Special Issue "Antibodies and B Cell Memory in Viral Immunity"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jonathan Wilson Yewdell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cellular Biology Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Bethesda, United States
Interests: generation of MHC class I peptide ligands from defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and other endogenous antigens; cell biology of specialized and non-canonical protein translation; defining mechanisms of influenza A virus evolution and antigenic variation in viral glycoproteins; understanding immunodominance in B-cell and antibody responses to influenza A virus
Dr. Davide Angeletti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institutionen för biomedicin, Göteborgs universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden
Interests: antibody; B cell; immunodominance; influenza; viral immunity; immune memory; humoral immunity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to present focused reviews on recent advances in understanding:

  • The basic immunobiology responsible for primary and memory B cell and antibody responses to acute viral infections;
    • Contributions of various immune cell types in classical germinal center response and extrafollicular response;
  • The diversity and immunodominance of antiviral antibody responses;
  • How antibodies exert antiviral activity in vivo;
    • Direct effects and contributions of Fc expressing innate immune cells;
  • How antibody selection contributes to viral evolution;
  • Viral interference with B cell immunity;
  • Computational modeling of Ab responses.

Dr. Jonathan Wilson Yewdell
Dr. Davide Angeletti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibodies
  • antibody immunodominance
  • B cells
  • memory B cells
  • follicular dendritic cells
  • follicular T helper cells
  • germinal center
  • humoral immunity
  • influenza virus
  • SARS-CoV2
  • viral evolution

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Peripheral Blood Immune Profiling of Convalescent Plasma Donors Reveals Alterations in Specific Immune Subpopulations Even at 2 Months Post SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010026 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Immune profiling of patients with COVID-19 has shown that SARS-CoV-2 causes severe lymphocyte deficiencies (e.g., lymphopenia, decreased numbers, and exhaustion of T cells) and increased levels of pro-inflammatory monocytes. Peripheral blood (PB) samples from convalescent plasma (CP) donors, COVID-19 patients, and control subjects [...] Read more.
Immune profiling of patients with COVID-19 has shown that SARS-CoV-2 causes severe lymphocyte deficiencies (e.g., lymphopenia, decreased numbers, and exhaustion of T cells) and increased levels of pro-inflammatory monocytes. Peripheral blood (PB) samples from convalescent plasma (CP) donors, COVID-19 patients, and control subjects were analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry, allowing the identification of a wide panel of immune cells, comprising lymphocytes (T, B, natural killer (NK) and NKT cells), monocytes, granulocytes, and their subsets. Compared to active COVID-19 patients, our results revealed that the immune profile of recovered donors was restored for most subpopulations. Nevertheless, even 2 months after recovery, CP donors still had reduced levels of CD4+ T and B cells, as well as granulocytes. CP donors with non-detectable levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in their serum were characterized by higher Th9 and Th17 cells, which were possibly expanded at the expense of Th2 humoral immunity. The most noticeable alterations were identified in previously hospitalized CP donors, who presented the lowest levels of CD8+ regulatory T cells, the highest levels of CD56+CD16 NKT cells, and a promotion of a Th17-type phenotype, which might be associated with a prolonged pro-inflammatory response. A longer follow-up of CP donors will eventually reveal the time needed for full recovery of their immune system competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies and B Cell Memory in Viral Immunity)
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Review

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Review
Understanding Antibody Responses in Early Life: Baby Steps towards Developing an Effective Influenza Vaccine
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13071392 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
The immune system of young infants is both quantitatively and qualitatively distinct from that of adults, with diminished responsiveness leaving these individuals vulnerable to infection. Because of this, young infants suffer increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory pathogens such as influenza viruses. The [...] Read more.
The immune system of young infants is both quantitatively and qualitatively distinct from that of adults, with diminished responsiveness leaving these individuals vulnerable to infection. Because of this, young infants suffer increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory pathogens such as influenza viruses. The impaired generation of robust and persistent antibody responses in these individuals makes overcoming this increased vulnerability through vaccination challenging. Because of this, an effective vaccine against influenza viruses in infants under 6 months is not available. Furthermore, vaccination against influenza viruses is challenging even in adults due to the high antigenic variability across viral strains, allowing immune evasion even after induction of robust immune responses. This has led to substantial interest in understanding how specific antibody responses are formed to variable and conserved components of influenza viruses, as immune responses tend to strongly favor recognition of variable epitopes. Elicitation of broadly protective antibody in young infants, therefore, requires that both the unique characteristics of young infant immunity as well as the antibody immunodominance present among epitopes be effectively addressed. Here, we review our current understanding of the antibody response in newborns and young infants and discuss recent developments in vaccination strategies that can modulate both magnitude and epitope specificity of IAV-specific antibody. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies and B Cell Memory in Viral Immunity)
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Review
Requirement of Fc-Fc Gamma Receptor Interaction for Antibody-Based Protection against Emerging Virus Infections
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13061037 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Identification of therapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viruses remains a continued priority that is only reinforced by the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Advances in monoclonal antibody (mAb) isolation, characterization, and production make it a viable option for rapid treatment development. While mAbs are traditionally [...] Read more.
Identification of therapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viruses remains a continued priority that is only reinforced by the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Advances in monoclonal antibody (mAb) isolation, characterization, and production make it a viable option for rapid treatment development. While mAbs are traditionally screened and selected based on potency of neutralization in vitro, it is clear that additional factors contribute to the in vivo efficacy of a mAb beyond viral neutralization. These factors include interactions with Fc receptors (FcRs) and complement that can enhance neutralization, clearance of infected cells, opsonization of virions, and modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response. In this review, we discuss recent studies, primarily using mouse models, that identified a role for Fc-FcγR interactions for optimal antibody-based protection against emerging and re-emerging virus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies and B Cell Memory in Viral Immunity)
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Review
B-Cell Memory Responses to Variant Viral Antigens
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13040565 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 953
Abstract
A central feature of vertebrate immune systems is the ability to form antigen-specific immune memory in response to microbial challenge and so provide protection against future infection. In conflict with this process is the ability that many viruses have to mutate their antigens [...] Read more.
A central feature of vertebrate immune systems is the ability to form antigen-specific immune memory in response to microbial challenge and so provide protection against future infection. In conflict with this process is the ability that many viruses have to mutate their antigens to escape infection- or vaccine-induced antibody memory responses. Mutable viruses such as dengue virus, influenza virus and of course coronavirus have a major global health impact, exacerbated by this ability to evade immune responses through mutation. There have been several outstanding recent studies on B-cell memory that also shed light on the potential and limitations of antibody memory to protect against viral antigen variation, and so promise to inform new strategies for vaccine design. For the purposes of this review, the current understanding of the different memory B-cell (MBC) populations, and their potential to recognize mutant antigens, will be described prior to some examples from antibody responses against the highly mutable RNA based flaviviruses, influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies and B Cell Memory in Viral Immunity)
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Review
Structural Analysis of Neutralizing Epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike to Guide Therapy and Vaccine Design Strategies
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010134 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
Coronavirus research has gained tremendous attention because of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we highlight recent studies that provide atomic-resolution structural details important for the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) [...] Read more.
Coronavirus research has gained tremendous attention because of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we highlight recent studies that provide atomic-resolution structural details important for the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that can be used therapeutically and prophylactically and for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Structural studies with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs have revealed a diverse set of binding modes on the spike’s receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain and highlight alternative targets on the spike. We consider this structural work together with mAb effects in vivo to suggest correlations between structure and clinical applications. We also place mAbs against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 spike to suggest features that may be desirable to design mAbs or vaccines capable of conferring broad protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibodies and B Cell Memory in Viral Immunity)
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