Topical Collection "Mycoviruses"

Editor

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Interests: mycovirus; virus–host interaction; virus replication and expression; virus evolution
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am very pleased to invite you to contribute to the ‘Mycoviruses’ Topical Collection in Viruses. This Topical Collection aims to provide an opportunity for fungal virologists to publish their research work in the form of original research articles, short communications and timely reviews and to share their thoughts via commentaries. I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycoviruses
  • population studies
  • mycovirus evolution
  • mycovirus-host interactions
  • RNA silencing

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019

Article
Molecular Characterization of the First Alternavirus Identified in Fusarium oxysporum
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 2026; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13102026 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum alternavirus 1(FoAV1) was identified as infecting Fusarium oxysporum strain BH19, which was isolated from a fusarium wilt diseased stem of Lilium brownii. The genome of FoAV1 contains four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (dsRNA1, dsRNA 2, dsRNA [...] Read more.
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum alternavirus 1(FoAV1) was identified as infecting Fusarium oxysporum strain BH19, which was isolated from a fusarium wilt diseased stem of Lilium brownii. The genome of FoAV1 contains four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (dsRNA1, dsRNA 2, dsRNA 3 and dsRNA 4, with lengths of 3.3, 2.6, 2.3 and 1.8 kbp, respectively). Additionally, dsRNA1 encodes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA2- dsRNA3- and dsRNA4-encoded hypothetical proteins (ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4), respectively. A homology BLAST search, along with multiple alignments based on RdRp, ORF2 and ORF3 sequences, identified FoAV1 as a novel member of the proposed family “Alternaviridae. Evolutionary relation analyses indicated that FoAV1 may be related to alternaviruses, thus dividing the family “Alternaviridae” members into four clades. In addition, we determined that dsRNA4 was dispensable for replication and may be a satellite-like RNA of FoAV1—and could perhaps play a role in the evolution of alternaviruses. Our results provided evidence for potential genera establishment within the proposed family “Alternaviridae”. Additionally, FoAV1 exhibited biological control of Fusarium wilt. Our results also laid the foundations for the further study of mycoviruses within the family “Alternaviridae”, and provide a potential agent for the biocontrol of diseases caused by F. oxysporum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of the Mycovirome from the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Cercospora beticola
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1915; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13101915 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola is a devastating foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), resulting in high yield losses worldwide. Mycoviruses are widespread fungi viruses and can be used as a potential biocontrol agent for fugal disease [...] Read more.
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola is a devastating foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), resulting in high yield losses worldwide. Mycoviruses are widespread fungi viruses and can be used as a potential biocontrol agent for fugal disease management. To determine the presence of mycoviruses in C. beticola, high-throughput sequencing analysis was used to determine the diversity of mycoviruses in 139 C. beticola isolates collected from major sugar beet production areas in China. The high-throughput sequencing reads were assembled and searched against the NCBI database using BLASTn and BLASTx. The results showed that the obtained 93 contigs were derived from eight novel mycoviruses, which were grouped into 3 distinct lineages, belonging to the families Hypoviridae, Narnaviridae and Botourmiaviridae, as well as some unclassified (−)ssRNA viruses in the order Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first identification of highly diverse mycoviruses in C. beticola. The novel mycoviruses explored in this study will provide new viral materials to biocontrol Cercospora diseases. Future studies of these mycoviruses will aim to assess the roles of each mycovirus in biological function of C. beticola in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Direct Metatranscriptomic Survey of the Sunflower Microbiome and Virome
