Special Issue "Cross-Reactivity in Virus Infection"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nicole Mifsud
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
Interests: T cell immunology; TCR; HLA; MHC; viral immunology; cross-reactivity; transplantation; allorecognition; antigen processing and presentation
Prof. Dr. Stephanie Gras
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Viral and Structural Immunology lab, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
Interests: T cell; TCR; HLA; virus; peptide recognition and presentation; structural immunology; T cell activation and signalling; viral mutation and viral escape
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kuan Rong Chan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
Interests: innate immunity; monocytes; host response; immunometabolism; systems biology; antibody; viral pathogenesis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The adaptive immune response is controlled by highly specialised cells that have evolved to combat pathogenic assault. Two key players are B cells and T cells, with each displaying exquisite features of antigen specificity, clonality, memory formation and function. Here, B cells are primarily involved in humoral-mediated immunity via antibody production, whilst T cells are the cornerstone of cell-mediated immunity, targeting host cells displaying non-self-immunogenic epitopes. In the normal setting, this elegant defence system identifies and eliminates infected cells by invading or reactivating viruses and bacteria, as well as neoplastic cancer-forming cells. However, during events of immune dysregulation or breakdown of immune tolerance, self-reactive B cells and T cells can trigger the onset of a destructive immunopathology associated with autoimmunity and allergy.

The dichotomy of cellular immune protection versus destruction can also be augmented by a phenomena known as cross-reactivity. Both B cells and T cells intrinsically display cross-reactivity capabilities, necessitated by the limited diversity of unique human B cell receptor (BCR) and T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes to maintain immunity against the tremendous diversity of human pathogens. This mechanism is central for cross-strain protection and is often a beneficial property of these cells, affording protection to mutant viral strains, preventing immune escape and aiding vaccine strategies. However, cross-reactivity can also drive detrimental effects through these cells recognising antigenic epitopes presented either by self or foreign molecules, thereby inducing or amplifying disease pathogenesis and immunopathology.

In this Special Issue, we aim to provide new insights into the immune-associated drivers and consequences of cross-reactivity in disease settings. We are accepting Original Research articles, Case Reports and Reviews. Topics of particular interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Cross-reactivity as a mechanism of immune tolerance breakdown/dysfunction;
  • Implications for disease pathogenesis and immunopathology triggered by cross-reactivity, including cell types and mediators;
  • Novel animal/human models of cross-reactivity;
  • Harnessing protective cross-reactivity for rational drug design, immunotherapeutics or vaccine development;
  • Advancing the understanding of B- and T-cell correlates of protection for vaccine development;
  • Application of novel technologies (e.g., single-cell analysis) for the identification and characterisation of cross-reactivity.

Dr. Nicole Mifsud
Prof. Dr. Stephanie Gras
Dr. Kuan Rong Chan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • antibodies
  • antigens
  • B cells
  • cross-reactivity
  • HLA
  • MHC
  • pathology
  • T cells
  • virus
  • vaccines

Published Papers

There is no accepted submissions to this special issue at this moment.
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