Special Issue "Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Douglas Gladue
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Greenport, NY 11944, USA
Interests: ASFV, CSFV, PRRSV, PEDV, PDCoV, SwIV, FMDV, Swine viruses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Fernando Rodriguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: Vaccines; Immunology; Virology; African swine fever virus; emergent and reemergent viruses
Dr. Manuel Borca
E-Mail
Guest Editor
USDA ARS Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, USA
Interests: All aspects of ASFV research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the success of the Special Issue “Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses,” we are editing a 2021 edition of this very popular topic for new submissions.

Likewise, the main topic of this Special Issue is agriculturally important swine viruses that have an effect on swine production or overall swine health. This includes viruses that have recently caused outbreaks, for example, the African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Europe and Asia or the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in Japan, which are causing devastating losses to the swine industry. Endemic swine viruses would include porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), swine influenza virus (SwIV), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Senecavirus A (SVA), Swine Influenza, Porcine Circovirus (PCV), Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV), Porcine Astrovirus (PAstV) or any other endemic or emerging porcine viruses.

Dr. Douglas Gladue
Dr. Fernando Rodriguez
Dr. Manuel Borca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • African swine fever virus (ASFV)
  • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)
  • Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)
  • Swine influenza virus (SwIV)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)
  • Senecavirus A (SVA)
  • Swine Influenza, Porcine Circovirus (PCV)
  • Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV)
  • Porcine Astrovirus (PAstV)

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Article
WGS- versus ORF5-Based Typing of PRRSV: A Belgian Case Study
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13122419 (registering DOI) - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most widespread and economically devastating diseases in the swine industry. Typing circulating PRRSV strains by means of sequencing is crucial for developing adequate control strategies. Most genetic studies [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most widespread and economically devastating diseases in the swine industry. Typing circulating PRRSV strains by means of sequencing is crucial for developing adequate control strategies. Most genetic studies only target the highly variable open reading frame (ORF) 5, for which an extensive database is available. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on a collection of 124 PRRSV-1 positive serum samples that were collected over a 5-year period (2015–2019) in Belgium. Our results show that (nearly) complete PRRSV genomes can be obtained directly from serum samples with a high success rate. Analysis of the coding regions confirmed the exceptionally high genetic diversity, even among Belgian PRRSV-1 strains. To gain more insight into the added value of WGS, we performed phylogenetic cluster analyses on separate ORF datasets as well as on a single, concatenated dataset (CDS) containing all ORFs. A comparison between the CDS and ORF clustering schemes revealed numerous discrepancies. To explain these differences, we performed a large-scale recombination analysis, which allowed us to identify a large number of potential recombination events that were scattered across the genome. As PRRSV does not contain typical recombination hot-spots, typing PRRSV strains based on a single ORF is not recommended. Although the typing accuracy can be improved by including multiple regions, our results show that the full genetic diversity among PRRSV strains can only be captured by analysing (nearly) complete genomes. Finally, we also identified several vaccine-derived recombinant strains, which once more raises the question of the safety of these vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Major Vault Protein Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection in CRL2843CD163 Cell Lines and Primary Porcine Alveolar Macrophages
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13112267 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a significant viral infectious disease that commonly occurs among farmed pigs, leads to considerable economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Major vault protein (MVP) is a host factor that induces type Ⅰ interferon (IFN) production. In [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a significant viral infectious disease that commonly occurs among farmed pigs, leads to considerable economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Major vault protein (MVP) is a host factor that induces type Ⅰ interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MVP on PRRSV infection in CRL2843CD163 cell lines and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Our results showed that MVP expression was downregulated by PRRSV infection. Adenoviral overexpression of MVP inhibited PRRSV replication, whereas the siRNA knockdown of MVP promoted PRRSV replication. In addition, MVP knockdown has an adverse effect on the inhibitive role of MVP overexpression on PRRSV replication. Moreover, MVP could induce the expression of type Ⅰ IFNs and IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in PRRSV-infected PAMs. Based on these results, MVP may be a potential molecular target of drugs for the effective prevention and treatment of PRRSV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Inactivated Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Vaccine with Nano Silicon on the Phenotype and Function of Porcine Dendritic Cells
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13112158 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
A transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causing acute swine enteric disease especially in suckling piglets. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are safe vaccine adjuvant, which could enhance immune responses. Our previous research confirmed that nano silicon had immune-enhancing effects with [...] Read more.
A transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causing acute swine enteric disease especially in suckling piglets. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are safe vaccine adjuvant, which could enhance immune responses. Our previous research confirmed that nano silicon had immune-enhancing effects with inactivated TGEV vaccine. In this study, we further clarified the immune-enhancing mechanism of the inactivated TGEV vaccine with MSNs on porcine dendritic cells (DCs). Our results indicated that the inactivated TGEV vaccine with MSNs strongly enhanced the activation of the DCs. Expressions of TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9, and TLR10, cytokines IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α, cytokine receptor CCR-7 of immature DCs were characterized and showed themselves to be significantly higher in the inactivated TGEV vaccine with the MSN group. In summary, the inactivated TGEV vaccine with MSNs has effects on the phenotype and function of porcine DCs, which helps to better understand the immune-enhancing mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
African Swine Fever Re-Emerging in Estonia: The Role of Seropositive Wild Boar from an Epidemiological Perspective
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13112121 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) emerged in Estonia in 2014. From February 2019 to August 2020, no pigs or wild boar tested positive for ASF virus (ASFV), only ASFV-specific antibodies could be detected in shot wild boar. However, ASF recently re-emerged in wild boar. [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) emerged in Estonia in 2014. From February 2019 to August 2020, no pigs or wild boar tested positive for ASF virus (ASFV), only ASFV-specific antibodies could be detected in shot wild boar. However, ASF recently re-emerged in wild boar. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the current situation: (i) ASFV may have been present throughout, but at a prevalence below the detection limit; (ii) seropositive wild boar may have remained infectious (i.e., virus-carriers) and kept the epidemic going; or (iii) ASF was gone for 1.5 years, but was recently re-introduced. Using Estonian surveillance data, the sensitivity of the surveillance system and the confidence in freedom from ASF were estimated. Furthermore, the detection probability was determined and cluster analyses were performed to investigate the role of serological positive wild boar. The results suggest that the surveillance system was not able to detect virus circulation at a design prevalence below 1%. With respect to the confidence in freedom from ASF, the results indicate that circulating virus should have been detected over time, if the prevalence was ≥2%. However, the decreasing wild boar population density and ongoing surveillance activities made ASFV circulation at a low prevalence unlikely. Cluster analyses provided no evidence for a significant accumulation of serologically positive wild boar in temporal connection to the re-emergence of ASFV. Further targeted research, such as long-term experimental studies and molecular epidemiology, is necessary to improve our knowledge on the epidemiology of ASF and to control the disease more effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Swine Influenza Virus H1N1 Variants Generated in Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated, Challenged Pigs
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 2087; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13102087 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Influenza viruses represent a continuous threat to both animal and human health. The 2009 H1N1 A influenza pandemic highlighted the importance of a swine host in the adaptation of influenza viruses to humans. Nowadays, one of the most extended strategies used to control [...] Read more.
Influenza viruses represent a continuous threat to both animal and human health. The 2009 H1N1 A influenza pandemic highlighted the importance of a swine host in the adaptation of influenza viruses to humans. Nowadays, one of the most extended strategies used to control swine influenza viruses (SIVs) is the trivalent vaccine application, whose formulation contains the most frequently circulating SIV subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. These vaccines do not provide full protection against the virus, allowing its replication, evolution, and adaptation. To better understand the main mechanisms that shape viral evolution, here, the SIV intra-host diversity was analyzed in samples collected from both vaccinated and nonvaccinated animals challenged with the H1N1 influenza A virus. Twenty-eight whole SIV genomes were obtained by next-generation sequencing, and differences in nucleotide variants between groups were established. Substitutions were allocated along all influenza genetic segments, while the most relevant nonsynonymous substitutions were allocated in the NS1 protein on samples collected from vaccinated animals, suggesting that SIV is continuously evolving despite vaccine application. Moreover, new viral variants were found in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated pigs, showing relevant substitutions in the HA, NA, and NP proteins, which may increase viral fitness under field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Swinepox Virus Strains Isolated from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar in Germany Display Altered Coding Capacity in the Terminal Genome Region Encoding for Species-Specific Genes
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 2038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13102038 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Swinepox virus (SWPV) is a globally distributed swine pathogen that causes sporadic cases of an acute poxvirus infection in domesticated pigs, characterized by the development of a pathognomonic proliferative dermatitis and secondary ulcerations. More severe disease with higher levels of morbidity and mortality [...] Read more.