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1867; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13091867 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are susceptible to multiple diseases in field production. In this study, we collected diseased sunflower leaves in fields located in South Dakota, USA, for virome investigation. The leaves showed visible symptoms on the foliage, indicating phomopsis and rust [...] Read more.
Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are susceptible to multiple diseases in field production. In this study, we collected diseased sunflower leaves in fields located in South Dakota, USA, for virome investigation. The leaves showed visible symptoms on the foliage, indicating phomopsis and rust infections. To identify the viruses potentially associated with the disease diagnosed, symptomatic leaves were obtained from diseased plants. Total RNA was extracted corresponding to each disease diagnosed to generate libraries for paired-end high throughput sequencing. Short sequencing reads were assembled de novo and the contigs with similarities to viruses were identified by aligning against a custom protein database. We report the discovery of two novel mitoviruses, four novel partitiviruses, one novel victorivirus, and nine novel totiviruses based on similarities to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and capsid proteins. Contigs similar to bean yellow mosaic virus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus were also detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of direct metatranscriptomics discovery of viruses associated with fungal infections of sunflowers bypassing culturing. These newly discovered viruses represent a natural genetic resource from which we can further develop potential biopesticide to control sunflower diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Virus Infection of Aspergillus fumigatus Compromises the Fungus in Intermicrobial Competition
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13040686 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long [...] Read more.
Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long studied in two (of many) laboratories, was found infected with the AfuPmV-1 virus. One isolate was cured of virus, producing a virus-free strain. Virus from the infected strain was purified and used to re-infect three subcultures of the virus-free fungus, producing six fungal strains, otherwise isogenic. They were studied in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Pseudomonas culture filtrates inhibited forming or preformed Aspergillus biofilm from infected strains to a greater extent, also seen when Pseudomonas volatiles were assayed on Aspergillus. Purified iron-chelating Pseudomonas molecules, known inhibitors of Aspergillus biofilm, reproduced these differences. Iron, a stimulus of Aspergillus, enhanced the virus-free fungus, compared to infected. All infected fungal strains behaved similarly in assays. We show an important consequence of virus infection, a weakening in intermicrobial competition. Viral infection may affect the outcome of bacterial–fungal competition in nature and patients. We suggest that this occurs via alteration in fungal stress responses, the mechanism best delineated here is a result of virus-induced altered Aspergillus iron metabolism. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Characterization of the Mycovirome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13030375 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Neofusicoccum parvum is a fungal plant-pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, and is considered one of the most aggressive causal agents of the grapevine trunk disease (GTD) Botryosphaeria dieback. In this study, the mycovirome of a single strain of N. parvum (COLB) [...] Read more.
Neofusicoccum parvum is a fungal plant-pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, and is considered one of the most aggressive causal agents of the grapevine trunk disease (GTD) Botryosphaeria dieback. In this study, the mycovirome of a single strain of N. parvum (COLB) was characterized by high throughput sequencing analysis of total RNA and subsequent bioinformatic analyses. Contig annotations, genome completions, and phylogenetic analyses allowed us to describe six novel mycoviruses belonging to four different viral families. The virome is composed of two victoriviruses in the family Totiviridae, one alphaendornavirus in the family Endornaviridae, two mitoviruses in the family Mitoviridae, and one narnavirus belonging to the family Narnaviridae. The presence of the co-infecting viruses was confirmed by sequencing the RT-PCR products generated from total nucleic acids extracted from COLB. This study shows that the mycovirome of a single N. parvum strain is highly diverse and distinct from that previously described in N. parvum strains isolated from grapevines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019

Article
Four Novel Botourmiaviruses Co-Infecting an Isolate of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121383 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
Via virome sequencing, six viruses were detected from Magnaporthe oryzae strains YC81-2, including one virus in the family Tombusviridae, one virus in the family Narnaviridae and four viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Since the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of one botourmiavirus [...] Read more.
Via virome sequencing, six viruses were detected from Magnaporthe oryzae strains YC81-2, including one virus in the family Tombusviridae, one virus in the family Narnaviridae and four viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Since the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of one botourmiavirus show the highest identity (79%) with Magnaporthe oryzae ourmia-like virus 1 (MOLV1), the virus that was grouped into the genus Magoulivirus was designated as Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 2 (MOBV2). The three other novel botourmiaviruses were selected for further study. The complete nucleotide sequences of the three botourmiaviruses were determined. Sequence analysis showed that virus 1, virus 2, and virus 3 were 2598, 2385, and 2326 nts in length, respectively. The variable 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) and 5′-UTR of each virus could be folded into a stable stem-loop secondary structure. Each virus consisted of a unique ORF encoding a putative RdRp. The putative proteins with a conserved GDD motif of RdRp showed the highest sequence similarity to RdRps of viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these viruses were three distinct novel botourmiaviruses, clustered into the Botourmiaviridae family but not belonging to any known genera of this family. Thus, virus 1, virus 2, and virus 3 were designated as Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 5, 6, and 7 (MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7), respectively. Our results suggest that four distinct botourmiaviruses, MOBV2, MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7, co-infect a single strain of Magnaporthe oryzae, and MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7 are members of three unclassified genera in the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Description of a Novel Mycovirus in the Phytopathogen Fusarium culmorum and a Related EVE in the Yeast Lipomyces starkeyi
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12050523 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 [...] Read more.
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 has a monopartite dsRNA genome of 2898 bp that harbors two large non-overlapping ORFs. A typical -1 slippery motif is found at the end of ORF1, advocating that ORF2 is translated by programmed ribosomal frameshifting. While ORF2 exhibits a conserved replicase domain, ORF1 encodes for an undetermined protein. Interestingly, a hypothetically transcribed gene similar to unirnaviruses ORF1 was found in the genome of Lipomyces starkeyi, presumably resulting from a viral endogenization in this yeast. Conidial isolation and chemical treatment were unsuccessful to obtain a virus-free isogenic line of the fungal host, highlighting a high retention rate for FcV1 but hindering its biological characterization. In parallel, attempt to horizontally transfer FcV1 to another strain of F. culmorum by dual culture failed. Eventually, a screening of other strains of the same fungal species suggests the presence of FcV1 in two other strains from Europe. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
ORF Ι of Mycovirus SsNSRV-1 is Associated with Debilitating Symptoms of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 456; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12040456 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The [...] Read more.
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The integration and expression of ORF Ι led to defects in hyphal tips, vegetative growth, and virulence of the mutant strains of S. sclerotiorum. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responding to the expression of ORF Ι were identified by transcriptome analysis. In all, 686 DEGs consisted of 267 up-regulated genes and 419 down-regulated genes. DEGs reprogramed by ORF Ι were relevant to secretory proteins, pathogenicity, transcription, transmembrane transport, protein biosynthesis, modification, and metabolism. Alternative splicing was also detected in all mutant strains, but not in hypovirulent strain AH98, which was co-infected by SsNSRV-1 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1). Thus, the integrity of SsNSRV-1 genome may be necessary to protect viral mRNA from splicing and inactivation by the host. Taken together, the results suggested that protein ORF Ι could regulate the transcription, translation, and modification of host genes in order to facilitate viral proliferation and reduce the virulence of the host. Therefore, ORF Ι may be a potential gene used for the prevention of S. sclerotiorum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Strain of Fusarium graminearum Virus 1 Infecting Fusarium graminearum
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 357; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12030357 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors [...] Read more.
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors have not been explored clearly. In this study, we characterized a ssRNA mycovirus in Fusarium graminearum strain HB56-9. The complete nucleotide genome was obtained by combining random sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full genome was 6621-nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. The mycovirus was quite interesting because it shared 95.91% nucleotide identities with previously reported Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain DK21 (FgV1-DK21), while the colony morphology of their fungal hosts on PDA plates were very different. The novel virus was named Fusarium graminearum virus 1 Chinese isolate (FgV1-ch). Like FgV1-DK21, FgV1-ch also contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs), including one long and three short ORFs. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that FgV1-ch is clustered into a proposed family Fusariviridae. FgV1-ch, unlike FgV1-DK21, had mild or no effects on host mycelial growth, spore production and virulence. The nucleotide differences between FgV1-ch and FgV1-DK21 will help to elucidate the hypovirulence determinants during mycovirus–host interaction. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization and Incidence of the First Member of the Genus Mitovirus Identified in the Phytopathogenic Species Fusarium oxysporum
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12030279 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF [...] Read more.
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF encoding an RdRp of 675 amino acid residues, and a 113-nt 3´-UTR. Homology BlastX searches identifies FodMV1 as a novel member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae. As the rest of mitoviruses, the genome of FodMV1 presents a high percentage of A+U (58.8%) and contains a number of UGA codons that encode the amino acid tryptophan rather than acting as stop codons as in the universal genetic code. Another common feature with other mitoviruses is that the 5′- and 3′-UTR regions of FodMV1 can be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Result from phylogenetic analysis place FodMV1 in a different clade than the rest of mitoviruses described in other Fusarium spp. Incidence of FodMV1-infections in the collection of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi isolates analyzed is relatively high. Of particular interest is the fact that FodMV1 has been detected infecting isolates from two geographical areas as distant as Spain and Colombia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Ourmia-Like Virus Infecting Phoma matteucciicola
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12020231 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product [...] Read more.
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codons. Cellular fractionation assay indicated that PmOLV1 RNAs are likely more enriched in mitochondria than in cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmOLV1 is a new member of the genus Penoulivirus (recently proposed) within the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Article
Chrysoviruses Inhabited Symbiotic Fungi of Lichens
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v11121120 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals [...] Read more.
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals for which the lichen is a source of food or a place to live. Novel, four-segmented dsRNA viruses were detected in saxicolous Chrysothrix chlorina and Lepraria incana lichens. Comparison of encoded genome proteins revealed classification of the viruses to the genus Alphachrysovirus and a relationship to chrysoviruses from filamentous ascomycetous fungi. We propose the names Chrysothrix chrysovirus 1 (CcCV1) and Lepraria chrysovirus 1 (LiCV1) as acronyms for these viruses. Surprisingly, observation of Chrysothrix chlorina hybridization with fluorescent-labelled virus probe by confocal microscope revealed that the CcCV1 virus is not present in the lichen body-forming fungus but in accompanying endolichenic Penicillium citreosulfuratum fungus. These are the first descriptions of mycoviruses from a lichen environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop