Topical Collection "Emerging Arboviruses, Volume II"

A topical collection in Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This collection belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Remi N. Charrel
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Unité des Virus Emergents (Aix Marseille Université, IRD 190, INSERM U1207, IHU Mediterranee Infection), 13005 Marseille, France
Interests: arthropod-borne viruses; vector-borne and zoonotic viral diseases; viruses of medical importance; diagnostics; epidemiology; virus discovery; taxonomy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection is the continuation of our previous Special Issue, “Emerging Arboviruses”. In the first volume of the Special Issue, we successfully put together 60 publications of the latest research. It will be a useful reference for scholars in the field.

In this second volume of the Special Issue, we want to go on exploring the latest in emerging arboviruses research and sincerely invite you to contribute to this issue with your latest submissions.

The emergence and re-emergence of arboviruses have occurred for centuries, but their rapid dispersion is more rapid and geographically extensive because of the intensive growth of global transportation systems, arthropod adaptation to urbanization, failure to contain mosquito populations, and land perturbation. Here we would like to address emerging arboviruses of human importance (such as Chikungunya, Zika, Yellow fever, West Nile, Toscana, Usutu, Japanese encephalitis, Spondweni, Oropouche, Mayaro, O'nyong nyong etc.) and of veterinary importance (such as Schmallenberg, Bluetongue, African swine fever, Usutu, West Nile, Rift Valley fever, Shuni, African horse sickness, Akabane, etc.). Research studies can be focused on epidemiology, development, and evaluation of diagnostic assays, transmission pathways and cycles, natural cycles, virulence and clinical aspects. Studies aiming at virus discovery or at establishing the pathogenesis of viruses for either humans or animals are also within the scope of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Remi N. Charrel
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • emergence
  • arthropod-borne virus
  • human importance
  • veterinary importance
  • diagnosis, preparedness and response
  • seroprevalence
  • epidemiology
  • transmission
  • virulence
  • animal models
  • antivirals

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (9 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Impairs Mayaro Virus Replication in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and HeLa Cells
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13061156 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Mayaro virus (MAYV) hijacks the host’s cell machinery to effectively replicate. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 have emerged as crucial cellular factors implicated in different stages of the viral cycle. However, whether MAYV uses these MAPKs to competently replicate [...] Read more.
Mayaro virus (MAYV) hijacks the host’s cell machinery to effectively replicate. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 have emerged as crucial cellular factors implicated in different stages of the viral cycle. However, whether MAYV uses these MAPKs to competently replicate has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MAPK inhibition on MAYV replication using primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HeLa cells. Viral yields in supernatants from MAYV-infected cells treated or untreated with inhibitors SB203580, SP600125, U0126, or Losmapimod were quantified using plaque assay. Additionally, viral protein expression was analyzed using immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Knockdown of p38⍺/p38β isoforms was performed in HDFs using the PROTACs molecule NR-7h. Our data demonstrated that HDFs are highly susceptible to MAYV infection. SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, reduced MAYV replication in a dose-dependent manner in both HDFs and HeLa cells. Additionally, SB203580 significantly decreased viral E1 protein expression. Similarly, knockdown or inhibition of p38⍺/p38β isoforms with NR-7h or Losmapimod, respectively, affected MAYV replication in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings suggest that p38 could play an important role in MAYV replication and could serve as a therapeutic target to control MAYV infection. Full article
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Article
Geographical and Tick-Dependent Distribution of Flavi-Like Alongshan and Yanggou Tick Viruses in Russia
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 458; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13030458 - 11 Mar 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
The genus Flavivirus includes related, unclassified segmented flavi-like viruses, two segments of which have homology with flavivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 and RNA helicase-protease NS3. This group includes such viruses as Jingmen tick virus, Alongshan virus, Yanggou tick virus and others. We detected [...] Read more.