Swinepox virus (SWPV) is a globally distributed swine pathogen that causes sporadic cases of an acute poxvirus infection in domesticated pigs, characterized by the development of a pathognomonic proliferative dermatitis and secondary ulcerations. More severe disease with higher levels of morbidity and mortality is observed in congenitally SWPV-infected neonatal piglets. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origins of SWPV strains isolated from domestic pigs and wild boar. Analysis of whole genome sequences of SWPV showed that at least two different virus strains are currently circulating in Germany. These were more closely related to a previously characterized North American SWPV strain than to a more recent Indian SWPV strain and showed a variation in the SWPV-specific genome region. A single nucleotide deletion in the wild boar (wb) SWPV strain leads to the fusion of the SPV019 and SPV020 open reading frames (ORFs) and encodes a new hypothetical 113 aa protein (SPVwb020-019). In addition, the domestic pig (dp) SWPV genome contained a novel ORF downstream of SPVdp020, which encodes a new hypothetical 71aa protein (SPVdp020a). In summary, we show that SWPV strains with altered coding capacity in the SWPV specific genome region are circulating in domestic pig and wild boar populations in Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Development of a Dendrimeric Peptide-Based Approach for the Differentiation of Animals Vaccinated with FlagT4G against Classical Swine Fever from Infected Pigs
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1980; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13101980 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a viral disease of high epidemiological and economical significance that affects domestic and wild swine. Control of the disease in endemic countries is based on live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) that induce an early protective immune response against highly [...] Read more.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a viral disease of high epidemiological and economical significance that affects domestic and wild swine. Control of the disease in endemic countries is based on live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) that induce an early protective immune response against highly virulent CSFV strains. The main disadvantage of these currently available LAVs is the lack of serological techniques to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA concept). Here, we describe the development of the FlagDIVA test, a serological diagnostic tool allowing for the differentiation between animals vaccinated with the FlagT4G candidate and those infected with CSFV field strains. The FlagDIVA test is a direct ELISA based on a dendrimeric peptide construct displaying a conserved epitope of CSFV structural protein E2. Although FlagDIVA detected anti-CSFV anti-bodies in infected animals, it did not recognize the antibody response of FlagT4G-vaccinated animals. Therefore, the FlagDIVA test constitutes a valuable accessory DIVA tool in implementing vaccination with the FlagT4G candidate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Antigenic Characterization of ORF2 and ORF3 Proteins of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13071385 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 660
Abstract
To evaluate the antigenic properties of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Open Reading Frame 2 and 3 (ORF2 and ORF3) codified proteins, we expressed different portions of ORF2 and the entire ORF3 in E. coli, a truncated ORF2, was also expressed in baculovirus. [...] Read more.
To evaluate the antigenic properties of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Open Reading Frame 2 and 3 (ORF2 and ORF3) codified proteins, we expressed different portions of ORF2 and the entire ORF3 in E. coli, a truncated ORF2, was also expressed in baculovirus. A panel of 37 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was raised against ORF2 (1–660 amino acids) and MAbs were mapped and characterized using the ORF2 expressed portions. Selected HEV positive and negative swine sera were used to evaluate ORF2 and ORF3 antigens’ immunogenicity. The MAbs were clustered in six groups identifying six antigenic regions along the ORF2. Only MAbs binding to the sixth ORF2 antigenic region (394–608 aa) were found to compete with HEV positive sera and efficiently catch the recombinant antigen expressed in baculovirus. The ORF2 portion from 394–608 aa demonstrated to include most immunogenic epitopes with 85% of HEV positive swine sera reacting against the region from 461–544 aa. Only 5% of the selected HEV sera reacted against the ORF3 antigen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
African Swine Fever and Its Epidemiological Course in Lithuanian Wild Boar
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13071276 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Lithuania since 2014. It is mainly the wild boar population that is affected. Currently, little is known about the epidemiological course of ASF in Lithuania. In the present study, ASF surveillance data from 2016–2021 were [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Lithuania since 2014. It is mainly the wild boar population that is affected. Currently, little is known about the epidemiological course of ASF in Lithuania. In the present study, ASF surveillance data from 2016–2021 were analyzed. The numbers of samples taken from hunted wild boar and wild boar found dead per year and month were recorded and the prevalence was estimated for each study month and administrative unit. A Bayesian space–time model was used to calculate the temporal trend of the prevalence estimates. In addition, population data were analyzed on a yearly basis. Most samples were investigated in 2016 and 2017 and originated from hunted animals. Prevalence estimates of ASF virus-positive wild boar decreased from May 2019 onwards. Seroprevalence estimates showed a slight decrease at the same time, but they increased again at the end of the study period. A significant decrease in the population density was observed over time. The results of the study show that ASF is still present in the Lithuanian wild boar population. A joint interdisciplinary effort is needed to identify weaknesses in the control of ASF in Lithuania and to combat the disease more successfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Retrospective Characterization of the 2006–2007 Swine Vesicular Disease Epidemic in Northern Italy by Whole Genome Sequence Analysis
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13071186 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Advances in the epidemiological tracing of pathogen transmission have been largely driven by the increasing characterisation of whole-genome sequence data obtained at a finer resolution from infectious disease outbreaks. Dynamic models that integrate genomic and epidemiological data further enhance inference on the evolutionary [...] Read more.
Advances in the epidemiological tracing of pathogen transmission have been largely driven by the increasing characterisation of whole-genome sequence data obtained at a finer resolution from infectious disease outbreaks. Dynamic models that integrate genomic and epidemiological data further enhance inference on the evolutionary history and transmission dynamics of epidemic outbreaks by reconstructing the network of ‘who-infected-whom’. Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) was present in Italy from 1966 until 2015, and since the mid-1990s, it has mainly been circulating within Italy’s central-southern regions with sporadic incursions to the north of the country. However, a recrudescence of SVD in northern Italy was recorded between November 2006 and October 2007, leading to a large-scale epidemic that significantly affected the intensive pig industry of the Lombardy region. In this study, by using whole-genome sequence data in combination with epidemiological information on disease occurrences, we report a retrospective epidemiological investigation of the 2006–2007 SVD epidemic, providing new insights into the transmission dynamics and evolutionary mode of the two phases that characterised the epidemic event. Our analyses support evidence of undetected premises likely missed in the chain of observed infections, of which the role as the link between the two phases is reinforced by the tempo of SVD virus evolution. These silent transmissions, likely resulting from the gradual loss of a clear SVD clinical manifestation linked to sub-clinical infections, may pose a risk of failure in the early detection of new cases. This study emphasises the power of joint inference schemes based on genomic and epidemiological data integration to inform the transmission dynamics of disease epidemics, ultimately aimed at better disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
ASFV-G-∆I177L as an Effective Oral Nasal Vaccine against the Eurasia Strain of Africa Swine Fever
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 765; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13050765 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) is currently causing a pandemic affecting wild and domestic swine from Western Europe to Asia. No commercial vaccines are available to prevent African swine fever (ASF), resulting in overwhelming economic losses to the swine industry. We recently [...] Read more.
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) is currently causing a pandemic affecting wild and domestic swine from Western Europe to Asia. No commercial vaccines are available to prevent African swine fever (ASF), resulting in overwhelming economic losses to the swine industry. We recently developed a recombinant vaccine candidate, ASFVG-ΔI177L, by deleting the I177L gene from the genome of the highly virulent ASFV strain Georgia (ASFV-G). ASFV-G-ΔI177L has been proven safe and highly efficacious in challenge studies using parental ASFV-G. Here, we present data demonstrating that ASFV-G-ΔI177L can be administered by the oronasal (ON) route to achieve a similar efficacy to that of intramuscular (IM) administration. Animals receiving ON ASFV-G-ΔI177L were completely protected against virulent ASFV-G challenge. As previously described, similar results were obtained when ASFV-G-ΔI177L was given intramuscularly. Interestingly, viremias induced in animals inoculated oronasally were lower than those measured in IM-inoculated animals. ASFV-specific antibody responses, mediated by IgG1, IgG2 and IgM, do not differ in animals inoculated by the ON route from that had IM inoculations. Therefore, the ASFV-G-ΔI177L vaccine candidate can be administered oronasally, a critical attribute for potential vaccination of wild swine populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Molecular Detection and Characterization of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Porcine Aichivirus C Coinfection in México
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 738; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13050738 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Swine enteric viral infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the pork industry worldwide. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PEDV) is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in lactating pigs, and reports of PEDV coinfection with other enteric viruses highlight the importance [...] Read more.
