Special Issue "Viruses Affecting Salmonids"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sonal Patel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Norwegain Veterinary Institute, N-0106 Oslo, Norway
Interests: host–pathogen interactions; sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry; viral diseases; infection kinetics; transmission and immune responses; virological and bacteriological vaccine products
Dr. Aase B Mikalsen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway
Interests: detection and characterization of fish viruses; viral infections affecting fish heart, Atlantic salmon; host–pathogen interactions; vaccine development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Salmonids are among the three most important fish species in aquaculture worldwide. Viruses causing welfare and health issues in salmonids are among the top listed diseases in the global aquaculture industry, leading to heavy losses. Although some viruses have been well known and described for decades, stories of successful eradication of viruses affecting salmonids are scarce.

In this Special Issue, we aim for peer-reviewed reports, perspectives, reviews, and research articles on recent advances in salmonid virology to increase our knowledge on the identification and discovery of emerging viruses affecting salmonids. Further, our aim is to increase our understanding of individual viruses and virus interplay during co-infections. Studies on factors affecting virulence and how varying virulence manifests as pathology and on the host response is of specific interest, as are also studies on therapeutic and preventative approaches to reduce the accommodating welfare and health issues and heavy losses for the industry. Viral diseases in aquaculture might have an environmental impact either through transmission to wild fish or influence the ecosystem as a whole, impairing further growth of the industry, and thus, we also seek study topics shedding light on this area.

Dr. Sonal Patel
Dr. Aase B Mikalsen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aquaculture
  • Wild fish species
  • Reservoir
  • Transmission
  • Epidemiology
  • Evolution
  • Virulence
  • Pathology
  • Vaccines
  • Host–pathogen interaction

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus Shedding from Infected Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)—Application of a Droplet Digital PCR Assay for Virus Quantification in Seawater
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1770; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13091770 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is currently detected by fish sampling for PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. As an alternative to sampling fish, we evaluated two different membrane filters in combination with four buffers for elution, concentration, and detection of ISAV in seawater, [...] Read more.
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) infection is currently detected by fish sampling for PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. As an alternative to sampling fish, we evaluated two different membrane filters in combination with four buffers for elution, concentration, and detection of ISAV in seawater, during a bath challenge of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts with high and low concentrations of ISAV. Transmission of ISAV in the bath challenge was confirmed by a high mortality, clinical signs associated with ISA disease, and detection of ISAV RNA in organ tissues and seawater samples. The electronegatively charged filter, combined with lysis buffer, gave significantly higher ISAV RNA detection by droplet digital PCR from seawater (5.6 × 104 ISAV RNA copies/L; p < 0.001). Viral shedding in seawater was first detected at two days post-challenge and peaked on day 11 post-challenge, one day before mortalities started in fish challenged with high dose ISAV, demonstrating that a large viral shedding event occurs before death. These data provide important information for ISAV shedding that is relevant for the development of improved surveillance tools based on water samples, transmission models, and management of ISA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Affecting Salmonids)
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Article
Emergence of Salmonid Alphavirus Genotype 2 in Norway—Molecular Characterization of Viral Strains Circulating in Norway and Scotland
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13081556 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD), caused by an alphavirus, are endemic in European salmonid aquaculture, causing significant mortality, reduced growth and poor flesh quality. In 2010, a new variant of salmonid alphavirus emerged in Norway, marine salmonid alphavirus genotype 2 (SAV2). [...] Read more.
Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD), caused by an alphavirus, are endemic in European salmonid aquaculture, causing significant mortality, reduced growth and poor flesh quality. In 2010, a new variant of salmonid alphavirus emerged in Norway, marine salmonid alphavirus genotype 2 (SAV2). As this genotype is highly prevalent in Scotland, transmission through well boat traffic was hypothesized as one possible source of infection. In this study, we performed full-length genome sequencing of SAV2 sampled between 2006 and 2012 in Norway and Scotland, and present the first comprehensive full-length characterization of Norwegian marine SAV2 strains. We analyze their relationship with selected Scottish SAV2 strains and explore the genetic diversity of SAV. Our results show that all Norwegian marine SAV2 share a recent last common ancestor with marine SAV2 circulating in Scotland and a higher level of genomic diversity among the Scottish marine SAV2 strains compared to strains from Norway. These findings support the hypothesis of a single introduction of SAV2 to Norway sometime from 2006–2010, followed by horizontal spread along the coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Affecting Salmonids)
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