The genus Flavivirus includes related, unclassified segmented flavi-like viruses, two segments of which have homology with flavivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 and RNA helicase-protease NS3. This group includes such viruses as Jingmen tick virus, Alongshan virus, Yanggou tick virus and others. We detected the Yanggou tick virus in Dermacentor nuttalli and Dermacentor marginatus ticks in two neighbouring regions of Russia. The virus prevalence ranged from 0.5% to 8.0%. We detected RNA of the Alongshan virus in 44 individuals or pools of various tick species in eight regions of Russia. The virus prevalence ranged from 0.6% to 7.8%. We demonstrated the successful replication of the Yanggou tick virus and Alongshan virus in IRE/CTVM19 and HAE/CTVM8 tick cell lines without a cytopathic effect. According to the phylogenetic analysis, we divided the Alongshan virus into two groups: an Ixodes persulcatus group and an Ixodes ricinus group. In addition, the I. persulcatus group can be divided into European and Asian subgroups. We found amino acid signatures specific to the I. ricinus and I. persulcatus groups and also distinguished between the European and Asian subgroups of the I. persulcatus group. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Anti-Rift Valley Fever Virus, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of South African Medicinal Plant Extracts
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020221 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to sub-Saharan African countries, and the first sporadic outbreaks outside Africa were reported in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no approved therapeutic agents available for RVFV; however, finding an effective antiviral agent against [...] Read more.
Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to sub-Saharan African countries, and the first sporadic outbreaks outside Africa were reported in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no approved therapeutic agents available for RVFV; however, finding an effective antiviral agent against RVFV is important. This study aimed to evaluate the antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of medicinal plant extracts. Twenty medicinal plants were screened for their anti-RVFV activity using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method. The cytotoxicity assessment of the extracts was done before antiviral screening using the MTT assay. Antioxidant and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species’ (ROS/RNS) inhibitory activity by the extracts was investigated using non-cell-based and cell-based assays. Out of twenty plant extracts tested, eight showed significant potency against RVFV indicated by a decrease in tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) < 105. The cytotoxicity of extracts showed inhibitory concentrations values (IC50) > 200 µg/mL for most of the extracts. The antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory results revealed that extracts scavenged free radicals exhibiting an IC50 range of 4.12–20.41 µg/mL and suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by 60–80% in Vero cells. This study demonstrated the ability of the extracts to lower RVFV viral load and their potency to reduce free radicals. Full article
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Article
Thirteen Years of Phleboviruses Circulation in Lombardy, a Northern Italy Region
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020209 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Phleboviruses transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean basin. Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV), Sicilian phlebovirus (SFSV), and Naples phlebovirus (SFNV) are responsible of summer fever, with well-known pathogenic potential for humans ranging from asymptomatic to mild fever, in addition to neuro-invasive infections [...] Read more.
Phleboviruses transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean basin. Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV), Sicilian phlebovirus (SFSV), and Naples phlebovirus (SFNV) are responsible of summer fever, with well-known pathogenic potential for humans ranging from asymptomatic to mild fever, in addition to neuro-invasive infections during summer. Although TOSV, in particular, is a significant and well-known human pathogen, SFVs remain neglected, with many gaps in the relevant knowledge. Sero-epidemiological studies and case reports recently showed a geographical wider distribution than previously considered, although the real incidence of phleboviruses infections in the Mediterranean area is still unknown. Here we retrospectively evaluated the circulation of phleboviruses during summer seasons between 2007 and 2019 in 649 patients showing neurological symptoms using both molecular and serological approaches. We found that 42/649 (6.5%) subjects experienced phlebovirus infection and only 10/42 cases were detected by molecular assays, whereas the other 32/42 were identified using serological approaches, including neutralization assays. During the 2013 summer, an outbreak in the Lombardy region is described because the prevalence of phlebovirus infection reached 37.2% (19/51 subjects). Interestingly, only 5/19 (26.5%) reported traveling in endemic areas. Of note, no cross-neutralization was observed between different strains tested, showing the possibility to be reinfected by newly discovered phlebovirus strains. In conclusion, phlebovirus infections are still inadequately considered by physicians and are generally underestimated. However, based on our results, sandfly fever viruses should be routinely included in diagnostic panels during summer period, including in Northern Italy. Full article
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Communication
Utility of a Sequence-Independent, Single-Primer-Amplification (SISPA) and Nanopore Sequencing Approach for Detection and Characterization of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13020203 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Currently, next generation sequencing (NGS) is the mainly used approach for identification and monitorization of viruses with a potential public health threat in clinical and environmental samples. To facilitate detection in NGS, the sequence-independent, single-primer-amplification (SISPA) is an effective tool for enriching virus [...] Read more.