Swine enteric viral infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the pork industry worldwide. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PEDV) is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in lactating pigs, and reports of PEDV coinfection with other enteric viruses highlight the importance of viral interactions for disease presentation and outcomes. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and sequence analyses from samples taken from piglets with acute diarrhea, we explored the possible interactions between PEDV and other less reported pathogens. PEDV coinfection with porcine kobuvirus (PKV) was detected in 36.4% (27/74) of samples. Full genomes from porcine coronavirus and kobuvirus were obtained, as was a partial porcine sapovirus genome (PSaV). The phylogenetic results show the clustering of these strains corresponding to the geographical relationship. To our knowledge, this is the first full genome and isolation report for porcine kobuvirus in México, as well as the first phylogenetic analysis for porcine sapovirus in the country. The NGS approach provides a better perspective of circulating viruses and other pathogens in affected production units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
Genotyping and Molecular Characterization of Classical Swine Fever Virus Isolated in China during 2016–2018
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13040664 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). For decades the disease has been controlled in China by a modified live vaccine (C-strain) of genotype 1. The emergent genotype 2 strains have become [...] Read more.
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). For decades the disease has been controlled in China by a modified live vaccine (C-strain) of genotype 1. The emergent genotype 2 strains have become predominant in China in the past years that are genetically distant from the vaccine strain. Here, we aimed to evaluate the current infectious status of CSF, and for this purpose 24 isolates of CSFV were identified from different areas of China during 2016–2018. Phylogenetic analysis of NS5B, E2 and full genome revealed that the new isolates were clustered into subgenotype 2.1d and 2.1b, while subgenotype 2.1d was predominant. Moreover, E2 and Erns displayed multiple variations in neutralizing epitope regions. Furthermore, the new isolates exhibited capacity to escape C-strain-derived antibody neutralization compared with the Shimen strain (genotype 1). Potential positive selection sites were identified in antigenic regions of E2 and Erns, which are related with antibody binding affinity. Recombination events were predicted in the new isolates with vaccine strains in the E2 gene region. In conclusion, the new isolates showed molecular variations and antigenic alterations, which provide evidence for the emergence of vaccine-escaping mutants and emphasize the need of updated strategies for CSF control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
In Vitro Antiviral Activities of Salinomycin on Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 580; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13040580 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. Owing to the lack of effective vaccines and specific therapeutic options for PEDV, it is pertinent to develop new and available antivirals. This study identified, for the [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. Owing to the lack of effective vaccines and specific therapeutic options for PEDV, it is pertinent to develop new and available antivirals. This study identified, for the first time, a salinomycin that actively inhibited PEDV replication in Vero cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, salinomycin significantly inhibited PEDV infection by suppressing the entry and post-entry of PEDV in Vero cells. It did not directly interact with or inactivate PEDV particles, but it significantly ameliorated the activation of Erk1/2, JNK and p38MAPK signaling pathways that are associated with PEDV infection. This implied that salinomycin inhibits PEDV replication by altering MAPK pathway activation. Notably, the PEDV induced increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS) was not decreased, indicating that salinomycin suppresses PEDV replication through a pathway that is an independent pathway of viral-induced ROS. Therefore, salinomycin is a potential drug that can be used for treating PEDV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Article
PEDV Infection Generates Conformation-Specific Antibodies That Can Be Effectively Detected by a Cell-Based ELISA
