Special Issue "New Insights into Astroviruses Research"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 27 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Valerie Cortez
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Member, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
Interests: enteric and respiratory viruses; mucosal barrier; immunocompromised hosts; transkingdom interactions
Dr. Stacey Schultz-Cherry
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
Interests: pathogenesis of influenza and astroviruses in normal and high-risk populations; viral evolution; microbiome/virome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this follow up Special Issue in Viruses, we want to explore the latest in astrovirus research. While these enteric viruses remain understudied, major advances have been made in the past 5 years with respect to in vitro and in vivo models. We now have a better understanding of their spectrum of disease and have explored a number of treatment strategies; however, many questions remain. What host and virus factors are associated with disease? How can we best treat patients with severe central nervous system involvement? Are there connections between enteric and respiratory astrovirus-associated disease? What role do co-infections or transkingdom interactions play in astrovirus pathogenesis? These questions and more will be explored in this Special Issue, which will help chart a course for future astrovirus research.

Dr. Valerie Cortez
Dr. Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • astrovirus
  • co-infections
  • epidemiology
  • treatments
  • pathogenesis
  • spectrum of disease
  • models of infection
  • emerging viruses
  • transkingdom interactions

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Comparative Analysis of Public RNA-Sequencing Data from Human Intestinal Enteroid (HIEs) Infected with Enteric RNA Viruses Identifies Universal and Virus-Specific Epithelial Responses
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1059; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13061059 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has a significant disease burden on society. Noroviruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses are important viral causes of AGE but are relatively understudied enteric pathogens. Recent developments in novel biomimetic human models of enteric disease are opening new possibilities for studying human-specific [...] Read more.
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has a significant disease burden on society. Noroviruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses are important viral causes of AGE but are relatively understudied enteric pathogens. Recent developments in novel biomimetic human models of enteric disease are opening new possibilities for studying human-specific host–microbe interactions. Human intestinal enteroids (HIE), which are epithelium-only intestinal organoids derived from stem cells isolated from human intestinal biopsy tissues, have been successfully used to culture representative norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus strains. Previous studies investigated host–virus interactions at the intestinal epithelial interface by individually profiling the epithelial transcriptional response to a member of each virus family by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Despite differences in the tissue origin, enteric virus used, and hours post infection at which RNA was collected in each data set, the uniform analysis of publicly available datasets identified a conserved epithelial response to virus infection focused around “type I interferon production” and interferon-stimulated genes. Additionally, transcriptional changes specific to only one or two of the enteric viruses were also identified. This study can guide future explorations into common and unique aspects of the host response to virus infections in the human intestinal epithelium and demonstrates the promise of comparative RNA-seq analysis, even if performed under different experimental conditions, to discover universal and virus-specific genes and pathways responsible for antiviral host defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Human Astrovirus 1–8 Seroprevalence Evaluation in a United States Adult Population
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 979; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13060979 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Human astroviruses are an important cause of viral gastroenteritis globally, yet few studies have investigated the serostatus of adults to establish rates of previous infection. Here, we applied biolayer interferometry immunosorbent assay (BLI-ISA), a recently developed serosurveillance technique, to measure the presence of [...] Read more.
Human astroviruses are an important cause of viral gastroenteritis globally, yet few studies have investigated the serostatus of adults to establish rates of previous infection. Here, we applied biolayer interferometry immunosorbent assay (BLI-ISA), a recently developed serosurveillance technique, to measure the presence of blood plasma IgG antibodies directed towards the human astrovirus capsid spikes from serotypes 1–8 in a cross-sectional sample of a United States adult population. The seroprevalence rates of IgG antibodies were 73% for human astrovirus serotype 1, 62% for serotype 3, 52% for serotype 4, 29% for serotype 5, 27% for serotype 8, 22% for serotype 2, 8% for serotype 6, and 8% for serotype 7. Notably, seroprevalence rates for capsid spike antigens correlate with neutralizing antibody rates determined previously. This work is the first seroprevalence study evaluating all eight classical human astrovirus serotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Neurotropic Astroviruses in Animals
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13071201 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Astrovirus infections are among the main causes of diarrhea in children, but their significance for animal health has remained underestimated and largely unknown. This is changing due to the increasing amount of newly identified neurotropic astroviruses in cases of nonsuppurative encephalitis and neurological [...] Read more.
Astrovirus infections are among the main causes of diarrhea in children, but their significance for animal health has remained underestimated and largely unknown. This is changing due to the increasing amount of newly identified neurotropic astroviruses in cases of nonsuppurative encephalitis and neurological disease in humans, pigs, ruminant species and minks. Neurological cases in ruminants and humans usually occur sporadically and as isolated cases. This contrasts with the situation in pigs and minks, in which diseases associated with neurotropic astroviruses are endemic and occur on the herd level. Affected animals show neurological signs such as mild ataxia to tetraplegia, loss of orientation or trembling, and the outcome is often fatal. Non-suppurative inflammation with perivascular cuffing, gliosis and neuronal necrosis are typical histological lesions of astrovirus encephalitis. Since astroviruses primarily target the gastrointestinal tract, it is assumed that they infect the brain through the circulatory system or retrograde following the nerves. The phylogenetic analysis of neurotropic astroviruses has revealed that they are genetically closely related, suggesting the presence of viral determinants for tissue tropism and neuroinvasion. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on neurotropic astrovirus infections in animals and propose future research activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Intra- and Cross-Species Transmission of Astroviruses
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13061127 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Astroviruses are non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammalian and avian species. In humans, astrovirus infections are one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in children. Infection has also been linked to serious neurological complications, especially in immunocompromised individuals. More extensive disease [...] Read more.
Astroviruses are non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammalian and avian species. In humans, astrovirus infections are one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in children. Infection has also been linked to serious neurological complications, especially in immunocompromised individuals. More extensive disease has also been characterized in non-human mammalian and avian species. To date, astroviruses have been detected in over 80 different avian and mammalian hosts. As the number of hosts continues to rise, the need to understand how astroviruses transmit within a given species as well as to new host species becomes increasingly important. Here, we review the current understanding of astrovirus transmission, the factors that influence viral spread, and the potential for cross-species transmission. Additionally, we highlight the current gaps in knowledge and areas of future research that will be key to understanding astrovirus transmission and zoonotic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Structural Insights into the Human Astrovirus Capsid
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 821; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13050821 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Astroviruses (AstVs) are non-enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of inflammatory diseases in mammalian and avian hosts. The T = 3 viral capsid is unique in its ability to infect host cells in a process driven by host proteases. [...] Read more.
Astroviruses (AstVs) are non-enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of inflammatory diseases in mammalian and avian hosts. The T = 3 viral capsid is unique in its ability to infect host cells in a process driven by host proteases. Intercellular protease cleavages allow for viral egress from a cell, while extracellular cleavages allow for the virus to enter a new host cell to initiate infection. High-resolution models of the capsid core indicate a large, exposed region enriched with protease cleavage sites. The virus spike protein allows for binding to target cells and is the major target for naturally occurring and engineered neutralizing antibodies. During maturation, the capsid goes through significant structural changes including the loss of many surface spikes. The capsid interacts with host membranes during the virus life cycle at multiple stages such as assembly, host cell entry and exit. This review will cover recent findings and insights related to the structure of the capsid and its function. Further understanding of the viral capsid structure and maturation process can contribute to new vaccines, gastric therapeutics, and viral engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Beyond the Gastrointestinal Tract: The Emerging and Diverse Tissue Tropisms of Astroviruses
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13050732 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
Astroviruses are single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that have been historically associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. However, there is now a multitude of evidence demonstrating the capacity of these viruses to cause extraintestinal diseases. The most striking [...] Read more.
Astroviruses are single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that have been historically associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. However, there is now a multitude of evidence demonstrating the capacity of these viruses to cause extraintestinal diseases. The most striking causal relationship is neurological diseases in humans, cattle, pigs, and other mammals, caused by astrovirus infection. Astroviruses have also been associated with disseminated infections, localized disease of the liver or kidneys, and there is increasing evidence suggesting a potential tropism to the respiratory tract. This review will discuss the current understanding of the tissue tropisms for astroviruses and their emerging capacity to cause disease in multiple organ systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Case Report
Astrovirus-Associated Polioencephalomyelitis in an Alpaca
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010050 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
An 8-year-old alpaca was admitted to the emergency service of the Clinic for Ruminants in Bern due to a reduced general condition and progressive neurological signs. Despite supportive treatment, its condition deteriorated and the animal had to be euthanized. Histopathological analysis revealed a [...] Read more.
An 8-year-old alpaca was admitted to the emergency service of the Clinic for Ruminants in Bern due to a reduced general condition and progressive neurological signs. Despite supportive treatment, its condition deteriorated and the animal had to be euthanized. Histopathological analysis revealed a severe non-suppurative polioencephalomyelitis with neuronal necrosis, most likely of viral origin. We detected abundant neuronal labelling with antibodies directed against two different epitopes of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 (BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1), which is a common viral agent associated with non-suppurative encephalitis in Swiss cattle. These findings were further verified by detection of viral RNA by use of in-situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR. Next generation sequencing revealed that the detected virus genome had a pairwise identity of 98.9% to the genome of BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an astrovirus-associated polioencephalomyelitis in an alpaca. These results point to the possibility of an interspecies transmission of BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Astroviruses Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop