Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Virus Research in Greece"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "General Virology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ioannis Karakasiliotis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ioannis Karakasiliotis, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, University Campus Dragana, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
Interests: SARS-CoV-2; hepatitis C virus; west nile virus; Vectors’ and Vector-borne pathogens; virus-host interactions
Dr. Apostolos Beloukas
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Egaleo, Greece
Interests: viruses; molecular epidemiology; viral infections; viruses' evolution
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Serafeim Chaintoutis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: veterenary virology; immunology; diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Coronavirus pandemic, in conjunction with the recent advances in technology, boosted virus research in Greece, as worldwide. Existing state-of-the art research on viruses affecting humans, animals, plants and microorganisms joint forces in 2020 with a variety of other biomedical or non-biomedical disciplines as a response to the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. New technologies and needs in the study of endemic and emerging infectious diseases in Greece have substantially boosted high-quality research into virology. In this Special Issue, we will focus on state-of-the-art virus research in Greece, from virus molecular biology and pathogenesis to antiviral agents and therapy.

Dr. Ioannis Karakasiliotis
Dr. Apostolos Beloukas
Dr. Serafeim Chaintoutis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Association of Hepatitis C Virus Replication with the Catecholamine Biosynthetic Pathway
by , , , , , , , , , and
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13112139 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 196
Abstract
A bidirectional negative relationship between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) was previously shown in the liver and attributed at least to an association of DDC with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Here, we report [...] Read more.
A bidirectional negative relationship between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) was previously shown in the liver and attributed at least to an association of DDC with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Here, we report that the biosynthesis and uptake of catecholamines restrict HCV replication in hepatocytes, while HCV has developed ways to reduce catecholamine production. By employing gene silencing, chemical inhibition or induction of the catecholamine biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes and transporters, and by applying the substrates or the products of the respective enzymes, we unravel the role of the different steps of the pathway in viral infection. We also provide evidence that the effect of catecholamines on HCV is strongly related with oxidative stress that is generated by their autoxidation in the cytosol, while antioxidants or treatments that lower cytosolic catecholamine levels positively affect the virus. To counteract the effect of catecholamines, HCV, apart from the already reported effects on DDC, causes the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis and suppresses dopamine beta-hydroxylase mRNA and protein amounts, while increasing the catecholamine degradation enzyme monoamine oxidase. Moreover, the NS4B viral protein is implicated in the effect of HCV on the ratio of the ~50 kDa DDC monomer and a ~120 kDa DDC complex, while the NS5A protein has a negative effect on total DDC protein levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Virus Research in Greece)
Communication
Prevalence of Common Viral Skin Infections in Beach Volleyball Athletes
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13112107 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Viral skin infections often affect the sports community. The aim of this study was to assess the rates, location sites, and seasons of appearance of common viral cutaneous diseases in beach volleyball athletes in Greece. Five hundred and forty-nine beach volleyball athletes participated [...] Read more.
Viral skin infections often affect the sports community. The aim of this study was to assess the rates, location sites, and seasons of appearance of common viral cutaneous diseases in beach volleyball athletes in Greece. Five hundred and forty-nine beach volleyball athletes participated in this study. The average age was 28.4 years. The viral infections were herpes simplex (type 1), molluscum contagiosum and warts. The measured parameters included: gender, age, the season when athletes may be more susceptible to infections and the location of infection in the body. Practicing information such as the number of training years, number of weekly trainings, and average hours of daily training was also recorded. Incidence rates correlated in relation to age: (a) warts (p < 0.001), molluscum contagiosum (p < 0.001), and herpes simplex (p = 0.001); (b) years of training: warts (p < 0.001), molluscum contagiosum (p < 0.001), and herpes simplex (p = 0.004); (c) average hours of daily training: molluscum contagiosum (p = 0.006) and herpes simplex (p < 0.010). The skin is the largest organ, and the risk of infection should not be underestimated. Prevention, early detection, recognition, and treatment are related to health and athletic performance, but also to the risk of transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Virus Research in Greece)

Other

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Case Report
SARS-CoV-2 Antigenemia as a Confounding Factor in Immunodiagnostic Assays: A Case Study
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v13061143 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Humoral immunity has emerged as a vital immune component against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Nevertheless, a subset of recovered Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) paucisymptomatic/asymptomatic individuals do not generate an antibody response, constituting a paradox. We assumed that immunodiagnostic assays may operate [...] Read more.
Humoral immunity has emerged as a vital immune component against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Nevertheless, a subset of recovered Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) paucisymptomatic/asymptomatic individuals do not generate an antibody response, constituting a paradox. We assumed that immunodiagnostic assays may operate under a competitive format within the context of antigenemia, potentially explaining this phenomenon. We present a case where persistent antigenemia/viremia was documented for at least 73 days post-symptom onset using ‘in-house’ methodology, and as it progressively declined, seroconversion took place late, around day 55, supporting our hypothesis. Thus, prolonged SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia/viremia could mask humoral responses, rendering, in certain cases, the phenomenon of ‘non-responders’ a misnomer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Virus Research in Greece)
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