Special Issue "Archaeal Virology"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Susanne Erdmann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Max Planck Institut for Marine Microbiology, Bre­men, Germany
Interests: archaeal viruses; membrane vesicles; virus–host interactions, virus–virus interactions; viromics; halophiles; extremophiles; CRISPR; virus evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With new members being discovered very frequently in a variety of environments over the past few years, the domain Archaea is rapidly growing. These recent advances have drawn the attention of the scientific community and emphasize the importance of Archaea in all, not just extreme, environments. Viruses are one of the most important factors influencing archaeal communities. The detailed study of viruses infecting Archaea was, until recently, with a few exceptions, limited to viruses infecting extremophilic members of the Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea. With our increasing knowledge of the great diversity, distribution, and significance of Archaea and new methods being applicable in archaeal model organisms, we also expect an increasing number of studies on ‘Archaeal Virology’.

In this Special Issue of Viruses, we aim for research papers that contribute to an improved understanding of archaeal virus–host interactions. We welcome, amongst others, studies that describe the isolation and characterization of new viruses infecting any archaeal species, studies on model archaeal virus–host systems, studies on virus defence mechanisms in Archaea, studies on the characterization of viral proteins, as well as metagenomics studies investigating archaeal viruses in the environment.

Dr. Susanne Erdmann
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • archaea
  • archaeal viruses
  • extremophiles
  • virus evolution
  • virus characterization
  • viral proteins
  • metagenomics
  • viromics
  • CRISPR
  • virus defence mechanisms
  • virus diversity

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Halovirus HF2 Intergenic Repeat Sequences Carry Promoters
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13122388 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Halovirus HF2 was the first member of the Haloferacalesvirus genus to have its genome fully sequenced, which revealed two classes of intergenic repeat (IR) sequences: class I repeats of 58 bp in length, and class II repeats of 29 bp in length. Both [...] Read more.
Halovirus HF2 was the first member of the Haloferacalesvirus genus to have its genome fully sequenced, which revealed two classes of intergenic repeat (IR) sequences: class I repeats of 58 bp in length, and class II repeats of 29 bp in length. Both classes of repeat contain AT-rich motifs that were conjectured to represent promoters. In the present study, nine IRs were cloned upstream of the bgaH reporter gene, and all displayed promoter activity, providing experimental evidence for the previous conjecture. Comparative genomics showed that IR sequences and their relative genomic positions were strongly conserved among other members of the same virus genus. The transcription of HF2 was also examined by the reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) method, which demonstrated very long transcripts were produced that together covered most of the genome, and from both strands. The presence of long counter transcripts suggests a regulatory role or possibly unrecognized coding potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeal Virology)
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Article
Characterization of Blf4, an Archaeal Lytic Virus Targeting a Member of the Methanomicrobiales
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1934; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13101934 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Today, the number of known viruses infecting methanogenic archaea is limited. Here, we report on a novel lytic virus, designated Blf4, and its host strain Methanoculleus bourgensis E02.3, a methanogenic archaeon belonging to the Methanomicrobiales, both isolated from a commercial biogas plant in [...] Read more.
Today, the number of known viruses infecting methanogenic archaea is limited. Here, we report on a novel lytic virus, designated Blf4, and its host strain Methanoculleus bourgensis E02.3, a methanogenic archaeon belonging to the Methanomicrobiales, both isolated from a commercial biogas plant in Germany. The virus consists of an icosahedral head 60 nm in diameter and a long non-contractile tail of 125 nm in length, which is consistent with the new isolate belonging to the Siphoviridae family. Electron microscopy revealed that Blf4 attaches to the vegetative cells of M. bourgensis E02.3 as well as to cellular appendages. Apart from M. bourgensis E02.3, none of the tested Methanoculleus strains were lysed by Blf4, indicating a narrow host range. The complete 37 kb dsDNA genome of Blf4 contains 63 open reading frames (ORFs), all organized in the same transcriptional direction. For most of the ORFs, potential functions were predicted. In addition, the genome of the host M. bourgensis E02.3 was sequenced and assembled, resulting in a 2.6 Mbp draft genome consisting of nine contigs. All genes required for a hydrogenotrophic lifestyle were predicted. A CRISPR/Cas system (type I-U) was identified with six spacers directed against Blf4, indicating that this defense system might not be very efficient in fending off invading Blf4 virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeal Virology)
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