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020303 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that causes serious and highly contagious enteric disease in swine worldwide. In this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus (S-Bac) expressing full-length spike protein of the virulent epidemic genotype 2b (G2b) PEDV strain for serological [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that causes serious and highly contagious enteric disease in swine worldwide. In this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus (S-Bac) expressing full-length spike protein of the virulent epidemic genotype 2b (G2b) PEDV strain for serological studies of infected pigs. We found that most spike-specific antibodies produced upon PEDV infection in pigs are conformation-specific and they could be detected on S-Bac-infected insect cells by immunofluorescent assay, but they were insensitive to Western blot analysis, the typical method for antiserum analysis. These results indicated that spike conformation is crucial for serum recognition. Since it is difficult to purify trimeric spike membrane protein for conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we used S-Bac to generate a novel cell-based ELISA for convenient PEDV detection. We analyzed 100 pig serum samples, and our cell-based ELISA exhibited a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 97%, and almost perfect agreement [Cohen’s kappa coefficient value (κ) = 0.98] with immunocytochemical staining results. Our cell-based ELISA rapidly presented antigen for proper detection of conformation-specific antibodies, making PEDV detection more convenient, and it will be useful for detecting many viral diseases in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Review

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Review
Recent Progress on Epidemiology and Pathobiology of Porcine Circovirus 3
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1944; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13101944 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
The recently discovered porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) belongs to the Circovirus genus of the Circoviridae family together with the other three PCVs, PCV1, PCV2, and PCV4. As reported, PCV3 can infect pig, wild boar, and several other intermediate hosts, resulting in single or [...] Read more.
The recently discovered porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) belongs to the Circovirus genus of the Circoviridae family together with the other three PCVs, PCV1, PCV2, and PCV4. As reported, PCV3 can infect pig, wild boar, and several other intermediate hosts, resulting in single or multiple infections in the affected animal. The PCV3 infection can lead to respiratory diseases, digestive disorders, reproductive disorders, multisystemic inflammation, and immune responses. Up to now, PCV3 infection, as well as the disease caused by PCV3, has been reported in many swine farms worldwide with high positive rates, which indicates that the virus may be another important pathogen in the swine industry. Therefore, we reviewed the current progress on epidemiology and pathobiology of PCV3, which may provide the latest knowledge of the virus and PCV3-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
Review
African Swine Fever Virus Circulation between Tanzania and Neighboring Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020306 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
For over 100 years after the description of the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in Kenya, ASF virus (ASFV) cross-border spread in eastern and southern Africa has not been fully investigated. In this manuscript, we reviewed systematically the available literature on [...] Read more.
For over 100 years after the description of the first case of African swine fever (ASF) in Kenya, ASF virus (ASFV) cross-border spread in eastern and southern Africa has not been fully investigated. In this manuscript, we reviewed systematically the available literature on molecular epidemiology of ASF in Tanzania and its eight neighboring countries in order to establish the transmission dynamics of ASFV between these countries. Data were retrieved from World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and CrossRef databases, using the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and reviewed to document ASF outbreaks and ASFV genotypes distribution. Using phylogeographic approach applied to ASFV p72 sequence dataset, the evolutionary history and the dispersal pattern of the ASFV strains were assessed. From 2005 to 2019, a total of 1588 ASF outbreaks affecting 341,742 cases that led to 302,739 domestic pig deaths were reported. The case fatality rates (CFR) varied from 15.41% to 98.95% with an overall CFR of 88.58%. Fifteen different p72 ASFV genotypes were reported and the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for ASFV strains dated back to 1652.233 (1626.473, 1667.735) with an evolutionary rate of 4.805 × 10−5 (2.5857 × 10−5, 9.7789 × 10−5). Phylogeographic dispersal analysis revealed several transboundary spread events of ASFV strains between these countries. These results suggest persistent circulation of ASFV in these countries and advocate for more research to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of the virus and for a regional approach to mitigate the spread of ASFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Brief Report
Evaluation of the Function of the ASFV KP177R Gene, Encoding for Structural Protein p22, in the Process of Virus Replication and in Swine Virulence
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 986; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13060986 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease of swine that has caused outbreaks in Central Europe since 2007, spreading into Asia in 2018. ASFV is a large, structurally complex virus with a large dsDNA genome encoding for more than 160 genes, [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease of swine that has caused outbreaks in Central Europe since 2007, spreading into Asia in 2018. ASFV is a large, structurally complex virus with a large dsDNA genome encoding for more than 160 genes, most of them still uncharacterized. p22, encoded by the ASFV gene KP177R, is an early transcribed, structural virus protein located in the ASFV particle. Although its exact function is unknown, p22 has recently been identified as an interacting partner of several host proteins. Here, we describe the development of a recombinant ASFV (ASFV-G-∆KP177R) lacking the KP177R gene as a tool to evaluate the role of p22 in virus replication and virulence in swine. The recombinant ASFV-G-∆KP177R demonstrated that the KP177R gene is non-essential for ASFV replication in primary swine macrophages, with virus yields similar to those of the parental, highly virulent field isolate Georgia2010 (ASFV-G). In addition, experimental infection of domestic pigs with ASFV-G-∆KP177R produced a clinical disease similar to that caused by the parental ASFV-G. Therefore, and surprisingly, p22 does not seem to be involved in virus replication or virulence in swine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Brief Report
Development and In Vivo Evaluation of a MGF110-1L Deletion Mutant in African Swine Fever Strain Georgia
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020286 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is currently causing an epizootic, affecting pigs throughout Eurasia, and causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) that consists of a large dsDNA genome that encodes for more than [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is currently causing an epizootic, affecting pigs throughout Eurasia, and causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) that consists of a large dsDNA genome that encodes for more than 160 genes; few of these genes have been studied in detail. ASFV contains four multi-gene family (MGF) groups of genes that have been implicated in regulating the immune response and host specificity; however, the individual roles of most of these genes have not been well studied. Here, we describe the evaluation of the previously uncharacterized ASFV MGF110-1L open reading frame (ORF) using a deletion mutant of the ASFV currently circulating throughout Eurasia. The recombinant ASFV lacking the MGF110-1L gene (ASFV-G-ΔMGF110-1L) demonstrated in vitro that the MGF110-1L gene is non-essential, since ASFV-G-ΔMGF110-1L had similar replication kinetics in primary swine macrophage cell cultures when compared to parental highly virulent field isolate Georgia2007 (ASFV-G). Experimental infection of domestic pigs with ASFV-G-ΔMGF110-1L produced a clinical disease similar to that caused by the parental ASFV-G, confirming that deletion of the MGF110-1L gene from the ASFV genome does not affect viral virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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Brief Report
Evaluation in Swine of a Recombinant Georgia 2010 African Swine Fever Virus Lacking the I8L Gene
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010039 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever, a disease currently causing significant economic losses in Europe and Asia. Specifically, the highly virulent ASFV strain Georgia 2010 (ASFV-G) is producing disease outbreaks in this large geographical region. The [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever, a disease currently causing significant economic losses in Europe and Asia. Specifically, the highly virulent ASFV strain Georgia 2010 (ASFV-G) is producing disease outbreaks in this large geographical region. The ASFV genome encodes for over 150 genes, most of which are still not experimentally characterized. I8L is a highly conserved gene that has not been studied beyond its initial description as a virus ORF. Transcriptional analysis of swine macrophages infected with ASFV-G demonstrated that the I8L gene is transcribed early during the virus replication cycle. To assess the importance of I8L during ASFV-G replication in vitro and in vivo, as well as its role in virus virulence in domestic swine, we developed a recombinant virus lacking the I8L gene (ASFV-G-ΔI8L). Replication of ASFV-G-ΔI8L was similar to parental ASFV-G replication in primary swine macrophage cultures, suggesting that the I8L gene is not essential for ASFV-G replication in vitro. Similarly, replication of ASFV-G-ΔI8L in swine intramuscularly inoculated with 102 HAD50 displayed replication kinetics similar to ASFV-G. In addition, animals inoculated with ASFV-G-ΔI8L presented with a clinical disease indistinguishable from that induced by the same dose of the virulent parental ASFV-G isolate. We conclude that deletion of the I8L gene from ASFV-G does not affect virus replication in vitro or in vivo, nor changes the disease outcome in swine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses 2021)
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