bangladeshi population’s knowledge, perception, and willingness towards COVID-19 vaccination. Relevant information was collected from 1201 adults aged 18 years or older by employing an online-based survey from 1 to 30 July 2021. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square (χ2) test, and a binary logistic regression analysis were applied in order to compare the extent of knowledge and perception prevalent among different demographic groups and correlate such prevalence with respective vaccine willingness. The participants expressed mean (± standard deviation) knowledge and perception scores of 6.48 ± 1.13 out of 8 and 5.37 ± 1.22 out of 7, respectively. A multivariate analysis confirmed the significant association (p < 0.05) of gender, age, and family income with the knowledge score, whereas age and knowledge level significantly influenced perception. Current living area, family income, and age were considerable contributors to COVID-19 vaccine willingness. Overall vaccine willingness was found to be significantly curtailed by inadequate knowledge (AOR 0.514, CI 95% 0.401–0.658, p < 0.001) and perception (AOR 0.710, CI 95% 0.548–0.920, p = 0.010) among the participants. All of the concerned authorities’ efforts are warranted in order to improve public understanding, perception, and inclination towards vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Role of Vaccine Hesitancy, eHealth Literacy, and Vaccine Literacy in Young Adults’ COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Intention in a Lower-Middle-Income Country
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1405; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9121405 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Various control measures, including vaccination, have been taken to flatten the COVID-19 epidemic curve across the globe. However, in Bangladesh, many young adults, considered the asymptomatic transmitter of the disease, are waiting to get their first shot. Therefore, the potential predictors of the [...] Read more.
Various control measures, including vaccination, have been taken to flatten the COVID-19 epidemic curve across the globe. However, in Bangladesh, many young adults, considered the asymptomatic transmitter of the disease, are waiting to get their first shot. Therefore, the potential predictors of the young adults’ vaccine uptake intention are significant to ensure their maximum vaccination when available to them. This study examined how vaccine hesitancy, eHealth literacy, and vaccine literacy are associated with young adults’ COVID-19 vaccine uptake intention in a lower-middle-income country. A total of 343 young adults participated in the study. Using ordinary least square and probit estimation, we examined the effect of the explanatory variables of interest on vaccine uptake intention. Vaccine hesitancy emerged as the strongest predictor of vaccine uptake intention. eHealth literacy shared a positive association with vaccine uptake intention, while vaccine literacy had no significant association. To make young adults feel more confident about the vaccine, transmitting the latest vaccine safety updates through authentic channels is essential. The government can aim to enhance the eHealth literacy of young adults as an increased level of eHealth literacy will enable young adults to extract reliable health-related information more efficiently than ever. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Healthcare Personnel: A University Hospital Experience
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9111343 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Healthcare workers are among risk groups in the COVID-19. Even if they are not infected with the disease, they witness the effects of the pandemic. The aim of the study is to determine the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination status and reasons for vaccine [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers are among risk groups in the COVID-19. Even if they are not infected with the disease, they witness the effects of the pandemic. The aim of the study is to determine the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination status and reasons for vaccine hesitancy of healthcare personnel in our hospital. Firstly, the vaccination status and demographic characteristics of all healthcare personnel was evaluated. After that, a survey was applied to 408 vaccinated and 297 nonvaccinated personnel. Within the first month after the beginning of vaccination, 66% of 3937 healthcare personnel received a COVID-19 vaccine. The number of vaccinated personnel was higher among doctors, master graduates or higher educational levels and basic science-laboratory unit workers. In the surveyed group, being under the age of 50 (OR:1.85), being nondoctor healthcare personnel (nurse/midwife OR:1.78, administrative personnel OR:3.42, patient attendant/cleaning staff OR:4.11, security guard/other OR:2.96), having had the disease before (OR:2.36), not having the flu vaccine (OR:3.24) and hesitancy about other vaccines (OR:6.61) were found to be independent risk factors for not having a COVID-19 vaccine or having it late. The three most common reasons for not getting vaccinated were doubt on the efficacy of the vaccine, distrust of its content, and fear of side effects. Taking steps by considering the main factors of hesitancy among healthcare personnel will increase the vaccine acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Explaining COVID-19 Vaccine Rejection Using Social Cognitive Theory in Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9111304 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines needs a health promotion approach to address various social, environmental and personal factors leading to vaccine hesitancy. We assessed the vaccine hesitancy rate and applied social cognitive theory (SCT) to understand COVID-19 vaccine rejection in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A [...] Read more.
Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines needs a health promotion approach to address various social, environmental and personal factors leading to vaccine hesitancy. We assessed the vaccine hesitancy rate and applied social cognitive theory (SCT) to understand COVID-19 vaccine rejection in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among visitors of 10 randomly selected primary health care centers in Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire. The variables were grouped into six constructs of SCT. Logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of vaccine rejection. Out of 486 participants included in the study, 30.5% rejected the vaccine. The most common reason for vaccine rejection was uncertainty about the vaccine’s effectiveness (78%). Among various constructs of SCT, reciprocal determinism (nationality, income and suffering from COVID-19 infection), behavioral capability (knowledge about vaccine safety), self-efficacy (registered for vaccine), and observational learning (getting the vaccine after friends and family members) were significant predictors. Expectation and reinforcement constructs did not show significant association. There was high vaccine rejection in Qassim, KSA. This calls for further improving the mass education strategies. Social cognitive theory can be used to predict vaccine rejection and to develop strategies to increase the utilization of COVID-19 vaccines in Saudi Arabia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Knowledge, Attitudes and Perception toward COVID-19 Vaccines among Adults in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9111259 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Background: Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that initiated early vaccination programs despite the global challenges concerning the availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Massive vaccination campaigns have been undertaken in the country; however, negative perception and hesitancy toward vaccines may exist which could [...] Read more.
Background: Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that initiated early vaccination programs despite the global challenges concerning the availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Massive vaccination campaigns have been undertaken in the country; however, negative perception and hesitancy toward vaccines may exist which could reduce public response to vaccination. Further, studies evaluating the current perception and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines are scarce. Thus, this study aims to assess the community attitudes and perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccines in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective study using an online questionnaire was conducted among the public in Jazan, the southern region of Saudi Arabia. General and demographic data were collected, and perception and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines were evaluated. Results: Most participants in this study were female (67%) with a median age of 23 years. The majority held a bachelor’s degree, and they trusted the Saudi healthcare system. Our survey showed that 67% of the study participants had positive perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccines, a finding that is significantly associated with receiving the influenza vaccine in the past, the existence of trust on the current healthcare system and holding positive beliefs toward the effectiveness of the current COVID-19 vaccines in reducing the risk of infection, complication, and mortality. Conclusions: The proportion of the public in Jazan who believed in the COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness is not inferior from similar international reports. Thus, national awareness programs toward the effectiveness of the vaccine could be enhanced to accelerate vaccination coverage. Further, nationwide surveys are warranted to include larger populations from different communities to assess the overall perception toward COVID-19 vaccines in the whole country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
The Barriers, Challenges, and Strategies of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Vaccine Acceptance: A Concurrent Mixed-Method Study in Tehran City, Iran
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9111248 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Acceptance and willingness to receive the vaccine are among the main factors in the success or failure of a health system in implementing the vaccination program. The present study was conducted in Tehran, the political and economic capital of Iran, to determine the [...] Read more.
