Special Issue "Pathogenesis of Swine Fever Virus"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alejandro Núñez
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Pathology and Animal Sciences, Animal and Plant Healt Agency, APHA-Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addletone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
Interests: veterinary pathology; influenza; classical swine fever; African swine fever; bovine tuberculosis
Dr. David T. Williams
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIRO Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP, formerly AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong, Victoria, 3220, Australia
Interests: African swine fever, viral diagnostics, host response, pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Pork production worldwide remains threatened by two unrelated swine viruses, African and classical swine fever viruses, that share similar disease presentations, pathology in pigs, and devestating impacts . Classical swine fever (CSF) remains endemic in large areas of South America, the Caribbean and Asia, and although effective live attenuated vaccines are available, developing suitable DIVA vaccines remain a significant challenge. African swine fever (ASF) continues to circulate in Africa where it constitutes one of the main limiting factors for pig industry development. In addition, since the disease re-emerged in Eastern Europe in 2007, it has spread over large distances, aided by infected wild boar populations, throughout Europe, China and Southeast Asian countries. The most recent spread of ASF into India, Indonesia, Timor Leste and Papua New Guinea (PNG) threatens traditional pig rearing practices in rural areas where pigs may represent household currency animals and have cultural importance. ASF now threatens Australia and Pacific islands neighbouring PNG. Effective vaccines are not yet available and the nature of the mechanisms leading to protection are yet to be fully unravelled. In both diseases further understanding of the mechanism of infection and the cellular and systemic responses of the host will contribute to the development of robust control strategies.

We are very pleased to introduce this special issue in which we aim to gain new insights on the early events, mechanisms of disease and host-pathogen interactions of these two viruses in their hosts, vectors and using in vitro models of infection.

Dr. Alejandro Núñez
Dr. David T. Williams
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • African swine fever
  • classical swine fever
  • pathogenesis
  • pathology
  • immune response
  • diagnosis
  • detection methods
  • host-pathogen interactions

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
A Deeper Insight into Evolutionary Patterns and Phylogenetic History of ASFV Epidemics in Sardinia (Italy) through Extensive Genomic Sequencing
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1994; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13101994 - 04 Oct 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of the devastating disease African swine fever (ASF), for which there is currently no licensed vaccine or treatment available. ASF is defined as one of the most serious animal diseases identified to date, due [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of the devastating disease African swine fever (ASF), for which there is currently no licensed vaccine or treatment available. ASF is defined as one of the most serious animal diseases identified to date, due to its global spread in regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, causing massive economic losses. On the Italian island of Sardinia, the disease has been endemic since 1978, although the last control measures put in place achieved a significant reduction in ASF, and the virus has been absent from circulation since April 2019. Like many large DNA viruses, ASFV mutates at a relatively slow rate. However, the limited availability of whole-genome sequences from spatial-localized outbreaks makes it difficult to explore the small-scale genetic structure of these ASFV outbreaks. It is also unclear if the genetic variability within outbreaks can be captured in a handful of sequences, or if larger sequencing efforts can improve phylogenetic reconstruction and evolutionary or epidemiological inference. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic patterns of ASFV outbreaks between 1978 and 2018 in Sardinia, in order to characterize the epidemiological dynamics of the viral strains circulating in this Mediterranean island. To reach this goal, 58 new whole genomes of ASFV isolates were obtained, which represents the largest ASFV whole-genome sequencing effort to date. We provided a complete description of the genomic diversity of ASFV in terms of nucleotide mutations and small and large indels among the isolates collected during the outbreaks. The new sequences capture more than twice the genomic and phylogenetic diversity of all the previously published Sardinian sequences. The extra genomic diversity increases the resolution of the phylogenetic reconstruction, enabling us to dissect, for the first time, the genetic substructure of the outbreak. We found multiple ASFV subclusters within the phylogeny of the Sardinian epidemic, some of which coexisted in space and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Swine Fever Virus)
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Article
Blood Counts, Biochemical Parameters, Inflammatory, and Immune Responses in Pigs Infected Experimentally with the African Swine Fever Virus Isolate Pol18_28298_O111
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 521; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13030521 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
This study aimed to indicate the influence of infection caused by genotype II African swine fever virus (ASFV)–isolate Pol18_28298_O111, currently circulating in Poland, on blood counts, biochemical parameters, as well as inflammatory and immune responses. Blood and sera collected from 21 domestic pigs [...] Read more.
This study aimed to indicate the influence of infection caused by genotype II African swine fever virus (ASFV)–isolate Pol18_28298_O111, currently circulating in Poland, on blood counts, biochemical parameters, as well as inflammatory and immune responses. Blood and sera collected from 21 domestic pigs infected intranasally with different doses of virulent ASFV were analysed. The infection led to variable changes in blood counts depending on the stage of the disease with a tendency towards leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and microscopic lesions in organs confirmed the development of the inflammation process, which also resulted in an increased level of biochemical markers such as: Aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine, and urea. Antibodies could be detected from 9 to 18 days post infection (dpi). Two survivors presented the highest titer of antibodies (>5 log10/mL) with a simultaneous increase in the lymphocyte T (CD3+) percentage–revealed by flow cytometry. Results confirmed a progressive inflammatory process occurring during the ASFV infection, which may lead to multiple organs failure and death of the majority of affected animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Swine Fever Virus)
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