Special Issue "Interaction between Virus and Host Innate Immune Systems"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Immunology, Vaccines, and Antivirals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Moon Jung Song
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: virus–host interactions; innate immunity; viral immune evasion; regulation of viral life cycle; viral modulation of cellular NAD+ system; viral genetics; herpesviruses; influenza virus; noroviruses; coronaviruses; SARS-CoV-2
Dr. Ok Sarah Shin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: host–pathogen interactions; innate immunity; virus-induced cell death; immune evasion; Zika virus
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The complex interplay between pathogens and host immune response is considered a highly dynamic process. When confronted with viral infection, the innate immune system provides the first line of host defense against pathogens by triggering host inflammatory and antiviral cytokine responses. Sensing viral nucleic acids and activating downstream signaling pathways are highly orchestrated to induce interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), ultimately setting an antiviral stage. In addition, autophagy/mitophagy is an essential process that can initiate an innate immune response via crosstalk with innate immune receptors to modulate the expression of antiviral IFNs, thereby maintaining cellular homeostasis and clearing pathogens. Consequently, viruses have evolved mechanisms to evade host defenses at various stages of the innate immune response.

In this Special Issue, we aim to assemble a collection of research papers and reviews that highlight critical advancements in our understanding of the interactions between viruses and host innate immune system. Of particular interest are the innate immune responses to RNA or DNA virus infection, evasions strategies employed by viruses, characterizing the function of autophagy/mitophagy for modulating antiviral innate immunity, and innate immune pathways modulated by viral proteins. This knowledge will allow us to uncover novel viral evasion strategies and to identify novel viral and host factors in modulation of viral replication and disease outcome. We look forward to your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Moon Jung Song
Dr. Ok Sarah Shin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • DNA viruses
  • RNA viruses
  • innate immunity
  • interferons
  • interferon stimulated genes
  • inflammasome
  • cytokines
  • autophagy
  • mitophagy
  • virus-induced cell death
  • immune evasion

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Nonstructural Protein NS1 of Influenza Virus Disrupts Mitochondrial Dynamics and Enhances Mitophagy via ULK1 and BNIP3
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1845; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13091845 - 15 Sep 2021
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Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus (IFV) is essential for evading interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of influenza. Mitophagy is a type of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. The role of NS1 in IFV-mediated mitophagy is currently [...] Read more.
Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus (IFV) is essential for evading interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of influenza. Mitophagy is a type of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. The role of NS1 in IFV-mediated mitophagy is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that overexpression of NS1 protein led to enhancement of mitophagy. Mitophagy induction via carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone treatment in IFV-infected A549 cells led to increased viral replication efficiency, whereas the knockdown of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) led to the opposite effect on viral replication. Overexpression of NS1 protein led to changes in mitochondrial dynamics, including depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, infection with NS1-deficient virus resulted in impaired mitochondrial fragmentation, subsequent mitolysosomal formation, and mitophagy induction, suggesting an important role of NS1 in mitophagy. Meanwhile, NS1 protein increased the phosphorylation of Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the mitochondrial expression of BCL2- interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), both of which were found to be important for IFV-mediated mitophagy. Overall, these data highlight the importance of IFV NS1, ULK1, and BNIP3 during mitophagy activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Virus and Host Innate Immune Systems)
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