Special Issue "Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lahcen Zouhri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
AGHYLE, Institut Polytechnique UniLaSalle Beauvais, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 341719 rue Pierre Waguet, F-60026 Beauvais Cedex, France
Interests: environmental impact assessment, water quality, sustainable development, water resources engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater Assessment allows to knowledge the management and the governance of water resources. This assessment is based on the hydrogeological characterization of aquifers (porous media, fractured, karst, transboundary and coastal systems) that is coupled to industrial, environmental and social factors.  The groundwater assessment requires a development of methods and tools who have not stopped evolving according to the thematic assessments as marine intrusion, mining activities, supply of water, exploration of the new water resources.  Over the years, the degradation of the quantitative and qualitative of water resources are identified in the worldwide and due especially to the urbanization, drying of shallow wells, modification of the recharge area, intensive pumping resources in deeper wells, additions of new wells, intensive use particularly for industrial, agricultural activities and domestic water supply.

This Special Issue brings together emerging approaches related to the methods and tools of the groundwater assessment. This has led to emphasis on planned and optimal development in terms of quality and quantity of water resources, groundwater extraction assessments and groundwater quantity estimates in order to knowledge the comprehension of hydrogeological parameters that characterize the physics of groundwater flow in aquifers which are considered as an important stage for groundwater resource assessments, to assess the groundwater flow system including seasonal groundwater and discharge annual recharge. The present special issue draws from worldwide hydrogeological investigations in the fields, laboratory approaches, numerical simulations of groundwater flow and modelling of the contaminant transfer and multidisciplinary approaches which are conducted for a better assessment of resources in heterogeneous hydrogeological systems.

Dr. Lahcen Zouhri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • Assessment
  • Hydrogeological characterization
  • Recharge
  • Conaminants transfert
  • Hydrogeological modelling
  • Groundwater flow
  • Environmental impact

