Special Issue "Viruses in Mass-Reared Invertebrates"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Adly Abd-Alla
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Insect Pest Control Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food & Agriculture, P.O. Box 100, Wagrammer Straße 5, A-1400, Vienna, Austria
Interests: virology; insect viruses; virus-host interaction; molecular virology; viral taxonomy; virus management; virus dynamics; virus detection
Prof. Dr. Drion G. Boucias
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611, USA
Interests: insect pathology; insect disease interactions; microbial metabolites; epizootiology; microbial control; structure-function relationships; symbiont/pathogen interactions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Vera I. D. Ros
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: virology; insect viruses; virus-host interactions; parasitic manipulation; behavioural manipulation; biological control; insect mass rearing; covert virus; virus latency

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Insects can be exposed to many viruses that can either infect insects (insect viruses or entomopathogenic viruses) or be transmitted to vertebrates (arboviruses) or plants (plant viruses). Entomopathogenic viruses can cause diseases in insects of natural populations as well as reared insects. So far, insect viruses have mainly been studied for their potential in biological control, i.e., for the control insect pest populations. However, recently, with the emerging interest in mass-rear insects – for human food or animal feed, waste management, biological control, pollination, or production of, e.g., silk and honey – there is an increasing need to detect, manage, and control entomopathogenic viruses in those mass-reared insects. In addition, viruses infect other invertebrates that are economically important for human food, i.e., shrimps and oysters or those that are important as fish baits or pet feed, i.e., earthworm, and have caused economic loses and therefore need be managed and controlled. To this end, studies on the development of early detection tools to identify virus infections in insect colonies as well as the development of sanitation methods (e.g., starting with virus-free insects) is urgently required. In addition, selection of virus-resistant insect strains with high tolerance to virus infection is recommended. Furthermore, analysis of the rearing procedure and selecting the best practice to avoid virus infections and maintain stress-free rearing conditions to rear healthy insects without compromising the insect’s immune system represents another promising strategy. Understanding the molecular dialogue between pathogenic viruses and their hosts and the associated microbiota that might affect the virus infection and host response is important for selecting the best conditions to maintain an equilibrium state toward avoiding disease outbreaks in reared insects.

Based on the above, we invite researchers to contribute original articles as well as reviews that will stimulate our continuing efforts to understand entomopathogenic virus infections in insect mass-rearing and to improve our knowledge of the molecular dialogues between viruses, their hosts, and the associated microbes; sensitive virus detection; and targeted treatments using a holistic approach in order to improve insect mass-rearing for various objectives.

Prof. Dr. Adly Abd-Alla
Prof. Dr. Drion G. Boucias
Dr. Vera I. D. Ros
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • insect viruses
  • virus-host interactions
  • molecular virology
  • viral taxonomy
  • virus management
  • virus dynamics
  • virus detection
  • virus-host-symbiont interactions