Currently, next generation sequencing (NGS) is the mainly used approach for identification and monitorization of viruses with a potential public health threat in clinical and environmental samples. To facilitate detection in NGS, the sequence-independent, single-primer-amplification (SISPA) is an effective tool for enriching virus sequences. We performed a preliminary assessment of SISPA-nanopore sequencing as a potential approach for screening tick-borne viruses in six specimens with detectable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) sequences. A comparison of unbiased NGS and SISPA followed by nanopore sequencing was carried out in 4 specimens with single and pooled ticks. The approach was further used for genome sequencing in culture-grown viruses. Overall, total/virus-specific read counts were significantly elevated in cell culture supernatants in comparison to single or pooled ticks. Virus genomes could be successfully characterized by SISPA with identities over 99%. Genome coverage varied according to the segment and total read count. Base calling errors were mainly observed in tick specimens and more frequent in lower viral loads. Culture-grown viruses were phylogenetically-related to previously-reported local viruses. In conclusion, the SISPA + nanopore sequencing was successful in generating data comparable to NGS and will provide an effective tool for broad-range virus detection in ticks. Full article
Article
Zika Virus Infection Leads to Demyelination and Axonal Injury in Mature CNS Cultures
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010091 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Understanding how Zika virus (Flaviviridae; ZIKV) affects neural cells is paramount in comprehending pathologies associated with infection. Whilst the effects of ZIKV in neural development are well documented, impact on the adult nervous system remains obscure. Here, we investigated the effects [...] Read more.
Understanding how Zika virus (Flaviviridae; ZIKV) affects neural cells is paramount in comprehending pathologies associated with infection. Whilst the effects of ZIKV in neural development are well documented, impact on the adult nervous system remains obscure. Here, we investigated the effects of ZIKV infection in established mature myelinated central nervous system (CNS) cultures. Infection incurred damage to myelinated fibers, with ZIKV-positive cells appearing when myelin damage was first detected as well as axonal pathology, suggesting the latter was a consequence of oligodendroglia infection. Transcriptome analysis revealed host factors that were upregulated during ZIKV infection. One such factor, CCL5, was validated in vitro as inhibiting myelination. Transferred UV-inactivated media from infected cultures did not damage myelin and axons, suggesting that viral replication is necessary to induce the observed effects. These data show that ZIKV infection affects CNS cells even after myelination—which is critical for saltatory conduction and neuronal function—has taken place. Understanding the targets of this virus across developmental stages including the mature CNS, and the subsequent effects of infection of cell types, is necessary to understand effective time frames for therapeutic intervention. Full article
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Article
Seroprevalence of Toscana Virus and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus in European Bat Colonies Measured Using a Neutralization Test
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010088 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) and Sicilian phlebovirus (SFSV) are endemic in the Mediterranean area where they are transmitted to humans by infected sandflies. Vertebrates of several species have been postulated to act as reservoirs of these viruses, but convincing evidence is still awaited. Among [...] Read more.
Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) and Sicilian phlebovirus (SFSV) are endemic in the Mediterranean area where they are transmitted to humans by infected sandflies. Vertebrates of several species have been postulated to act as reservoirs of these viruses, but convincing evidence is still awaited. Among them, bats have been suggested, however documented evidence is lacking. Here we tested a total of 329 bats belonging to eight species collected from twelve localities in southern Spain for the presence of neutralizing antibodies specific to TOSV and SFSV. Positive sera were detected in Schreiber’s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersii), mouse-eared Myotis (Myotis myotis), European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), and common serotine (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latter showing the highest prevalence rates for SFSV (22.6%) and TOSV (10%). There was no difference between females and males. Results suggest that bats are not likely to play a major role in the natural cycle of these two sandfly-borne phleboviruses. However, large breeding colonies of bats can be used as sentinels for surveillance of the presence of such viruses in a given locality. In addition, capture–recapture studies should be initiated in order to understand better the dynamics of TOSV and SFSV in bat populations. Full article
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Article
Pregnant Women Infected with Zika Virus Show Higher Viral Load and Immunoregulatory Cytokines Profile with CXCL10 Increase
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010080 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy usually shows only mild symptoms and is frequently subclinical. However, it can be vertically transmitted to the fetus, causing microcephaly and other congenital defects. During pregnancy, the immune environment modifications can alter the response to viruses [...] Read more.
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy usually shows only mild symptoms and is frequently subclinical. However, it can be vertically transmitted to the fetus, causing microcephaly and other congenital defects. During pregnancy, the immune environment modifications can alter the response to viruses in general and ZIKV in particular. Objective: To describe the role of pregnancy in the systemic pro- and anti-inflammatory response during symptomatic ZIKV infection. Materials and Methods: A multiplex assay was used to measure 25 cytokines, chemokines, and receptors in 110 serum samples from pregnant and nonpregnant women with and without ZIKV infection with and without symptoms. Samples were collected through an epidemiological surveillance system. Results: Samples from pregnant women with ZIKV infection showed a higher viral load but had similar profiles of inflammatory markers as compared with nonpregnant infected women, except for CXCL10 that was higher in infected pregnant women. Notably, the presence of ZIKV in pregnancy favored a regulatory profile by significantly increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-10, receptors IL-1RA, and IL-2R, but only those pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 that are essential for the antiviral response. Interestingly, there were no differences between symptomatic and weakly symptomatic ZIKV-infected groups. Conclusion: Our results revealed a systemic anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile that could participate in the control of the virus. The anti-inflammatory response in pregnant women infected with ZIKA was characterized by high CXCL10, a cytokine that has been correlated with congenital malformations. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Review
Invasive Alien Plants in Africa and the Potential Emergence of Mosquito-Borne Arboviral Diseases—A Review and Research Outlook
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13010032 - 27 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) as linked to land-use changes, especially the growing agricultural intensification and expansion efforts in rural parts of Africa, is of growing health concern. This places an additional burden on health systems as drugs, vaccines, and effective vector-control [...] Read more.
The emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) as linked to land-use changes, especially the growing agricultural intensification and expansion efforts in rural parts of Africa, is of growing health concern. This places an additional burden on health systems as drugs, vaccines, and effective vector-control measures against arboviruses and their vectors remain lacking. An integrated One Health approach holds potential in the control and prevention of arboviruses. Land-use changes favour invasion by invasive alien plants (IAPs) and investigating their impact on mosquito populations may offer a new dimension to our understanding of arbovirus emergence. Of prime importance to understand is how IAPs influence mosquito life-history traits and how this may affect transmission of arboviruses to mammalian hosts, questions that we are exploring in this review. Potential effects of IAPs may be significant, including supporting the proliferation of immature and adult stages of mosquito vectors, providing additional nutrition and suitable microhabitats, and a possible interaction between ingested secondary plant metabolites and arboviruses. We conclude that aspects of vector biology are differentially affected by individual IAPs and that while some plants may have the potential to indirectly increase the risk of transmission of certain arboviruses by their direct interaction with the vectors, the reverse holds for other IAPs. In addition, we highlight priority research areas to improve our understanding of the potential health impacts of IAPs. Full article
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