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Identification of Hydrodynamic Dispersion Tensor by Optimization Algorithm Based LBM/CMA-ES Combination
Water 2022, 14(1), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w14010125 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 115
Abstract
The hydrodynamic dispersion tensor (HDT) of a porous medium is a key parameter in engineering and environmental sciences. Its knowledge allows for example, to accurately predict the propagation of a pollution front induced by a surface (or subsurface) flow. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
The hydrodynamic dispersion tensor (HDT) of a porous medium is a key parameter in engineering and environmental sciences. Its knowledge allows for example, to accurately predict the propagation of a pollution front induced by a surface (or subsurface) flow. This paper proposes a new mathematical model based on inverse problem-solving techniques to identify the HDT (noted D=) of the studied porous medium. We then showed that in practice, this new model can be written in the form of an integrated optimization algorithm (IOA). The IOA is based on the numerical solution of the direct problem (which solves the convection–diffusion type transport equation) and the optimization of the error function between the simulated concentration field and that observed at the application site. The partial differential equations of the direct model were solved by high resolution of (Δx=Δy=1 m) Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) whose computational code is named HYDRODISP-LBM (HYDRO-DISpersion by LBM). As for the optimization step, we opted for the CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy) algorithm. Our choice for these two methods was motivated by their excellent performance proven in the abundant literature. The paper describes in detail the operation of the coupling of the two computer codes forming the IOA that we have named HYDRODISP-LBM/CMA-ES. Finally, the IOA was applied at the Beauvais experimental site to identify the HDT D=. The geological analyzes of this site showed that the tensor identified by the IOA is in perfect agreement with the characteristics of the geological formation of the site which are connected with the mixing processes of the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Rainwater Harvesting to Address Current and Forecasted Domestic Water Scarcity: Application to Arid and Semi-Arid Areas
Water 2021, 13(24), 3583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13243583 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
This paper discusses the effectiveness of rooftops rainwater harvesting (RRWH) in addressing domestic water scarcity, emphasizing the West Bank (Palestine) as an example of arid to semi-arid areas with limited water resources. The paper deals with the actual and future water demand by [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the effectiveness of rooftops rainwater harvesting (RRWH) in addressing domestic water scarcity, emphasizing the West Bank (Palestine) as an example of arid to semi-arid areas with limited water resources. The paper deals with the actual and future water demand by considering climate-change impact and urban growth. The analysis is based on the evaluation of (i) the supply–demand balance index (SDBI), which designates the ratio between the total water supply (TWS) and total water demand (TWD), and (ii) the potential of RRWH. Applying this methodology to the West Bank shows that the potential RRWH can contribute by about 40 million cubic meters/year in 2020, which is approximately the same amount of water as the municipal water supply (42 million cubic meters/year). This contribution can effectively reduce the suffering governorates from 64% to 27% in 2020. Furthermore, it can support water-related decision-makers in the arid to semi-arid areas in formulating efficient and sustainable water resources strategies. The analysis also shows that the domestic water scarcity in 2050 will be worse than in 2020 for all governorates. For example, 73% of the West Bank governorates are expected to suffer from extreme to acute water scarcity in 2050 compared to 64% in 2020. Thus, RRWH appears to be highly efficient in mitigating the current and future domestic water scarcity in the West Bank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Identification of Preferential Runoff Belts in Jinan Spring Basin Based on Hydrological Time-Series Correlation
Water 2021, 13(22), 3255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13223255 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The Jinan karst system is one of the typical karst systems in North China. The karst springs in Jinan are important historical heritage in China. However, in recent years, due to urbanization and the excessive exploitation of groundwater resources in Jinan City, the [...] Read more.
The Jinan karst system is one of the typical karst systems in North China. The karst springs in Jinan are important historical heritage in China. However, in recent years, due to urbanization and the excessive exploitation of groundwater resources in Jinan City, the rate of spring flow has decreased tremendously. Preferential runoff belts are channels of karst aquifers where fractures and conduits are well-developed and serve as the main pathways for groundwater movement and solute transport. In view of this, a study was conducted in the Jinan Spring Basin to identify preferential runoff belts based on hydrological time-series correlation. Firstly, through cross wavelet transform and Pearson correlation coefficient, the time-lag and correlation of spring water level and precipitation were analyzed, the result show that the precipitation in the areas of Xinglong, Donghongmiao, Qiujiazhuang, Xiying, Yanzishan and Liubu stations has a greater impact on spring water level. In addition, combined with the hydrogeological conditions of the Jinan Spring Basin, the above stations meet the characteristics of the preferential runoff belt. In conclusion, the above stations are most likely to be located on the preferential runoff belt. The results of this study can serve as great reference points for building a correct hydrogeological conceptual model, and for the future planning of spring protection measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Characterization of Regional Groundwater System Based on Aquifer Response to Recharge–Discharge Phenomenon and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis
Water 2021, 13(18), 2535; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13182535 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
The investigations of groundwater hydrograph reasonably reflect the aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon and its characteristics. A better understanding of aquifer characteristics such as regional aquifer classification, recharge and discharge patterns, aquifer geology and flow patterns are the surface indicators that may be [...] Read more.
The investigations of groundwater hydrograph reasonably reflect the aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon and its characteristics. A better understanding of aquifer characteristics such as regional aquifer classification, recharge and discharge patterns, aquifer geology and flow patterns are the surface indicators that may be more effective and less costly for interpreting basic regional hydrogeological conditions and assessments. This study deals with the application of Hierarchical Clustering Analysis to understand the groundwater spatio-temporal patterns and to visualize/classify the nature of the aquifer in the regional area of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Groundwater level fluctuation patterns and slopes of rising and recession limbs are used to identify the pumping effects and classify aquifers. The results of clustering analysis show that the groundwater observation wells in the study area can be divided into five major characteristics along with the upstream to downstream of Kaoping River. The clusters are consistent with basic lithology distribution and age of sedimentary, which represents the characteristics of groundwater level fluctuation. The identified groundwater hydrographs patterns provide newer insights related to aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon, types of aquifers and their behaviors. The knowledge of water level fluctuations in the observation wells provides a piece of prior information about the abstraction of groundwater. The proposed aquifer classification and pumping effect have great potential for applied use in groundwater management e.g., save drilling cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Parameter Identification by High-Resolution Inverse Numerical Model Based on LBM/CMA-ES: Application to Chalk Aquifer (North of France)
Water 2021, 13(11), 1574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13111574 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
The present paper proposes the numerical solution of an inverse problem in groundwater flow (Darcy’s equation). This solution was achieved by combining a high-resolution new code HYSFLO-LBM (Hydrodynamic of Subsurface Flow by Lattice Boltzmann Method), based on LBM, to solve the direct problem, [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes the numerical solution of an inverse problem in groundwater flow (Darcy’s equation). This solution was achieved by combining a high-resolution new code HYSFLO-LBM (Hydrodynamic of Subsurface Flow by Lattice Boltzmann Method), based on LBM, to solve the direct problem, and the metaheuristic optimization algorithm CMA-ES ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy) to solve the optimization step. The integrated optimization algorithm which resulted from this combination, HYSFLO-LBM/CMA-ES, was applied to the hydrogeological experimental site of Beauvais (Northern France), instrumented by a set of sensors distributed over 20 hydrogeological wells. Hydrogeological parameters measured by the sensors are necessary to understand the aquifer functioning and to serve as input data for the identification of the transmissivity field by the HYSFLO-LBM/CMA-ES code. Results demonstrated an excellent concordance between the integrated optimization algorithm and hydrogeological applied methods (pumping test and magnetic resonance sounding). The spatial distribution of the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are related to the heterogeneous distribution of aquifer formations. The LBM and CMA-ES were chosen for their proven excellent performance and lesser cost, in terms of both money and time, unlike the geophysical survey and pumping test. The model can be used and developed as a decision support tool for integrated water resources management in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Transmissivity Estimates by Specific Capacity Data of Some Fractured Italian Carbonate Aquifers
Water 2021, 13(10), 1374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13101374 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 582
Abstract
Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires checking non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow related to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity values to specific capacity data measured [...] Read more.
Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires checking non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow related to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity values to specific capacity data measured in the same well. The interpretation of available pumping tests highlights porous media solutions’ applicability in most of the step-drawdown curves analyzed. Double or triple porosity approaches are more appropriate only for wells located close to fault systems. In this work, a new relationship to estimate transmissivity by specific capacity data in some Italian carbonate aquifers is proposed. The comparison with other relationships available in the literature for similar aquifers worldwide confirms the validity of a general equation for carbonate aquifers, helping the spatial characterization of aquifer transmissivity in scarce data regions. Nonetheless, the use of equations of the same kind with different coefficients allows good results on our set of data. Results can improve the knowledge of fractured–karst aquifers by also including data from Central Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
The Effects of Exchange Flow on the Karst Spring Hydrograph under the Different Flow Regimes: A Synthetic Modeling Approach
Water 2021, 13(9), 1189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13091189 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
In this study, a synthetic modeling approach is proposed to quantify the effect of the amount and direction of the exchange flow on the karstic spring discharge fluctuations under different hydrologic conditions corresponding to high and low flow conditions. We hypothesis that the [...] Read more.
In this study, a synthetic modeling approach is proposed to quantify the effect of the amount and direction of the exchange flow on the karstic spring discharge fluctuations under different hydrologic conditions corresponding to high and low flow conditions. We hypothesis that the spring discharge fluctuations constitute a valuable proxy to understand the internal processes of the karst system. An ensemble of spring hydrographs was synthetically produced to highlight the effect of exchange flow by exploring the plausible range of variability of coefficients of exchange flow, conduit diameter, and matrix hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the change of the rate of point recharge through the karst conduit allows for the quantifying of the sensibility of the spring hydrograph to the directions of exchange flow. We show that increasing the point recharge lies to a remarkable linear recession coefficient (β) as an indication of the conduit flow regime. However, a reduction in and/or lack of the point recharge caused the recession coefficient to change to exponential (α) due to the dominant effect of the matrix restrained flow regime and/or conduit-influenced flow regime. The simulations highlight that the exchange flow process from the conduit to the matrix occurred in a short period and over a restricted part of the conduit flow regime (CFR). Conversely, the exchange flow dumped from the matrix to the conduit occurs as a long-term process. A conceptual model is introduced to compare spring hydrographs’ characteristics (i.e., the peak discharge, the volume of baseflow, and the slope of the recession curve) under the various flow conditions with the directions of the exchange flow between the conduit and the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Predicting Groundwater Vulnerability to Geogenic Fluoride Risk: A Screening Method for Malawi and an Opportunity for National Policy Redefinition
Water 2020, 12(11), 3123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w12113123 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Fluoride concentrations in Malawi’s groundwater are primarily controlled by geogenic sources that are highly variable and may cause a heterogeneous fluoride occurrence and local-to-regional variations in fluorosis health risks posed. Our aim was to address the challenge of developing a national solution to [...] Read more.
Fluoride concentrations in Malawi’s groundwater are primarily controlled by geogenic sources that are highly variable and may cause a heterogeneous fluoride occurrence and local-to-regional variations in fluorosis health risks posed. Our aim was to address the challenge of developing a national solution to predicting groundwater vulnerability to geogenic fluoride risk in the country of Malawi where incidences of fluorosis are reported and typical developing world problems of limited data and resources abound. Previously there have only been sporadic, local-scale studies linking fluoride occurrence with health risks in Malawi with no attempts to tackle the issue nationally. We hence develop a screening method for predicting groundwater vulnerability to geogenic fluoride in the form of detailed risk maps developed from statistical relationships shown between groundwater fluoride occurrence and known geogenic fluoride sources. The approach provides for dynamic update and informed acquisition of new data and hence on-going improving capacity to manage fluoride risks in Malawi. Our screening method provides a technical basis for redefining national fluoride policy to ensure commensurate management of health risks posed. Specifically, the approach provides a pathway for stepped progression from the current 6 mg/L Malawian standard for fluoride in drinking water to adoption of the World Health Organisation 1.5 mg/L guideline standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to seawater intrusion using GALDIT method and effect of artificial recharge in Chiba coastal aquifer of Tunisia

Adel Zghibi 1,*, Amira Merzougui 2, Mohamed Haythem Msaddek 1, Ali Mirchi 3,
Lahcen Zouhri 4, Jean-Denis Taupin 5, Anis Chekirbane 6, and Jamila Tarhouni 2

1   University of Tunis El Manar, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Department of Geology, LR18 ES37 Geo-dynamics, Geo-numerics and Geo-materials Laboratory, 2092, Tunis–El Manar, Tunisia; [email protected] (A.Z.); [email protected] (M.H.M.)

2   University of Carthage, National Institute of Agronomy, 1082, Tunis, Tunisia; [email protected] (A.M.); [email protected] (J.T.)

3   Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 111 Agricultural Hall, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA; [email protected] (A.M)

4   AGYLE, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, Polytechnic Institute UniLaSalle Beauvais, 19 Pierre Waguet Street, 60026, Beauvais, France ; [email protected] (L.Z)

5   HSM, Univ. Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, 34090, Montpellier, France; [email protected] (J-D.T)

6   Georesources Laboratory, Water Research and Technology Centre, Borj Cedria Ecopark 8, P.O. Box 273, 8020, Soliman, Tunisia; [email protected] (A.C)

*   Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +216 20818146

 Abstract: Excessive groundwater pumping is a global problem which severely affects the dry areas where surface water is scant or inexistent. The Chiba coastal area of Cap-Bon peninsula (NE of Tunisia) are primarily concerned because groundwater over-pumping results in seawater intrusion (SWI) and causes degradation of the unique renewable water resource. Despite the implementation of several measures, such as the diffusion of water-saving technology, freezing on drilling new wells, and water importation via the Medjerda Cap-Bon Canal, groundwater levels continue to decline and SWI is steadily progressing in most of the coastal areas. In addition, it is needed a study on intrinsic groundwater vulnerability assessment to SWI in this stressed area. GALDIT is an index-based SWI vulnerability model that is increasingly being used in many parts of the world to identify regions that are vulnerable to various types of SWI based on six major parameters and also to analyse the impact of artificial recharge in minimizing the SWI for coastal aquifers. Thematic maps of factors influencing SWI and artificial recharge were prepared and overlaid using Geographical Information System (GIS). Based on GALDIT Index, the aquifer vulnerability index mapping was carried out. The intrinsic vulnerability rate which classified from GALDIT index were very high in the areas close to the Mediterranean sea, high in the centre part, moderate to low in the northeast area. Further, the vulnerable areas are reclassified into two zones: good and poor potential recharge areas. The influence of artificial recharge in pushing the freshwater-seawater interface towards the sea was simulated. For different options of surface water availability and artificial recharge, the possibility of remedial measures of SWI is estimated.

Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability index; GALDIT Index; Artificial recharge; seawater intrusion (SWI)

 

2.  Coupling of the SHSLBM method and the evolutionary algorithm for transmissivity identification of aquifers: Application to the Beauvais site (Oise, France)

Hassan Smaoui, Sami Kaidi and Lahcen Zouhri

Abstract: The paper we are proposing concerns the implementation of a new variant of the Boltzmann lattice method called “SHSLBM” (Simplified and Highly Stable Lattice Boltzmann Method) for the hydrodynamics numerical modeling of the Beauvais aquifer (Oise, France). The developed model will be coupled with an optimization module of the evolutionary algorithm type to identify in a precise and robust way the transmissivity coefficient field which characterizes the flow of the studied groundwater.

3. Coupling of the SHSLBM method and the evolutionary algorithm for transmissivity identification of aquifers: Application to the Beauvais site (Oise, France)

Hassan Smaoui, Sami Kaidi and Lahcen Zouhri

Abstract: The paper we are proposing concerns the implementation of a new variant of the Boltzmann lattice method called “SHSLBM” (Simplified and Highly Stable Lattice Boltzmann Method) for the hydrodynamics numerical modeling of the Beauvais aquifer (Oise, France). The developed model will be coupled with an optimization module of the evolutionary algorithm type to identify in a precise and robust way the transmissivity coefficient field which characterizes the flow of the studied groundwater.

 

4. *Title*: Transmissivity estimates by specific capacity data of fractured carbonate aquifers (Umbria Region, Central Italy)

*Authors*: Lucio Di Matteo, Costanza Cambi, Roberto Checucci, Daniela Valigi.

*Short abstract*: Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires corrections for non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow due to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity (T) values to specific capacity (Sc) data measured in the same well. Several studies in the literature presented T = f(Sc) relationships for different aquifer types (fractured rocks, sandstones, alluvial, etc.). Among these, Fabbri (1997), Mace (1997), and Hsu and Chou, (2019) analyzed fractured and karst rocks. The present work shows a new relationship to estimate T by Sc data. Results are compared with other relationships for similar aquifers worldwide, improving the knowledge of fractured-karst aquifers, also considering data from Central Italy. 

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