Acceptance and willingness to receive the vaccine are among the main factors in the success or failure of a health system in implementing the vaccination program. The present study was conducted in Tehran, the political and economic capital of Iran, to determine the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and identify its associated factors, and explain the most important barriers and acceptance strategies for vaccination. This research was a concurrent quantitative and qualitative mixed-method study. In the quantitative part, 1200 individuals aged more than 18 years were selected from the households in 22 districts of Tehran City, with a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Two questionnaires were used to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccine acceptance determinants. The qualitative content analysis method addressed the influencing factors, as well as challenges and strategies related to the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in four groups of Tehran inhabitants: the elderly, people with underlying diseases, healthcare workers, and the general population. The related data were simultaneously collected by applying in-depth semi-structural interviews and a data analysis process. Furthermore, we used the Graneheim and Lundman method for data analysis. We analyzed the data of 1200 people with a mean (SD) age of 46.4 (11.1) years, and approximately 58% of them were men. The vaccine acceptance was 83.6% (95% CI: 81.3–85.9). Among those who welcomed vaccination, 58% preferred the imported vaccines, 25% the Iranian ones, and 17% both. There was a significant association between the variables of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.01–2.93), being single (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41–0.91), moderate pharmacotherapy adherence (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.4–0.85), and the willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Qualitative study after interviewing 45 people from four study groups showed an insufficient social trust in healthcare system officials, pharmaceutical and vaccine production companies; distrust in the effectiveness of the vaccines, concerns about the vaccine adverse effects, being tracked by microchips after vaccination, traditional anti-vaccination movements, the feeling the inessentiality of vaccination, and uncertainty about the fair distribution of the vaccine. These concerns were the main challenges addressed by the study groups. A good proportion of Tehran residents reported their willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they expressed their critical concerns, such as insufficient trust in the healthcare system, vaccine safeties, and adverse effects that were the significant barriers to vaccine acceptance. It seems that conflicts raised by the shortage of vaccines and their import due to the sanctions have led to intense desire and demand in the general population, and especially the elderly, for vaccination. Besides, vaccination phobia in some individuals requires further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign Success: Lessons Learnt from the Pandemic So Far. A Case Study from Poland
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9101153 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The high effectiveness of a vaccination-promotion campaign, which may be measured by the number of those successfully convinced to get vaccinated, is a key factor in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. This, however, appears to be linked to the precise identification of the underlying [...] Read more.
The high effectiveness of a vaccination-promotion campaign, which may be measured by the number of those successfully convinced to get vaccinated, is a key factor in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. This, however, appears to be linked to the precise identification of the underlying causes for vaccine hesitancy behaviours. Based on a regression model (adjusted R2 of 0.78) analysing 378 sub-regions of Poland, we showed that such behaviours, even when going against the party agenda, can be indirectly yet precisely gauged predominantly through voting patterns. Additionally, education and population density were found to be positively related to low vaccine hesitancy, while markers of social exclusion, both external (employment rate) and psychological (voter turnout) ones, affected it negatively. In the second, follow-up part of our study, which analyses the changes that took place in two months (adjusted R2 of 0.53), we found a further increase in vaccination rate to be positively related to the number of those already vaccinated and to the political views of the population, and negatively related to its level of education. In both cases, there was a surprisingly weak relationship between the potential markers of accessibility and vaccination rate. In spite of the known overall differences in vaccination rates for different age and sex groups, these variables did not have any additional informative value in explaining the observed regional differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Sentiments Regarding COVID-19 Vaccination among Graduate Students in Singapore
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9101141 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 832
Abstract
As the COVID-19 pandemic rages unabated, and with more infectious variants, vaccination may offer a way to transit out of strict restrictions on physical human interactions to curb the virus spread and prevent overwhelming the healthcare system. However, vaccine hesitancy threatens to significantly [...] Read more.
As the COVID-19 pandemic rages unabated, and with more infectious variants, vaccination may offer a way to transit out of strict restrictions on physical human interactions to curb the virus spread and prevent overwhelming the healthcare system. However, vaccine hesitancy threatens to significantly impact our progress towards achieving this. It is thus important to understand the sentiments regarding vaccination for different segments of the population to facilitate the development of effective strategies to persuade these groups. Here, we surveyed the COVID-19 vaccination sentiments among a highly educated group of graduate students from the National University of Singapore (NUS). Graduate students who are citizens of 54 different countries, mainly from Asia, pursue studies in diverse fields, with 32% expressing vaccine hesitancy. Citizenship, religion, country of undergraduate/postgraduate studies, exposure risk and field of study are significantly associated with vaccine sentiments. Students who are Chinese citizens or studied in Chinese Universities prior to joining NUS are more hesitant, while students of Indian descent or studied in India are less hesitant about vaccination. Side effects, safety issues and vaccine choice are the major concerns of the hesitant group. Hence, this study would facilitate the development of strategies that focus on these determinants to enhance vaccine acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Intentions in Eastern Zimbabwe: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9101109 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
Vaccines are one of the most effective public health strategies to protect against infectious diseases, yet vaccine hesitancy has emerged as a global health threat. Understanding COVID-19 knowledge and attitudes and their association with vaccine intentions can help the targeting of strategies to [...] Read more.
Vaccines are one of the most effective public health strategies to protect against infectious diseases, yet vaccine hesitancy has emerged as a global health threat. Understanding COVID-19 knowledge and attitudes and their association with vaccine intentions can help the targeting of strategies to increase vaccination uptake and achieve herd immunity. The goal of this study was to assess COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, and identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine intentions among heads of households in Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2021 among 551 randomly selected households. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding COVID-19 and the vaccines. More than half (55.7%) of the respondents reported intending to vaccinate themselves or their households. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the likelihood of vaccine intentions was most strongly associated with confidence in vaccine safety. Additionally, the odds of intending to get vaccinated were significantly higher among heads of households who were male, had a higher level of education, and identified vaccination and face mask usage as prevention measures. Among perceived motivators to vaccinate, recommendations from the World Health Organization and availability of the vaccine free of charge increased the likelihood of vaccine intentions, while country of vaccine manufacturer posed a barrier to vaccine intentions. As the vaccine rollout in Zimbabwe continues, efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage and achieve herd immunity should target females and less educated populations and be tailored to address concerns about vaccine safety and country of manufacturer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Resistance in India Explored through a Population-Based Longitudinal Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1064; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9101064 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Background: The World Health Organization has recommended that individual governments identify vaccine hesitancy areas. It is proposed that the governments, with the aid of local organizations, educate and implement social insights on the vaccination so that high population levels are covered with this [...] Read more.
Background: The World Health Organization has recommended that individual governments identify vaccine hesitancy areas. It is proposed that the governments, with the aid of local organizations, educate and implement social insights on the vaccination so that high population levels are covered with this safe immune program. Methods: A longitudinal online survey covered 3000 adults from India. We examined the demography, behavioral (socio-economic) attitude, vaccine hesitancy, vaccine resistance for the COVID-19 vaccine. The specific reasons for the COVID-19 vaccine decline were also evaluated. Results: Our survey revealed 59% definite response, 29% low-level response, and 7% high-level response for vaccine hesitancy, while 6% had resistant views on the COVID-19 vaccine. Individuals who had higher income levels, lived in a society, maintained social distancing, had downloaded the COVID-19 update app, showed a positive attitude towards their government, and more confidence in their healthcare system were more inclined towards the vaccination. On the contrary, individuals who had overstated the risks of COVID-19 and had a religious and populistic attitude towards vaccination were more hesitant/resistant to vaccination. The respondents who declined vaccine administration were further evaluated for their specific reason for their response. The most common reasons for declining the COVID-19 vaccine were post-vaccine scare of adverse health effects and accepting the information spread by social media. Conclusions: The results in our study show that by identifying population “hot spots” that have negative or unclear information on the COVID-19 vaccination, these “hot spots” can be addressed by involving friendly organizations that can clear their strong disbeliefs and increase the percentage of vaccine-definite people within the population. The role of government-induced COVID-19 vaccine policy measures can always be beneficial to cause this shift from disbelief to confidence within the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Differential Effect of Vaccine Effectiveness and Safety on COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance across Socioeconomic Groups in an International Sample
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1010; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9091010 - 11 Sep 2021
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 will require high vaccination coverage, but acceptance of the vaccine could be impacted by perceptions of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to characterize how vaccine safety and effectiveness impact acceptance of a vaccine, [...] Read more.
Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 will require high vaccination coverage, but acceptance of the vaccine could be impacted by perceptions of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to characterize how vaccine safety and effectiveness impact acceptance of a vaccine, and whether this impact varied over time or across socioeconomic and demographic groups. Repeated cross-sectional surveys of an opt-in internet sample were conducted in 2020 in the US, mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. Individuals were randomized into receiving information about a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine with different safety and effectiveness profiles (risk of fever 5% vs. 20% and vaccine effectiveness 50% vs. 95%). We examined the effect of the vaccine profile on vaccine acceptance in a logistic regression model, and included interaction terms between vaccine profile and socioeconomic/demographic variables to examine the differences in sensitivity to the vaccine profile. In total, 12,915 participants were enrolled in the six-country study, including the US (4054), China (2797), Taiwan (1278), Malaysia (1497), Indonesia (1527), and India (1762). Across time and countries, respondents had stronger preferences for a safer and more effective vaccine. For example, in the US in November 2020, acceptance was 3.10 times higher for a 95% effective vaccine with a 5% risk of fever, vs a vaccine 50% effective, with a 20% risk of fever (95% CI: 2.07, 4.63). Across all countries, there was an increase in the effect of the vaccine profile over time (p < 0.0001), with stronger preferences for a more effective and safer vaccine in November 2020 compared to August 2020. Sensitivity to the vaccine profile was also stronger in August compared to November 2020, in younger age groups, among those with lower income; and in those that are vaccine hesitant. Uptake of COVID-19 vaccines could vary in a country based upon effectiveness and availability. Effective communication tools will need to be developed for certain sensitive groups, including young adults, those with lower income, and those more vaccine hesitant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Parents of 4023 Young Adolescents (12–15 Years) in Qatar
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090981 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Parental vaccine hesitancy (VH) remains a barrier to full population inoculation, hence herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We aimed to determine parental VH rate, subgroups and influencing factors related to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among their young adolescents (12–15 years old) in [...] Read more.
Parental vaccine hesitancy (VH) remains a barrier to full population inoculation, hence herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We aimed to determine parental VH rate, subgroups and influencing factors related to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among their young adolescents (12–15 years old) in Qatar. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted from 17 May to 3 June using vaccination booking records of 4023 young adolescents. Sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and nationality), health status and BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination booking status were analysed. Among respondents, the VH rate was 17.9%. Parents of 12-years adolescents were more hesitant (21.6%) as compared to the 13- (16.0%) and 15- (15.2%) years groups (p < 0.05). Parents of adolescents belonging to Gulf Countries (97% Qatari) were more hesitant (35.2%) as compared to the four remaining groups of nationalities (Asiatic; excluding Gulf Countries), North-African, African (excluding North-African), and European/American/Oceanian, 13.3–20.4%, (p < 0.001). Parental VH rates were higher when adolescents suffered from chronic disease as compared to those without the chronic disease (21.3% vs. 17.4%, p < 0.05) or who previously were COVID-19 infected as compared to non-previously COVID-19 infected (24.1 vs. 17.5%, p < 0.01). Results of logistic regression revealed that age groups, nationalities, and recovery from COVID-19 were the main predictors of VH level. Precisely, parents of 12 years old adolescents were 38% more likely to be hesitant as compared to the parents of the 15 years old adolescents (OR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.12–1.70). Compared with the Gulf countries, parents of adolescents belonging to the other nationality categories; namely North-African, African, Asiatic and European/American/Oceanian were 48% (95%CI: 0.36–0.65), 41% (95% CI: 0.27–0.62), 38% (95%CI: 0.29–0.50) and 34% (95% CI 0.21–0.56) less likely to be hesitant, respectively. Furthermore, parents of young adolescents being previously COVID-19 infected were 37% more likely to be hesitant as compared to those with no previous COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.02–1.84). Effective communication strategies specifically targeting Gulf Country populations, parents of younger children aged 12 years and of those with chronic disease or have been previously infected with COVID-19 are crucial to build community trust and vaccine confidence, thereby increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Acceptability of the COVID-19 Vaccine and Its Determinants among University Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 943; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9090943 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to the efforts that have been taken to combat the pandemic. This study assessed the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among university students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey using a Google Form was conducted [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to the efforts that have been taken to combat the pandemic. This study assessed the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among university students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey using a Google Form was conducted between 2 April and 23 April 2021. A snowball technique was used to recruit participants for this study. The final sample consisted of 407 participants. More than one-third of the participants (36.1%) had received the COVID-19 vaccine, and 13.3% had registered to receive the vaccine. Of the participants who were not yet vaccinated (n = 260), 90.4% indicated that they would like to be vaccinated when given the opportunity. Of the unvaccinated participants, 82.3% trusted the COVID-19 vaccines that had been provided in Saudi Arabia. The most reported reasons for the participants’ acceptance to receive the COVID-19 vaccine included preventive purposes (95.8%), a belief in the safety of the vaccines (84.3%), and the availability of public awareness information regarding the vaccines (77.3%). A small portion of participants (6.1%) were refusing to receive the vaccine due to the potential long-term side effects (92.0%) and expedited vaccine trials (80.0%). Acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine was strongly associated with participants who regularly received the flu vaccine (p < 0.05). All other demographic variables were not statistically associated with the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. In conclusion, it would be appropriate for universities to launch peer programs to urge reluctant students to receive the vaccine voluntarily. In terms of further research, it is valuable to follow up with unvaccinated participants to investigate if they received the vaccine since the data were collected, and their reasons for doing so. This research would reveal changes toward vaccine acceptability over time and any related determinants. Future research should consider students from non-Arabic speaking backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Evaluation of COVID-19 Vaccine Attitudes among Arab American Healthcare Professionals Living in the United States
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 942; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9090942 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Background: Vaccine hesitancy is the next great barrier for public health. Arab Americans are a rapidly growing demographic in the United States with limited information on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy. We therefore sought to study the attitudes towards the coronavirus disease 2019 [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccine hesitancy is the next great barrier for public health. Arab Americans are a rapidly growing demographic in the United States with limited information on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy. We therefore sought to study the attitudes towards the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine amongst Arab American health professionals living in the United States. Methods: This was a cross sectional study utilizing an anonymous online survey. The survey was distributed via e-mail to National Arab American Medical Association members and Arab-American Center for Economic and Social Services healthcare employees. Respondents were considered vaccine hesitant if they selected responses other than a willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Results: A total of 4000 surveys were sent via e-mail from 28 December 2020 to 31 January 2021, and 513 responses were received. The highest group of respondents were between the ages of 18–29 years and physicians constituted 48% of the respondents. On multivariable analysis, we found that respondents who had declined an influenza vaccine in the preceding 5 years (p < 0.001) and allied health professionals (medical assistants, hospital administrators, case managers, researchers, scribes, pharmacists, dieticians and social workers) were more likely to be vaccine hesitant (p = 0.025). In addition, respondents earning over $150,000 US dollars annually were less likely to be vaccine hesitant and this finding was significant on multivariable analysis (p = 0.011). Conclusions: Vaccine hesitancy among health care providers could have substantial impact on vaccine attitudes of the general population, and such data may help inform vaccine advocacy efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
Correlates of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among a Community Sample of African Americans Living in the Southern United States
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 879; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9080879 - 08 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
In the United States, African Americans (AAs) have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 mortality. However, AAs are more likely to be hesitant in receiving COVID-19 vaccinations when compared to non-Hispanic Whites. We examined factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among a predominant AA community [...] Read more.
In the United States, African Americans (AAs) have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 mortality. However, AAs are more likely to be hesitant in receiving COVID-19 vaccinations when compared to non-Hispanic Whites. We examined factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among a predominant AA community sample. We performed a cross-sectional analysis on data collected from a convenience sample of 257 community-dwelling participants in the Central Savannah River Area from 5 December 2020, through 17 April 2021. Vaccine hesitancy was categorized as resistant, hesitant, and acceptant. We estimated relative odds of vaccine resistance and vaccine hesitancy using polytomous logistic regression models. Nearly one-third of the participants were either hesitant (n = 40, 15.6%) or resistant (n = 42, 16.3%) to receiving a COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine-resistant participants were more likely to be younger and were more likely to have experienced housing insecurity due to COVID-19 when compared to both acceptant and hesitant participants, respectively. Age accounted for nearly 25% of the variation in vaccine resistance, with 21-fold increased odds (OR: 21.93, 95% CI: 8.97–5.26–91.43) of vaccine resistance in participants aged 18 to 29 compared to 50 and older adults. Housing insecurity accounted for 8% of the variation in vaccine resistance and was associated with 7-fold increased odds of vaccine resistance (AOR: 7.35, 95% CI: 1.99–27.10). In this sample, AAs under the age of 30 and those experiencing housing insecurity because of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to be resistant to receiving a free COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Poland—Multifactorial Impact Trajectories
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 876; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9080876 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Since the declaration of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic confirmed by World Health Organization, work on the development of vaccines has been stimulated. When vaccines are commonly available, a major problem is persistent vaccine hesitancy in many European countries. The main goal of our study [...] Read more.
Since the declaration of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic confirmed by World Health Organization, work on the development of vaccines has been stimulated. When vaccines are commonly available, a major problem is persistent vaccine hesitancy in many European countries. The main goal of our study was to understand the multidimensional factors inducing this phenomenon in Poland. Our study was carried out at the third wave’s peak of the pandemic, with record rates of daily cases and deaths associated with COVID-19. The results indicate that vaccine hesitancy/acceptability should always be considered in an interdisciplinary manner and according to identified factors where most negative attitudes could be altered. Our analyses included the assessment of a representative quota sample of adult Poles (N = 1000). The vaccine hesitancy in the studied group reached 49.2%. We performed stepwise logistic regression modeling to analyze variables set into six trajectories (groups) predicting the willingness to vaccinate. Apart from typical, socio-demographic and economic determinants, we identified the fear of vaccines’ side effects, beliefs in conspiracy theories and physical fitness. We were also able to establish the order of importance of factors used in a full model of all impact trajectories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Romanian Medical Students’ Attitude towards and Perceived Knowledge on COVID-19 Vaccination
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 854; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9080854 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
In Romania, the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign prioritized medical personnel, which included healthcare students. This study aimed to assess their knowledge, attitudes towards, and perception of COVID-19 vaccination. An anonymous, single-answer, 42-item online survey was conducted from 12 January until [...] Read more.
In Romania, the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign prioritized medical personnel, which included healthcare students. This study aimed to assess their knowledge, attitudes towards, and perception of COVID-19 vaccination. An anonymous, single-answer, 42-item online survey was conducted from 12 January until 3 March 2021, in the country’s largest University of Medicine and Pharmacy. Among the 1581 respondents (14.9% response rate), 88.5% were pro-vaccination, 7.8% were undecided, and 3.7% were vaccine resistant. The main reason for vaccine rejection was the perceived speed of vaccine development (strong agreement among the vaccine resistant, moderate agreement among the undecided, p < 0.001). Concern over long-term adverse reaction was present in only 11.5% of the respondents, significantly more frequent in the undecided and vaccine resistant. Perceived knowledge on the vaccines’ safety, efficacy, and technology correlated with a pro-vaccine attitude (p < 0.001). Most respondents had a positive stance towards vaccination in general, influencing their behaviour as future parents (99.3% of the pro-vaccination, 95.1% of the undecided, and 89.1% of the vaccine resistant will vaccinate their children, p < 0.001) and as medical professionals (99.7% of the pro-vaccination, 93.5% of those undecided, and 89.8% of the vaccine resistant would advise parents to vaccinate their children, p < 0.001). Healthcare students can thus serve as important vectors for scientifically sound information, influencing vaccine uptake in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability and Its Determinants in Mozambique: An Online Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 828; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9080828 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
A high worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage must be attained to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we assessed the level of willingness of Mozambicans to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Data were collected between 11 and 20 March 2021, through a self-administered online [...] Read more.
A high worldwide SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage must be attained to stop the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we assessed the level of willingness of Mozambicans to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Data were collected between 11 and 20 March 2021, through a self-administered online survey. Of the 1878 respondents, 30.1% were healthcare workers, 58.3% were aged between 18 and 35 years, 60% were male, and 38.5% were single. Up to 43% had been tested for COVID-19 and 29% had tested positive. Overall vaccine acceptability was 71.4% (86.6% among healthcare workers, 64.8% among other respondents; p < 0.001). Reasons for vaccine hesitancy included: fear of vaccine side effects (29.6%) and the belief that the vaccine is not effective (52%). The acceptability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine increased with increasing vaccine efficacy. Using logistic regression, determinants for acceptability of the vaccine were: older age, a past COVID-19 test, a concern of becoming (re)infected by COVID-19, having a chronic disease, and considering vaccination important for personal and community health. In conclusion, vaccine acceptability in Mozambique was relatively high among healthcare workers but significantly lower in the rest of the population. This suggests that there is a need to educate the general population about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and its importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
Examining Vaccine Hesitancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of the Knowledge and Attitudes among Adults to Receive COVID-19 Vaccines in Ghana
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9080814 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
The impact of COVID-19 vaccination programmes on disease transmission, morbidity and mortality relies heavily on the population’s willingness to accept the vaccine. We explore Ghanaian adult citizens’ vaccine hesitancy attitudes and identify the likelihood of participation or non-participation in the government’s effort to [...] Read more.
The impact of COVID-19 vaccination programmes on disease transmission, morbidity and mortality relies heavily on the population’s willingness to accept the vaccine. We explore Ghanaian adult citizens’ vaccine hesitancy attitudes and identify the likelihood of participation or non-participation in the government’s effort to get citizens vaccinated. A fully anonymised cross-sectional online survey of 2345 adult Ghanaians was conducted from 23 to 28 February 2021. Differences in intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination were explored using Pearson Chi-square tests. Additionally, multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the factors associated with willingness to receive vaccines. Responses were weighted using the iterative proportional fitting technique to generate a representative sample. About half (51%) of mostly urban adult Ghanaians over 15 years are likely to take the COVID-19 vaccine if made generally available. Almost a fifth (21%) of the respondents were unlikely to take the vaccine, while another 28% were undecided. Additionally, we find differences in vaccine hesitancy among some socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and primary sources of information. Attaining the proverbial 63% to 70% herd immunity threshold in Ghana is only possible if the preventive vaccination programmes are combined with an enhanced and coordinated public education campaign. Such a campaign should focus on promoting the individual and population-level benefits of vaccination and pre-emptive efforts towards addressing misinformation about vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Can Communication Strategies Combat COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy with Trade-Off between Public Service Messages and Public Skepticism? Experimental Evidence from Pakistan
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 757; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9070757 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic may have reached a turning point as the World Health Organization and the global community of nations step up plans for mass vaccination campaigns. However, the COVID-19 vaccine-related conspiracy theories (e.g., falsehoods about birth control, women infertility, surveillance, and microchip [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic may have reached a turning point as the World Health Organization and the global community of nations step up plans for mass vaccination campaigns. However, the COVID-19 vaccine-related conspiracy theories (e.g., falsehoods about birth control, women infertility, surveillance, and microchip humanity, etc.) have built new momentum for vaccine hesitancy. To this end, several nations worldwide, including Pakistan, are struggling to boost public trust and enthusiasm to get vaccinated, especially in an anxious and complicated atmosphere propelled by multiple, new and the deadliest variants of COVID-19. To address this critical research gap during these intensifying conditions of vaccine hesitancy, the present study makes the first attempt to explore the potential effects of various communication strategies, including public service message (safety benefits versus fear appraisals), media types (i.e., traditional versus digital), self-efficacy, perceived benefits and threats (susceptibility and severity), on the willingness to get vaccinated for COVID-19. Importantly, the underlying effects of public skepticism (in a moderating role) on these relationships were empirically examined. Using four fictitious COVID-19 immunization campaigns in a series of experiments with 2 (media type: traditional vs. digital) X 2 (service attribute: health and safety benefits vs. fear) message frames (represented as Group one to Group four), the findings identified fear appraisal as the most viable communication strategy in combating vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, public skepticism negatively moderated the effects of media types and public service message attributes on willingness to get vaccinated in relatively high (i.e., Group two), moderate (i.e., Group one and four), and low intensities (i.e., Group three). The pioneering findings of this research offer new strategic insights for the global health authorities and vaccine promoters to proactively address the downward spiral of people’s willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
COVID-19 Pandemic Optimism and Vaccine Willingness among an Online Sample of US Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 745; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9070745 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
This paper presents data from an online sample of U.S gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), to explore the factors associated with three dimensions of vaccine beliefs: perception of the likelihood of a COVID-19 vaccine becoming available, perception [...] Read more.
This paper presents data from an online sample of U.S gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), to explore the factors associated with three dimensions of vaccine beliefs: perception of the likelihood of a COVID-19 vaccine becoming available, perception of when a COVID-19 vaccine would become available, and the likelihood of taking a COVID-19 vaccine. Data are taken from the Love and Sex in the Time of COVID-19 study, collected from November 2020 to January 2021. A sample of 290 GBMSM is analyzed, modeling three binary outcomes: belief that there will be a COVID-19 vaccine, belief that the COVID-19 vaccine will be available in 6 months, and being very likely to take the COVID-19 vaccine. In contrast to other studies, Black/African Americans and GBMSM living with HIV had higher levels of pandemic optimism and were more likely to be willing to accept a vaccine. Men who perceived a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among their friends and sex partners, and those who had reduced their sex partners, were more likely to be willing to take a COVID-19 vaccine. There remained a small percentage of participants (14%) who did not think the pandemic would end, that there would not be a vaccine and were unlikely to take a vaccine. To reach the levels of vaccination necessary to control the pandemic, it is imperative to understand the characteristics of those experiencing vaccine hesitancy and then tailor public health messages to their unique set of barriers and motivations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
Neutralizing Antibodies Titers and Side Effects in Response to BNT162b2 Vaccine in Healthcare Workers with and without Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 742; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9070742 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
The main expected result of a vaccine against viruses is the ability to produce neutralizing antibodies. Currently, several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are being applied to prevent mortal complications, being Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) one of the first to be authorized in the USA and Mexico [...] Read more.
The main expected result of a vaccine against viruses is the ability to produce neutralizing antibodies. Currently, several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are being applied to prevent mortal complications, being Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) one of the first to be authorized in the USA and Mexico (11 December 2020). This study evaluated the efficacy of this vaccine on antibody production with neutralizing capacity and its side effects in healthcare workers with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and in a group of unvaccinated individuals with prior COVID-19. The main findings are the production of 100% neutralizing antibodies in both groups after the second dose, well-tolerated adverse effects, the possible presence of immunosenescence, and finally, we support that a single dose of this vaccine in individuals with prior COVID-19 would be sufficient to achieve an immunization comparable to people without prior COVID-19 with a complete vaccination program (2 doses). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9070684 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
One of the most efficient methods to control the high infection rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to have a high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Therefore, it is important to understand individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The present study [...] Read more.
One of the most efficient methods to control the high infection rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to have a high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Therefore, it is important to understand individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The present study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated among a representative sample in Qazvin, Iran. The TPB uses psychological constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to explain an individual’s intention to perform a behavior. Fear and perceived infectability were additionally incorporated into the TPB to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Utilizing multistage stratified cluster sampling, 10,843 participants (4092 males; 37.7%) with a mean age of 35.54 years (SD = 12.00) completed a survey. The survey assessed TPB constructs (including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention related to COVID-19 vaccination) together with fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine whether fear of COVID-19, perceived infectability, and the TPB constructs explained individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The SEM demonstrated satisfactory fit (comparative fit index = 0.970; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.962; root mean square error of approximation = 0.040; standardized root mean square residual = 0.050). Moreover, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived COVID-19 infectability significantly explained individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Perceived COVID-19 infectability and TPB constructs were all significant mediators in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Incorporating fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability effectively into the TPB explained Iranians’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Therefore, Iranians who have a strong belief in Muslim religion may improve their intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated via these constructs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Attitudes towards the COVID-19 Vaccine and Willingness to Get Vaccinated among Healthcare Workers in French Guiana: The Influence of Geographical Origin
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 682; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060682 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Background: In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the expansion of the more transmissible 20J/501Y.V3 (Gamma) variant of concern (VOC), mRNA vaccines have been made available in French Guiana, an overseas French territory in South America, from mid-January 2021. This study [...] Read more.
Background: In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic and the expansion of the more transmissible 20J/501Y.V3 (Gamma) variant of concern (VOC), mRNA vaccines have been made available in French Guiana, an overseas French territory in South America, from mid-January 2021. This study aimed to estimate the willingness to be vaccinated and the socio-demographic and motivational correlates among Health Care Workers (HCWs) in French Guiana. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 22 to March 26, 2021 among a sample of HCWs in French Guiana. They were asked about their willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy, vaccine uptake and vaccines attitudes. Factors associated with willingness to get vaccinated have been analyzed with ordinal logistic regression, using Stata software. Results: A total of 579 HCWs were interviewed, including 220 physicians and 200 nurses most often working in hospital (54%) or in the liberal sector (22%). Overall, 65.6% of respondents reported that they were willing or had already been vaccinated against COVID-19, while 24.3% of respondents reported that they did not want to get vaccinated against COVID-19 and 11.2% were unsure. HCWs were more willing to get vaccine if they were older, were worried about COVID-19 and were confident in the management of epidemic. Conversely, participants were less likely to have been vaccinated or willing to if they were nurses or of another non-medical profession, born in French Guiana, feared adverse effects, or if they did not trust pharmaceutical companies and management of the epidemic by authorities. Conclusion: Negative attitudes towards vaccines are a major public health concern among HCWs in French Guiana when considering the current active epidemic with Gamma VOC. General vaccine hesitancy and concerns about future side effects in particular represent important barriers. Low confidence in government and science are significant in COVID-19 vaccine refusal among non-medical staffs. Public health messaging with information on vaccine safety should be tailored to address these concerns. The specific challenges of HCWs from French Guiana must be taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Associated Factors in Japan
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060662 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 9171
Abstract
The vaccine confidence index in Japan is one of the lowest worldwide. This study aimed to examine the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Japanese population using a larger sample and more robust statistical methods than previously, and to identify factors associated [...] Read more.
The vaccine confidence index in Japan is one of the lowest worldwide. This study aimed to examine the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Japanese population using a larger sample and more robust statistical methods than previously, and to identify factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional Internet survey on 8–26 February 2021, and calculated the proportion and odds ratios for vaccine hesitancy. Among 23,142 responses analyzed, the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 11.3% (10.9–11.7%). The proportion was higher among younger respondents and female respondents, and especially among younger female respondents (15.6%) compared with the lowest proportion among older male respondents (4.8%). The most cited reason for not getting vaccinated was concerns about adverse reactions in more than 70% of the respondents. The proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Japan was comparable to that in previous studies overseas, and the proportion among younger respondents was more than double that among older respondents. Factors associated with the hesitancy were female sex, living alone, low socioeconomic status, and presence of severe psychological distress, especially among older respondents. Thus, adequate measures should be taken to ensure that vaccines are delivered to people with these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
A Comparison of Vaccine Hesitancy of COVID-19 Vaccination in China and the United States
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 649; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060649 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the differences in vaccine hesitancy and preference of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines between two countries, namely, China and the United States (U.S.). Method: A cross-national survey was conducted in both China and the United States, and discrete choice experiments, [...] Read more.
Objectives: To investigate the differences in vaccine hesitancy and preference of the currently available COVID-19 vaccines between two countries, namely, China and the United States (U.S.). Method: A cross-national survey was conducted in both China and the United States, and discrete choice experiments, as well as Likert scales, were utilized to assess vaccine preference and the underlying factors contributing to vaccination acceptance. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to enable a direct comparison between the two countries. Results: A total of 9077 (5375 and 3702 from China and the United States, respectively) respondents completed the survey. After propensity score matching, over 82.0% of respondents from China positively accepted the COVID-19 vaccination, while 72.2% of respondents from the United States positively accepted it. Specifically, only 31.9% of Chinese respondents were recommended by a doctor to have COVID-19 vaccination, while more than half of the U.S. respondents were recommended by a doctor (50.2%), local health board (59.4%), or friends and families (64.8%). The discrete choice experiments revealed that respondents from the United States attached the greatest importance to the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines (44.41%), followed by the cost of vaccination (29.57%), whereas those from China held a different viewpoint, that the cost of vaccination covered the largest proportion in their trade-off (30.66%), and efficacy ranked as the second most important attribute (26.34%). Additionally, respondents from China tended to be much more concerned about the adverse effect of vaccination (19.68% vs. 6.12%) and have a lower perceived severity of being infected with COVID-19. Conclusion: Although the overall acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccination in both countries are high, underpinned distinctions between these countries were observed. Owing to the differences in COVID-19 incidence rates, cultural backgrounds, and the availability of specific COVID-19 vaccines in the two countries, vaccine rollout strategies should be nation-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Interim Estimates of COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness in a Mass Vaccination Setting: Data from an Italian Province
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 628; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060628 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study compared the rates of virologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic or lethal COVID-19 among the residents of the Italian province of Pescara who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines, versus the unvaccinated. The official data of the National Health [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort study compared the rates of virologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic or lethal COVID-19 among the residents of the Italian province of Pescara who received one or two doses of COVID-19 vaccines, versus the unvaccinated. The official data of the National Health System were used, and a total of 69,539 vaccinated adults were compared with 175,687 unvaccinated. Among the subjects who received at least one vaccine dose, 85 infections (0.12%), 18 severe and 3 lethal COVID-19 cases were recorded after an average follow-up of 38 days. Among the unvaccinated, the numbers were 6948 (4.00%), 933 (0.53%) and 241 (0.14%), respectively. The serious adverse event reports—yet unconfirmed—were 24 out of 102,394 administered doses. In a Cox model, adjusting for age, gender, and selected comorbidities, the effectiveness of either BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or mRNA-1273 vaccines was higher than 95% in preventing infections (mostly due to B.1.1.7 variant), symptomatic or lethal COVID-19. No differences were observed across genders, and among the 691 subjects who received the second dose of vaccine later than the recommended date. Although preliminary, these findings support current immunization policies and may help reducing vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Perception of Health, Mistrust, Anxiety, and Indecision in a Group of Italians Vaccinated against COVID-19
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 612; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060612 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychological factors of health perception, mistrust, anxiety, fear, and indecision of Italians vaccinated against COVID-19, and conduct an analysis of the relationships between these factors and other variables: sex, vaccine priority ministerial categories, and [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychological factors of health perception, mistrust, anxiety, fear, and indecision of Italians vaccinated against COVID-19, and conduct an analysis of the relationships between these factors and other variables: sex, vaccine priority ministerial categories, and the type and dose of vaccine. The participants included 1564 subjects who joined the vaccination campaign at the COVID-19 Vaccination Center in Salerno, Italy. A survey was conducted in the reference period March–April 2021 using a brief anamnestic questionnaire. In addition, the following standardized scales were used: the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The results showed that, in terms of the type of vaccine received, the interviewees felt more confident in having received the Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech, 23.5%) and Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca, 18.6%) vaccines—feeling less tense (2.1%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) = 3.2%), frightened (1%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) = 1.4%), not at all nervous (61.1%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca), 43.6%), and not at all/undecided (67.9%; Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca), 58.6%). Regarding the mood and psychological states considered at the different vaccine administration times, other important differences emerged as the interviewees reported higher levels of tension, nervousness, and fear during the first phase of vaccine administration. Specifically, 40.7% (second dose, 32.7%) felt somewhat tense at the first dose, 26.4% felt frightened (second dose, 21.8%), and 33.8% felt nervous (second dose, 26.8%). The perceived state of health also increased at the end of the vaccination cycle, as, at the second dose, 15.4% of the sample reported an evaluation of “excellent” (first dose, 12.4%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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What Prompts Doctors to Recommend COVID-19 Vaccines: Is It a Question of Positive Emotion?
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060578 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective public health tools and have greatly contributed to eliminating or controlling several serious vaccine-treatable diseases over the past century. To curb the spread of COVID-19, efficacious vaccination is emerging as essential in mitigating the disease [...] Read more.
Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective public health tools and have greatly contributed to eliminating or controlling several serious vaccine-treatable diseases over the past century. To curb the spread of COVID-19, efficacious vaccination is emerging as essential in mitigating the disease and preventing deaths. Health care workers (HCW) are one of the first groups to receive vaccinations, so it is important to consider their attitudes to COVID-19 vaccination to better address barriers to widespread vaccination acceptance. This study aimed to evaluate variables that are linked with the recommendation of vaccines and intention to take-up vaccination against COVID-19 among the HCWs, in the context of the current pandemic. The study was conducted during the first week of the vaccination campaign dedicated to Italian HCWs, beginning in December 2020, and it involved all doctors in a public hospital in Sicily. The following questionnaires were administered: (1) The perceived vaccine trust questionnaire, measuring the degree of trust in vaccines by healthcare professionals both in general and for the protection of healthcare professionals themselves and patients; (2) the positive and negative affect scale-state (PANAS), for assessing positive and negative emotions in relation to their work as “frontline care providers”; (3) The locus of control of behaviour (LCB) to measure the extent to which subjects perceive responsibility for their personal behaviour (internal vs. external); (4) recommendation vaccines item, referring to the intention to recommend vaccination. The findings suggest that socio-demographic control variables (age, gender, and seniority) showed little or no predictive power in vaccine recommendation, while vaccine confidence, positive emotions, and internal locus of control were excellent predictors of vaccine recommendations by doctors. Younger doctors, both in age and experience, are more confident in vaccines and recommend them more frequently. It is essential to improve institutional communication addressed to doctors to enhance their role as vaccination facilitators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
Global Prevalence and Drivers of Dental Students’ COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 566; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060566 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
Background: Acceleration of mass vaccination strategies is the only pathway to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare professionals and students have a key role in shaping public opinion about vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of dental students globally towards COVID-19 vaccines [...] Read more.
Background: Acceleration of mass vaccination strategies is the only pathway to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare professionals and students have a key role in shaping public opinion about vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of dental students globally towards COVID-19 vaccines and explore the potential drivers for students’ acceptance levels. Methods: A global cross-sectional study was carried out in February 2021 using an online questionnaire. The study was liaised by the scientific committee of the International Association of Dental Students (IADS), and data were collected through the national and local coordinators of IADS member organizations. The dependent variable was the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine, and the independent variables included demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related experience, and the drivers of COVID-19 vaccine-related attitude suggested by the WHO SAGE. Results: A total of 6639 students from 22 countries, representing all world regions, responded to the questionnaire properly. Their mean age was 22.1 ± 2.8 (17–40) years, and the majority were females (70.5%), in clinical years (66.8%), and from upper-middle-income economies (45.7%). In general, 22.5% of dental students worldwide were hesitant, and 13.9% rejected COVID-19 vaccines. The students in low- and lower-middle-income (LLMI) economies had significantly higher levels of vaccine hesitancy compared to their peers in upper-middle- and high-income (UMHI) economies (30.4% vs. 19.8%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The global acceptance level of dental students for COVID-19 vaccines was suboptimal, and their worrisome level of vaccine hesitancy was influenced by the socioeconomic context where the dental students live and study. The media and social media, public figures, insufficient knowledge about vaccines, and mistrust of governments and the pharmaceutical industry were barriers to vaccination. The findings of this study call for further implementation of epidemiology (infectious diseases) education within undergraduate dental curricula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability and Adherence to Preventive Measures in Somalia: Results of an Online Survey
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9060543 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Most countries are currently gravitating towards vaccination as mainstay strategy to quell COVID-19 transmission. Between December 2020 and January 2021, we conducted a follow-up online survey in Somalia to monitor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and reasons for vaccine [...] Read more.
Most countries are currently gravitating towards vaccination as mainstay strategy to quell COVID-19 transmission. Between December 2020 and January 2021, we conducted a follow-up online survey in Somalia to monitor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Adherence was measured via a composite adherence score based on four measures (physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, and mouth covering when coughing/sneezing). We analyzed 4543 responses (mean age: 23.5 ± 6.4 years, 62.4% males). The mean adherence score during this survey was lower than the score during a similar survey in April 2020. A total of 76.8% of respondents were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Flu-like symptoms were more frequently reported in the current survey compared to previous surveys. Multiple logistic regression showed that participants who experienced flu-like symptoms, those in the healthcare sector, and those with higher adherence scores had higher odds for vaccine acceptability while being a female reduced the willingness to be vaccinated. In conclusion, our data suggest that the decreasing adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures may have caused increased flu-like symptoms over time. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Somalia is relatively high but could be improved by addressing factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of COVID-19 Vaccination among Healthcare Workers of an Inner-City Hospital in New York
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 516; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9050516 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Introduction: New York City is one of the areas most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Healthcare workers are among those at high risk of contracting the virus, and a vital source of information and trust in vaccines to the [...] Read more.
Introduction: New York City is one of the areas most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Healthcare workers are among those at high risk of contracting the virus, and a vital source of information and trust in vaccines to the community. Methods: This study was conducted about attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers at a public hospital in New York City during the beginning of COVID-19 vaccination. 428 hospital employees responded. Results: Several factors were significantly associated with vaccine attitudes, including demographics such as gender (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.005), race (p < 0.001) and home location (p < 0.001), role within the hospital (p < 0.001), knowledge about the virus (p < 0.001) and confidence in and expectations about personal protective equipment and behaviors (p < 0.001). Structural equation modeling revealed that the most predictive factors were prior vaccine attitudes and concern with the speed of testing and approval of the vaccines (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis reinforced these, while also identifying perceived personal risk as significant (p = 0.033). Conclusions: Several modifiable factors that reflect confidence in science, scientific knowledge, personal risk perception, experience and medical authority are correlated with vaccine attitudes, indicating that a holistic educational approach to improve trust in science is likely to be effective in long-term reduction in vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
A Comparison of the Level of Acceptance and Hesitancy towards the Influenza Vaccine and the Forthcoming COVID-19 Vaccine in the Medical Community
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9050475 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Despite research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specifically targeting SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating most of the global population. Public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate Polish [...] Read more.
Despite research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specifically targeting SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating most of the global population. Public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate Polish healthcare workers’ (HCWs) attitudes towards the SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccinations. In-person and online surveys of HCWs: doctors, nurses, medical students, and other allied health professionals (n = 419) were conducted between 14 September 2020 and 5 November 2020. In our study, 68.7% of respondents would like to be vaccinated against COVID-19. The safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccinations would persuade 86.3% of hesitant and those who would refuse to be vaccinated. 3.1% of all respondents claimed that no argument would convince them to get vaccinated. 61.6% of respondents declared a willingness to receive an influenza vaccination, of which 83.3% were also inclined to receive COVID-19 vaccinations. Although most respondents—62.5% (262/419) indicated they trusted in the influenza vaccine more, more respondents intended to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in the 2020/2021 season. The study is limited by its nonrandom sample of HCWs but provides a preliminary description of attitudes towards SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
The Intention to Receive the COVID-19 Vaccine in China: Insights from Protection Motivation Theory
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 445; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9050445 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
(1) Background: More coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are gradually being developed and marketed. Improving the vaccination intention will be the key to increasing the vaccination rate in the future; (2) Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data on COVID-19 vaccination [...] Read more.
(1) Background: More coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are gradually being developed and marketed. Improving the vaccination intention will be the key to increasing the vaccination rate in the future; (2) Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data on COVID-19 vaccination intentions, protection motivation and control variables. Pearson Chi-square test and multivariate ordered logistic regression models were specified to analyze the determinants of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine; (3) Results: Although the vaccine was free, 17.75% of the 2377 respondents did not want, or were hesitant, to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Respondents’ cognition of vaccine safety, external reward and response efficacy were positively related to COVID-19 vaccination intention, while age, income and response cost were negatively related to the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Professionals and people without medical insurance had the lowest intention to vaccinate; (4) Conclusions: The older aged, people without health insurance, those with higher incomes and professionals should be treated as the key intervention targets. Strengthening publicity and education about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, training vaccinated people and community leaders as propagandists for the vaccine, and improving the accessibility to the COVID-19 vaccine are recommended to improve COVID-19 vaccination intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination among Front-Line Health Care Workers: A Nationwide Survey of Emergency Medical Services Personnel from Germany
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9050424 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel as front-line health care workers (HCW) in Germany. Several studies have shown low willingness for vaccination (e.g., seasonal influenza) among HCWs and EMS personnel. [...] Read more.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the COVID-19 vaccination acceptance of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel as front-line health care workers (HCW) in Germany. Several studies have shown low willingness for vaccination (e.g., seasonal influenza) among HCWs and EMS personnel. Methods: We created a web-based survey. The questions were closed and standardized. Demographic data were collected (age, sex, federal state, profession). Experience with own COVID-19 infection, or infection in personal environment (family, friends) as well as willingness to vaccinate was queried. Results: The sample includes n = 1296 participants. A willingness to be vaccinated exists in 57%, 27.6% participants were undecided. Our results show a higher propensity to vaccinate among the following groups: male gender, higher medical education level, older age, own burden caused by the pandemic (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the low overall acceptance of vaccination by HCWs, we recommend that the groups with vaccination hesitancy, in particular, be recruited for vaccination through interventions such as continuing education and awareness campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
Article
Motivation to Have COVID-19 Vaccination Explained Using an Extended Protection Motivation Theory among University Students in China: The Role of Information Sources
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040380 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3754
Abstract
Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among [...] Read more.
Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among university students in China. Methods: The sample comprised 3145 students from 43 universities in China who completed an online survey including PMT constructs as well as constructs added to PMT. The PMT constructs comprised motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal. The extended PMT constructs comprised knowledge about mechanisms and information sources of COVID-19 vaccination. Results: Perceived severity of COVID-19 was positively associated with motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination. Receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from medical personnel was associated with greater self-efficacy, response efficacy, and knowledge, whereas receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from coworkers/colleagues was associated with less response efficacy and knowledge. Receiving online information concerning COVID-19 vaccination was associated with greater response cost of vaccination efficacy and less knowledge. Conclusions: This study supported the prediction of perceived severity in the PMT for motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. Vaccination information sources have different effects on students’ coping appraisal of COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Article
Willingness to Pay for a Hypothetical COVID-19 Vaccine in the United States: A Contingent Valuation Approach
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9040318 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Our objective was to estimate the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a COVID-19 vaccine and evaluate its predictors in the United States. A double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation with open-ended question technique was implemented based on the responses to a national survey [...] Read more.
Our objective was to estimate the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a COVID-19 vaccine and evaluate its predictors in the United States. A double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation with open-ended question technique was implemented based on the responses to a national survey administered during the first week of November 2020. The final sample size was 1285. The results showed that individual WTP values increased with income, whether a household member had any pre-existing condition, and perceived threat of the virus. The vaccine efficacy rate and duration of protection were found to be important factors for the respondents. The mean WTP for a vaccine with a 95 percent efficacy rate and 3-year protection (US$318.76) was approximately 35 percent greater than the vaccine with a 50 percent efficacy rate and 1-year protection (US$236.85). The initial aggregate direct benefit of the current vaccination program was estimated to be between 20 and 35.6 billion US dollars depending on the vaccine protection duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Targeting COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Minority Populations in the US: Implications for Herd Immunity
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9050489 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
There has been a continuous underrepresentation of minorities in healthcare research and vaccine trials, along with long-standing systemic racism and discrimination that have been fueling the distrust of the healthcare system among these communities for decades. The history and legacy of racial injustices [...] Read more.
There has been a continuous underrepresentation of minorities in healthcare research and vaccine trials, along with long-standing systemic racism and discrimination that have been fueling the distrust of the healthcare system among these communities for decades. The history and legacy of racial injustices and negative experiences within a culturally insensitive healthcare system have greatly contributed to vaccine hesitancy among ethnic minorities. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy will impact vaccine uptake in the US, subsequently hindering the establishment of herd immunity (75–85% of the population vaccinated) to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. Information targeting underserved racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a culturally competent manner has been lacking. This information is crucial for educating these communities about COVID-19 vaccines and their distribution as well as dispelling misinformation regarding vaccine trials, safety, and efficacy. This lack of education has greatly contributed to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and will increase disparities in vaccine uptake. Moreover, timely vaccinations are also essential to curtailing virus transmission and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that may evade the immune response produced by the three existing COVID-19 vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Systematic Review
A Scoping Review to Find Out Worldwide COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Underlying Determinants
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vaccines9111243 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Background: The current crisis created by the coronavirus pandemic is impacting all facets of life. Coronavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent coronavirus infection and fight the pandemic. Since vaccines might be the only way to prevent and stop the spread of coronavirus. [...] Read more.
Background: The current crisis created by the coronavirus pandemic is impacting all facets of life. Coronavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent coronavirus infection and fight the pandemic. Since vaccines might be the only way to prevent and stop the spread of coronavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO) has already approved several vaccines, and many countries have started vaccinating people. Misperceptions about vaccines persist despite the evidence of vaccine safety and efficacy. Objectives: To explore the scientific literature and find the determinants for worldwide COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy as reported in the literature. Methods: PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines were followed to conduct a scoping review of literature on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and willingness to vaccinate. Several databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar) were searched to find relevant articles. Intervention- (i.e., COVID-19 vaccine) and outcome- (i.e., hesitancy) related terms were used to search in these databases. The search was conducted on 22 February 2021. Both forward and backward reference lists were checked to find further studies. Three reviewers worked independently to select articles and extract data from selected literature. Studies that used a quantitative survey to measure COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and acceptance were included in this review. The extracted data were synthesized following the narrative approach and results were represented graphically with appropriate figures and tables. Results: 82 studies were included in this scoping review of 882 identified from our search. Sometimes, several studies had been performed in the same country, and it was observed that vaccine hesitancy was high earlier and decreased over time with the hope of vaccine efficacy. People in different countries had varying percentages of vaccine uptake (28–86.1%), vaccine hesitancy (10–57.8%), vaccine refusal (0–24%). The most common determinants affecting vaccination intention include vaccine efficacy, vaccine side effects, mistrust in healthcare, religious beliefs, and trust in information sources. Additionally, vaccination intentions are influenced by demographic factors such as age, gender, education, and region. Conclusions: The underlying factors of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific, varying across time and socio-demographic variables. Vaccine hesitancy can also be influenced by other factors such as health inequalities, socioeconomic disadvantages, systemic racism, and level of exposure to misinformation online, with some factors being more dominant in certain countries than others. Therefore, strategies tailored to cultures and socio-psychological factors need to be developed to reduce vaccine hesitancy and aid informed decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
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