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Ten Years of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) in Hawaiian Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), the Dominant DWV-A Variant Is Potentially Being Replaced by Variants with a DWV-B Coding Sequence
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 969; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13060969 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The combination of Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor is arguably one of the greatest threats currently facing western honey bees, Apis mellifera. Varroa’s association with DWV has decreased viral diversity and increased loads of DWV within honey bee [...] Read more.
The combination of Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Varroa destructor is arguably one of the greatest threats currently facing western honey bees, Apis mellifera. Varroa’s association with DWV has decreased viral diversity and increased loads of DWV within honey bee populations. Nowhere has this been better studied than in Hawaii, where the arrival of Varroa progressively led to the dominance of the single master variant (DWV-A) on both mite-infested Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Big Island. Now, exactly 10 years following the original study, we find that the DWV population has changed once again, with variants containing the RdRp coding sequence pertaining to the master variant B beginning to co-dominate alongside variants with the DWV-A RdRp sequence on the mite-infested islands of Oahu and Big Island. In speculation, based on other studies, it appears this could represent a stage in the journey towards the complete dominance of DWV-B, a variant that appears better adapted to be transmitted within honey bee colonies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses in Mass-Reared Invertebrates)
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Article
Reduction in Virulence over Time in Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) Microvariants between 2011 and 2015 in Australia
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 946; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13050946 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Microvariant genotypes of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) are associated with mass mortality events of Pacific oysters in many countries. The OsHV-1 microvariant (µVar) emerged in France 2008 and caused significant economic losses as it became endemic and displaced the previously dominant OsHV-1 reference [...] Read more.
Microvariant genotypes of Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) are associated with mass mortality events of Pacific oysters in many countries. The OsHV-1 microvariant (µVar) emerged in France 2008 and caused significant economic losses as it became endemic and displaced the previously dominant OsHV-1 reference genotype. Recently, considerable genotypic variation has been described for OsHV-1 microvariants, however, less is known about variation in viral phenotype. This study used an in vivo laboratory infection model to assess differences in total cumulative mortality, peak viral load, transmissibility, and dose-response for three OsHV-1 isolates obtained between 2011 and 2015 from endemic waterways in Australia. This followed field observations of apparent reductions in the severity of mass mortalities over this time. Significantly higher hazard of death and cumulative mortality were observed for an isolate obtained in 2011 compared to isolates from 2014–2015. In keeping with other studies, the hazard of death was higher in oysters challenged by injection compared to challenge by cohabitation and the mortality was higher when the initial dose was 1 × 104 OsHV-1 DNA copies per oyster injection compared to 1 × 102 DNA copies. There was no difference in the quantity of OsHV-1 DNA at time of death that could be related to isolate or dose, suggesting similar pathogenetic processes in the individual oysters that succumbed to end-stage disease. While the isolates examined in this study were biased towards pathogenic types of OsHV-1, as they were collected during disease outbreaks, the variation in virulence that was observed, when combined with prior data on subclinical infections, suggests that surveillance for low virulence genotypes of OsHV-1 would be rewarding. This may lead to new approaches to disease management which utilize controlled exposure to attenuated strains of OsHV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses in Mass-Reared Invertebrates)
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Article
Patterns in Genotype Composition of Indian Isolates of the Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Bombyx mori Bidensovirus
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 901; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13050901 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), is a model organism of lepidopteran insects with high economic importance. The viral diseases of the silkworm caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) inflict huge economic losses and significantly impact the sericulture [...] Read more.
The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), is a model organism of lepidopteran insects with high economic importance. The viral diseases of the silkworm caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) inflict huge economic losses and significantly impact the sericulture industry of India and other countries. To understand the distribution of Indian isolates of the BmNPV and to investigate their genetic composition, an in-depth population structure analysis was conducted using comprehensive and newly developed genomic analysis methods. The seven new Indian BmNPV isolates from Anantapur, Dehradun, Ghumarwin, Jammu, Kashmir, Mysore and Salem grouped in the BmNPV clade, and are most closely related to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and Rachiplusia ou multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus on the basis of gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the partial polh, lef-8 and lef-9 gene fragments. The whole genome sequencing of three Indian BmNPV isolates from Mysore (-My), Jammu (-Ja) and Dehradun (-De) was conducted, and intra-isolate genetic variability was analyzed on the basis of variable SNP positions and the frequencies of alternative nucleotides. The results revealed that the BmNPV-De and BmNPV-Ja isolates are highly similar in their genotypic composition, whereas the population structure of BmNPV-My appeared rather pure and homogenous, with almost no or few genetic variations. The BmNPV-De and BmNPV-Ja samples further contained a significant amount of BmBDV belonging to the Bidnaviridae family. We elucidated the genotype composition within Indian BmNPV and BmBDV isolates, and the results presented have broad implications for our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of BmNPV and co-occurring BmBDV isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses in Mass-Reared Invertebrates)
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