Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14080223

Authors: Kifayat Ullah Muhammad Safi Ullah Khan Manuel de la Sen

In this paper, we provide and study the concept of multi-valued generalized (α,β)-nonexpansive mappings, which is the multi-valued version of the recently developed generalized (α,β)-nonexpansive mappings. We establish some elementary properties and fixed point existence results for these mappings. Moreover, a multi-valued version of the M-iterative scheme is proposed for approximating fixed points of these mappings in the weak and strong senses. Using an example, we also show that M-iterative scheme converges faster as compared to many other schemes for this class of mappings.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14080222

Authors: Hailemariam Abebe Tekile Michele Fedrizzi Matteo Brunelli

Pairwise comparison matrices play a prominent role in multiple-criteria decision-making, particularly in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Another form of preference modeling, called an incomplete pairwise comparison matrix, is considered when one or more elements are missing. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for the optimal completion of an incomplete matrix. Our intention is to numerically minimize a maximum eigenvalue function, which is difficult to write explicitly in terms of variables, subject to interval constraints. Numerical simulations are carried out in order to examine the performance of the algorithm. The results of our simulations show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to solve the minimization of the constrained eigenvalue problem. We provided illustrative examples to show the simplex procedures obtained by the proposed algorithm, and how well it fills in the given incomplete matrices.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14080221

Authors: Zhihui Du Oliver Alvarado Rodriguez Joseph Patchett David A. Bader

Data from emerging applications, such as cybersecurity and social networking, can be abstracted as graphs whose edges are updated sequentially in the form of a stream. The challenging problem of interactive graph stream analytics is the quick response of the queries on terabyte and beyond graph stream data from end users. In this paper, a succinct and efficient double index data structure is designed to build the sketch of a graph stream to meet general queries. A single pass stream model, which includes general sketch building, distributed sketch based analysis algorithms and regression based approximation solution generation, is developed, and a typical graph algorithm—triangle counting—is implemented to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental results on power law and normal distribution graph streams show that our method can generate accurate results (mean relative error less than 4%) with a high performance. All our methods and code have been implemented in an open source framework, Arkouda, and are available from our GitHub repository, Bader-Research. This work provides the large and rapidly growing Python community with a powerful way to handle terabyte and beyond graph stream data using their laptops.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14080220

Authors: Spyros Kontogiannis Andreas Paraskevopoulos Christos Zaroliagis

We consider the problem of computing a set of meaningful alternative origin-to-destination routes, in real-world road network instances whose arcs are accompanied by travel-time functions rather than fixed costs. In this time-dependent alternative route scenario, we present a novel query algorithm, called Time-Dependent Alternative Graph (TDAG), that exploits the outcome of a time-consuming preprocessing phase to create a manageable amount of travel-time metadata, in order to provide answers for arbitrary alternative-routes queries, in only a few milliseconds for continental-size instances. The resulting set of alternative routes is aggregated in the form of a time-dependent alternative graph, which is characterized by the minimum route overlap, small stretch factor, small size, and low complexity. To our knowledge, this is the first work that deals with the time-dependent setting in the framework of alternative routes. The preprocessed metadata prescribe the minimum travel-time informations between a small set of “landmark” nodes and all other nodes in the graph. The TDAG query algorithm carries out the work in two distinct phases: initially, a collection phase constructs candidate alternative routes; consequently, a pruning phase cautiously discards uninteresting or low-quality routes from the candidate set. Our experimental evaluation on real-world, time-dependent road networks demonstrates that TDAG performed much better (by one or two orders of magnitude) than the existing baseline approaches.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14080219

Authors: Dhananjay Thiruvady Kerri Morgan Susan Bedingfield Asef Nazari

The increasing demand for work-ready students has heightened the need for universities to provide work integrated learning programs to enhance and reinforce students’ learning experiences. Students benefit most when placements meet their academic requirements and graduate aspirations. Businesses and community partners are more engaged when they are allocated students that meet their industry requirements. In this paper, both an integer programming model and an ant colony optimisation heuristic are proposed, with the aim of automating the allocation of students to industry placements. The emphasis is on maximising student engagement and industry partner satisfaction. As part of the objectives, these methods incorporate diversity in industry sectors for students undertaking multiple placements, gender equity across placement providers, and the provision for partners to rank student selections. The experimental analysis is in two parts: (a) we investigate how the integer programming model performs against manual allocations and (b) the scalability of the IP model is examined. The results show that the IP model easily outperforms the previous manual allocations. Additionally, an artificial dataset is generated which has similar properties to the original data but also includes greater numbers of students and placements to test the scalability of the algorithms. The results show that integer programming is the best option for problem instances consisting of less than 3000 students. When the problem becomes larger, significantly increasing the time required for an IP solution, ant colony optimisation provides a useful alternative as it is always able to find good feasible solutions within short time-frames.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14080218

Authors: João V. Roque João D. Lopes Mário P. Véstias José T. de Sousa

Open-source processors are increasingly being adopted by the industry, which requires all sorts of open-source implementations of peripherals and other system-on-chip modules. Despite the recent advent of open-source hardware, the available open-source caches have low configurability, limited lack of support for single-cycle pipelined memory accesses, and use non-standard hardware interfaces. In this paper, the IObundle cache (IOb-Cache), a high-performance configurable open-source cache is proposed, developed and deployed. The cache has front-end and back-end modules for fast integration with processors and memory controllers. The front-end module supports the native interface, and the back-end module supports the native interface and the standard Advanced eXtensible Interface (AXI). The cache is highly configurable in structure and access policies. The back-end can be configured to read bursts of multiple words per transfer to take advantage of the available memory bandwidth. To the best of our knowledge, IOb-Cache is currently the only configurable cache that supports pipelined Central Processing Unit (CPU) interfaces and AXI memory bus interface. Additionally, it has a write-through buffer and an independent controller for fast, most of the time 1-cycle writing together with 1-cycle reading, while previous works only support 1-cycle reading. This allows the best clocks-per-Instruction (CPI) to be close to one (1.055). IOb-Cache is integrated into IOb System-on-Chip (IOb-SoC) Github repository, which has 29 stars and is already being used in 50 projects (forks).

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070217

Authors: Heru Purboyo Hidayat Putro Pradono Pradono Titus Hari Setiawan

Multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA) was developed with a process involving the participation of various stakeholders. Stakeholders express various criteria as measures for the achievement of their respective goals. In general, the assessment of each stakeholder is considered to have the same weight. In reality, the weight of each stakeholder’s involvement in policy decision making is not the same. For example, the government’s assessment weight will be different from those of local business actors. In this study, the authors developed a multi-actor multi-criteria analysis method by adding the weight of stakeholder involvement when making decisions about transportation policies that support sustainable mobility in protected natural–cultural tourism areas. The weight of involvement was developed through stakeholder participation. Stakeholders were asked to provide weights for all stakeholders other than themselves using the AHP method. The results of this weighting were then averaged and considered as the stakeholder assessment weights. Adding stakeholder weighting can also improve the quality of decisions by avoiding bias and following the principle of fairness in the assessment.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070216

Authors: Abdullah Y. Muaad Hanumanthappa Jayappa Mugahed A. Al-antari Sungyoung Lee

Arabic text classification is a process to simultaneously categorize the different contextual Arabic contents into a proper category. In this paper, a novel deep learning Arabic text computer-aided recognition (ArCAR) is proposed to represent and recognize Arabic text at the character level. The input Arabic text is quantized in the form of 1D vectors for each Arabic character to represent a 2D array for the ArCAR system. The ArCAR system is validated over 5-fold cross-validation tests for two applications: Arabic text document classification and Arabic sentiment analysis. For document classification, the ArCAR system achieves the best performance using the Alarabiya-balance dataset in terms of overall accuracy, recall, precision, and F1-score by 97.76%, 94.08%, 94.16%, and 94.09%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ArCAR performs well for Arabic sentiment analysis, achieving the best performance using the hotel Arabic reviews dataset (HARD) balance dataset in terms of overall accuracy and F1-score by 93.58% and 93.23%, respectively. The proposed ArCAR seems to provide a practical solution for accurate Arabic text representation, understanding, and classification.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070215

Authors: Faraz Bhatti Thomas Greiner

Plenoptic camera based system captures the light-field that can be exploited to estimate the 3D depth of the scene. This process generally consists of a significant number of recurrent operations, and thus requires high computation power. General purpose processor based system, due to its sequential architecture, consequently results in the problem of large execution time. A desktop graphics processing unit (GPU) can be employed to resolve this problem. However, it is an expensive solution with respect to power consumption and therefore cannot be used in mobile applications with low energy requirements. In this paper, we propose a modified plenoptic depth estimation algorithm that works on a single frame recorded by the camera and respective FPGA based hardware design. For this purpose, the algorithm is modified for parallelization and pipelining. In combination with efficient memory access, the results show good performance and lower power consumption compared to other systems.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070214

Authors: Sara Ebrahimi Aminah Robinson Fayek Vuppuluri Sumati

This paper presents a novel approach, using hybrid feature selection (HFS), machine learning (ML), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict and optimize construction labor productivity (CLP). HFS selects factors that are most predictive of CLP to reduce the complexity of CLP data. Selected factors are used as inputs for four ML models for CLP prediction. The study results showed that random forest (RF) obtains better performance in mapping the relationship between CLP and selected factors affecting CLP, compared with the other three models. Finally, the integration of RF and PSO is developed to identify the maximum CLP value and the optimum value of each selected factor. This paper introduces a new hybrid model named HFS-RF-PSO that addresses the main limitation of existing CLP prediction studies, which is the lack of capacity to optimize CLP and its most predictive factors with respect to a construction company’s preferences, such as a targeted CLP. The major contribution of this paper is the development of the hybrid HFS-RF-PSO model as a novel approach for optimizing factors that influence CLP and identifying the maximum CLP value.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070213

Authors: Sharif Noor Zisad Etu Chowdhury Mohammad Shahadat Hossain Raihan Ul Islam Karl Andersson

Visual sentiment analysis has become more popular than textual ones in various domains for decision-making purposes. On account of this, we develop a visual sentiment analysis system, which can classify image expression. The system classifies images by taking into account six different expressions such as anger, joy, love, surprise, fear, and sadness. In our study, we propose an expert system by integrating a Deep Learning method with a Belief Rule Base (known as the BRB-DL approach) to assess an image’s overall sentiment under uncertainty. This BRB-DL approach includes both the data-driven and knowledge-driven techniques to determine the overall sentiment. Our integrated expert system outperforms the state-of-the-art methods of visual sentiment analysis with promising results. The integrated system can classify images with 86% accuracy. The system can be beneficial to understand the emotional tendency and psychological state of an individual.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070212

Authors: Youssef Skandarani Pierre-Marc Jodoin Alain Lalande

Deep learning methods are the de facto solutions to a multitude of medical image analysis tasks. Cardiac MRI segmentation is one such application, which, like many others, requires a large number of annotated data so that a trained network can generalize well. Unfortunately, the process of having a large number of manually curated images by medical experts is both slow and utterly expensive. In this paper, we set out to explore whether expert knowledge is a strict requirement for the creation of annotated data sets on which machine learning can successfully be trained. To do so, we gauged the performance of three segmentation models, namely U-Net, Attention U-Net, and ENet, trained with different loss functions on expert and non-expert ground truth for cardiac cine–MRI segmentation. Evaluation was done with classic segmentation metrics (Dice index and Hausdorff distance) as well as clinical measurements, such as the ventricular ejection fractions and the myocardial mass. The results reveal that generalization performances of a segmentation neural network trained on non-expert ground truth data is, to all practical purposes, as good as that trained on expert ground truth data, particularly when the non-expert receives a decent level of training, highlighting an opportunity for the efficient and cost-effective creation of annotations for cardiac data sets.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070211

Authors: Alia Al Sadawi Abdulrahim Shamayleh Malick Ndiaye

The financial data supply chain is vital to the economy, especially for banks. It affects their customer service level, therefore, it is crucial to manage the scheduling of the financial data supply chain to elevate the efficiency of banking sectors’ performance. The primary tool used in the data supply chain is data batch processing which requires efficient scheduling. This work investigates the problem of scheduling the processing of tasks with non-identical sizes and different priorities on a set of parallel processors. An iterative dynamic scheduling algorithm (DCSDBP) was developed to address the data batching process. The objective is to minimize different cost types while satisfying constraints such as resources availability, customer service level, and tasks dependency relation. The algorithm proved its effectiveness by allocating tasks with higher priority and weight while taking into consideration customers’ Service Level Agreement, time, and different types of costs, which led to a lower total cost of the batching process. The developed algorithm proved effective by testing it on an illustrative network. Also, a sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the model parameters for networks with different sizes and complexities to study their impact on the total cost and the problem under study.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070210

Authors: Eliana Maria Gonzalez-Neira Jairo R. Montoya-Torres Jose-Fernando Jimenez

This paper proposes a hybridized simheuristic approach that couples a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a Monte Carlo simulation, a Pareto archived evolution strategy (PAES), and an analytic hierarchy process (AHP), in order to solve a multicriteria stochastic permutation flow shop problem with stochastic processing times and stochastic sequence-dependent setup times. For the decisional criteria, the proposed approach considers four objective functions, including two quantitative and two qualitative criteria. While the expected value and the standard deviation of the earliness/tardiness of jobs are included in the quantitative criteria to address a robust solution in a just-in-time environment, this approach also includes a qualitative assessment of the product and customer importance in order to appraise a weighted priority for each job. An experimental design was carried out in several study instances of the flow shop problem to test the effects of the processing times and sequence-dependent setup times, obtained through lognormal and uniform probability distributions with three levels of coefficients of variation, settled as 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The results show that both probability distributions and coefficients of variation have a significant effect on the four decision criteria selected. In addition, the analytical hierarchical process makes it possible to choose the best sequence exhibited by the Pareto frontier that adjusts more adequately to the decision-makers’ objectives.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070209

Authors: Mingyang Huang Chenglin Liu Liang Shan

This paper investigates the containment control problem of discrete-time first-order multi-agent system composed of multiple leaders and followers, and we propose a proportional-integral (PI) coordination control protocol. Assume that each follower has a directed path to one leader, and we consider several cases according to different topologies composed of the followers. Under the general directed topology that has a spanning tree, the frequency-domain analysis method is used to obtain the sufficient convergence condition for the followers achieving the containment-rendezvous that all the followers reach an agreement value in the convex hull formed by the leaders. Specially, a less conservative sufficient condition is obtained for the followers under symmetric and connected topology. Furthermore, it is proved that our proposed protocol drives the followers with unconnected topology to converge to the convex hull of the leaders. Numerical examples show the correctness of the theoretical results.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070208

Authors: Jinsong Zhang Yongtao Peng Bo Ren Taoying Li

The concentration of PM2.5 is an important index to measure the degree of air pollution. When it exceeds the standard value, it is considered to cause pollution and lower the air quality, which is harmful to human health and can cause a variety of diseases, i.e., asthma, chronic bronchitis, etc. Therefore, the prediction of PM2.5 concentration is helpful to reduce its harm. In this paper, a hybrid model called CNN-BiLSTM-Attention is proposed to predict the PM2.5 concentration over the next two days. First, we select the PM2.5 concentration data in hours from January 2013 to February 2017 of Shunyi District, Beijing. The auxiliary data includes air quality data and meteorological data. We use the sliding window method for preprocessing and dividing the corresponding data into a training set, a validation set, and a test set. Second, CNN-BiLSTM-Attention is composed of the convolutional neural network, bidirectional long short-term memory neural network, and attention mechanism. The parameters of this network structure are determined by the minimum error in the training process, including the size of the convolution kernel, activation function, batch size, dropout rate, learning rate, etc. We determine the feature size of the input and output by evaluating the performance of the model, finding out the best output for the next 48 h. Third, in the experimental part, we use the test set to check the performance of the proposed CNN-BiLSTM-Attention on PM2.5 prediction, which is compared by other comparison models, i.e., lasso regression, ridge regression, XGBOOST, SVR, CNN-LSTM, and CNN-BiLSTM. We conduct short-term prediction (48 h) and long-term prediction (72 h, 96 h, 120 h, 144 h), respectively. The results demonstrate that even the predictions of the next 144 h with CNN-BiLSTM-Attention is better than the predictions of the next 48 h with the comparison models in terms of mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R2).

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070207

Authors: Ioannis K. Argyros Debasis Sharma Christopher I. Argyros Sanjaya Kumar Parhi Shanta Kumari Sunanda Michael I. Argyros

A variety of strategies are used to construct algorithms for solving equations. However, higher order derivatives are usually assumed to calculate the convergence order. More importantly, bounds on error and uniqueness regions for the solution are also not derived. Therefore, the benefits of these algorithms are limited. We simply use the first derivative to tackle all these issues and study the ball analysis for two sixth order algorithms under the same set of conditions. In addition, we present a calculable ball comparison between these algorithms. In this manner, we enhance the utility of these algorithms. Our idea is very general. That is why it can also be used to extend other algorithms as well in the same way.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070206

Authors: Omar Salah Abdulrahim Shamayleh Shayok Mukhopadhyay

This work focuses on energy management for a system operated by multiple energy sources which include batteries, super capacitors, a hydrogen fuel cell, and a photovoltaic cell. The overall objective is to minimize the power consumption from all sources needed to satisfy the system’s power demand by optimizing the switching between the different energy sources. A dynamic mathematical model representing the energy sources is developed taking into account the different constraints on the system, i.e., primarily the state-of-charge of the battery and the super capacitors. In addition to the model, a heuristic approach is developed and compared with the mathematical model. Both approaches were tested on a multi-energy source ground robot as a prototype. The novelty of this work is that the scheduling of an energy system consisting of four different types of sources is compared by performing analysis via dynamic programming, and a heuristic approach. The results generated using both methods are analyzed and compared to a standard mode of operation. The comparison validated that the proposed approaches minimize the average power consumption across all sources. The dynamic modeling approach performs well in terms of optimization and provided a superior switching sequence, while the heuristic approach offers the definite advantages in terms of ease of implementation and simple computation requirements. Additionally, the switching sequence provided by the dynamic approach was able to meet the power demand for all simulations performed and showed that the average power consumption across all sources is minimized.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070205

Authors: Andreas Rauh Robert Dehnert Swantje Romig Sabine Lerch Bernd Tibken

Most research activities that utilize linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are based on the assumption that the separation principle of control and observer synthesis holds. This principle states that the combination of separately designed linear state feedback controllers and linear state observers, which are independently proven to be stable, results in overall stable system dynamics. However, even for linear systems, this property does not necessarily hold if polytopic parameter uncertainty and stochastic noise influence the system’s state and output equations. In this case, the control and observer design needs to be performed simultaneously to guarantee stabilization. However, the loss of the validity of the separation principle leads to nonlinear matrix inequalities instead of LMIs. For those nonlinear inequalities, the current paper proposes an iterative LMI solution procedure. If this algorithm produces a feasible solution, the resulting controller and observer gains ensure robust stability of the closed-loop control system for all possible parameter values. In addition, the proposed optimization criterion leads to a minimization of the sensitivity to stochastic noise so that the actual state trajectories converge as closely as possible to the desired operating point. The efficiency of the proposed solution approach is demonstrated by stabilizing the Zeeman catastrophe machine along the unstable branch of its bifurcation diagram. Additionally, an observer-based tracking control task is embedded into an iterative learning-type control framework.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070204

Authors: Wenpeng Ma Wu Yuan Xiazhen Liu

Incomplete Sparse Approximate Inverses (ISAI) has shown some advantages over sparse triangular solves on GPUs when it is used for the incomplete LU based preconditioner. In this paper, we extend the single GPU method for Block–ISAI to multiple GPUs algorithm by coupling Block–Jacobi preconditioner, and introduce the detailed implementation in the open source numerical package PETSc. In the experiments, two representative cases are performed and a comparative study of Block–ISAI on up to four GPUs are conducted on two major generations of NVIDIA’s GPUs (Tesla K20 and Tesla V100). Block–Jacobi preconditioning with Block–ISAI (BJPB-ISAI) shows an advantage over the level-scheduling based triangular solves from the cuSPARSE library for the cases, and the overhead of setting up Block–ISAI and the total wall clock times of GMRES is greatly reduced using Tesla V100 GPUs compared to Tesla K20 GPUs.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070203

Authors: Xiuqing Yang Xinglu Liu Lijuan Feng Jianquan Zhang Mingyao Qi

This paper studies the layout design of a robotic mobile fulfillment system with multiple workstations. This is a parts-to-picker storage system where robots hoist pods and bring them directly to the workstations for stationary pickers to retrieve required items. As few research efforts have focused on determining the optimal locations of workstations in such systems, we develop an integer programming model to determine the location of workstations to minimize the total traveling distance of robots. In addition, we investigate the near-optimal workstation location patterns (i.e., some general workstation configuration rules) in the context of both traditional and flying-V layouts. A series of experiments led to the following findings: (1) the flying-V layout can save 8∼26% of travel distance compared with the traditional layout, and the sacrifice of space use is only 2∼3% for medium or large warehouses; (2) instead of solving the optimization model, the proposed 2n rule and n+1 rule are simple and easily implemented ways to locate workstations, with travel distance gaps of less than 1.5% and 5% for traditional and flying-V layouts, respectively; and (3) the “optimal” cross-aisle angle (i.e., θ) in flying-V layout can be set as large as possible as long as the cross-aisle intersects the left or right edge of the warehouse.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070202

Authors: Yanfeng Gao Cicao Ping Ling Wang Binrui Wang

According to the requirements of point cloud simplification for T-profile steel plate welding in shipbuilding, the disadvantages of the existing simplification algorithms are analyzed. In this paper, a point cloud simplification method is proposed based on octree coding and the threshold of the surface curvature feature. In this method, the original point cloud data are divided into multiple sub-cubes with specified side lengths by octree coding, and the points that are closest to the gravity center of the sub-cube are kept. The k-neighborhood method and the curvature calculation are performed in order to obtain the curvature features of the point cloud. Additionally, the point cloud data are divided into several regions based on the given adjustable curvature threshold. Finally, combining the random sampling method with the simplification method based on the regional gravity center, the T-profile point cloud data can be simplified. In this study, after obtaining the point cloud data of a T-profile plate, the proposed simplification method is compared with some other simplification methods. It is found that the proposed simplification method for the point cloud of the T-profile steel plate for shipbuilding is faster than the three existing simplification methods, while retaining more feature points and having approximately the same reduction rates.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070201

Authors: Charlyn Nayve Villavicencio Julio Jerison Escudero Macrohon Xavier Alphonse Inbaraj Jyh-Horng Jeng Jer-Guang Hsieh

Early diagnosis is crucial to prevent the development of a disease that may cause danger to human lives. COVID-19, which is a contagious disease that has mutated into several variants, has become a global pandemic that demands to be diagnosed as soon as possible. With the use of technology, available information concerning COVID-19 increases each day, and extracting useful information from massive data can be done through data mining. In this study, authors utilized several supervised machine learning algorithms in building a model to analyze and predict the presence of COVID-19 using the COVID-19 Symptoms and Presence dataset from Kaggle. J48 Decision Tree, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors and Naïve Bayes algorithms were applied through WEKA machine learning software. Each model’s performance was evaluated using 10-fold cross validation and compared according to major accuracy measures, correctly or incorrectly classified instances, kappa, mean absolute error, and time taken to build the model. The results show that Support Vector Machine using Pearson VII universal kernel outweighs other algorithms by attaining 98.81% accuracy and a mean absolute error of 0.012.

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Authors: Suleiman Sa’ad Abdullah Muhammed Mohammed Abdullahi Azizol Abdullah Fahrul Hakim Ayob

Recently, cloud computing has begun to experience tremendous growth because government agencies and private organisations are migrating to the cloud environment. Hence, having a task scheduling strategy that is efficient is paramount for effectively improving the prospects of cloud computing. Typically, a certain number of tasks are scheduled to use diverse resources (virtual machines) to minimise the makespan and achieve the optimum utilisation of the system by reducing the response time within the cloud environment. The task scheduling problem is NP-complete; as such, obtaining a precise solution is difficult, particularly for large-scale tasks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a metaheuristic enhanced discrete symbiotic organism search (eDSOS) algorithm for optimal task scheduling in the cloud computing setting. Our proposed algorithm is an extension of the standard symbiotic organism search (SOS), a nature-inspired algorithm that has been implemented to solve various numerical optimisation problems. This algorithm imitates the symbiotic associations (mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism stages) displayed by organisms in an ecosystem. Despite the improvements made with the discrete symbiotic organism search (DSOS) algorithm, it still becomes trapped in local optima due to the large size of the values of the makespan and response time. The local search space of the DSOS is diversified by substituting the best value with any candidate in the population at the mutualism phase of the DSOS algorithm, which makes it worthy for use in task scheduling problems in the cloud. Thus, the eDSOS strategy converges faster when the search space is larger or more prominent due to diversification. The CloudSim simulator was used to conduct the experiment, and the simulation results show that the proposed eDSOS was able to produce a solution with a good quality when compared with that of the DSOS. Lastly, we analysed the proposed strategy by using a two-sample t-test, which revealed that the performance of eDSOS was of significance compared to the benchmark strategy (DSOS), particularly for large search spaces. The percentage improvements were 26.23% for the makespan and 63.34% for the response time.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070199

Authors: Jiangyu Yan Bing Qi

Congestion control is one of the key research topics in relation to the routing algorithms of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we propose a congestion-aware routing algorithm (CARA) for unlimited-lifetime wireless sensor networks by integrating the geographic distance and traffic load of sensor nodes. The algorithm takes alleviating congestion as the primary purpose and considers the traffic of the node itself and local network traffic. According to the geographic distance between nodes, CARA defines four decision parameters (node load factor, forward rate, cache remaining rate, and forward average cache remaining rate), selecting the best node as the next-hop through the multi-attribute decision-making method. Compared with the two existing algorithms for congestion control, our simulation results suggest that the CARA algorithm alleviates network congestion and meets reasonable network delay and energy consumption requirements.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070198

Authors: Mário P. Véstias Horácio C. Neto

Financial and commercial data are mostly represented in decimal format. To avoid errors introduced when converting some decimal fractions to binary, these data are processed with decimal arithmetic. Most processors only have hardwired binary arithmetic units. So, decimal operations are executed with slow software-based decimal arithmetic functions. For the fast execution of decimal operations, dedicated hardware units have been proposed and designed in FPGA. Decimal multiplication is found in most decimal-based applications and so its optimized design is very important for fast execution. In this paper two new parallel decimal multipliers in FPGA are proposed. These are based on a new decimal adder/subtractor also proposed in this paper. The new decimal multipliers improve state-of-the-art parallel decimal multipliers. Compared to previous architectures, implementation results show that the proposed multipliers achieve 26% better area and 12% better performance. Also, the new decimal multipliers reduce the area and performance gap to binary multipliers and are smaller for 32 digit operands.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070197

Authors: Ali Seman Azizian Mohd Sapawi

In the conventional k-means framework, seeding is the first step toward optimization before the objects are clustered. In random seeding, two main issues arise: the clustering results may be less than optimal and different clustering results may be obtained for every run. In real-world applications, optimal and stable clustering is highly desirable. This report introduces a new clustering algorithm called the zero k-approximate modal haplotype (Zk-AMH) algorithm that uses a simple and novel seeding mechanism known as zero-point multidimensional spaces. The Zk-AMH provides cluster optimality and stability, therefore resolving the aforementioned issues. Notably, the Zk-AMH algorithm yielded identical mean scores to maximum, and minimum scores in 100 runs, producing zero standard deviation to show its stability. Additionally, when the Zk-AMH algorithm was applied to eight datasets, it achieved the highest mean scores for four datasets, produced an approximately equal score for one dataset, and yielded marginally lower scores for the other three datasets. With its optimality and stability, the Zk-AMH algorithm could be a suitable alternative for developing future clustering tools.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070195

Authors: Yundong Wu Jiajia Liao Yujun Liu Kaiming Ding Shimin Li Zhilin Zhang Guorong Cai Jinhe Su

Object detection is a challenging computer vision task with numerous real-world applications. In recent years, the concept of the object relationship model has become helpful for object detection and has been verified and realized in deep learning. Nonetheless, most approaches to modeling object relations are limited to using the anchor-based algorithms; they cannot be directly migrated to the anchor-free frameworks. The reason is that the anchor-free algorithms are used to eliminate the complex design of anchors and predict heatmaps to represent the locations of keypoints of different object categories, without considering the relationship between keypoints. Therefore, to better fuse the information between the heatmap channels, it is important to model the visual relationship between keypoints. In this paper, we present a knowledge-driven network (KDNet)—a new architecture that can aggregate and model keypoint relations to augment object features for detection. Specifically, it processes a set of keypoints simultaneously through interactions between their local and geometric features, thereby allowing the modeling of their relationship. Finally, the updated heatmaps were used to obtain the corners of the objects and determine their positions. The experimental results conducted on the RIDER dataset confirm the effectiveness of the proposed KDNet, which significantly outperformed other state-of-the-art object detection methods.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070196

Authors: Yiting Kang Biao Xue Riya Zeng

Wheeled mobile robots are widely implemented in the field environment where slipping and skidding may often occur. This paper presents a self-adaptive path tracking control framework based on a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to overcome slippage disturbances. Both kinematic and dynamic models of a wheeled robot with skid-steer characteristics are established with position, orientation, and equivalent tracking error definitions. A dual-loop control framework is proposed, and kinematic and dynamic models are integrated in the inner and outer loops, respectively. An RBF neutral network is employed for yaw rate control to realize adaptability to longitudinal slippage. Simulations employing the proposed control framework are performed to track snaking and a DLC reference path with slip ratio variations. The results suggest that the proposed control framework yields much lower position and orientation errors compared with those of a PID and a single neuron network (SNN) controller. It also exhibits prior anti-disturbance performance and adaptability to longitudinal slippage. The proposed control framework could thus be employed for autonomous mobile robots working on complex terrain.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070194

Authors: Parfait Atchade-Adelomou Guillermo Alonso-Linaje Jordi Albo-Canals Daniel Casado-Fauli

This article aims to bring quantum computing to robotics. A quantum algorithm is developed to minimize the distance traveled in warehouses and distribution centers where order picking is applied. For this, a proof of concept is proposed through a Raspberry Pi 4, generating a quantum combinatorial optimization algorithm that saves the distance travelled and the batch of orders to be made. In case of computational need, the robot will be able to parallelize part of the operations in hybrid computing (quantum + classical), accessing CPUs and QPUs distributed in a public or private cloud. We developed a stable environment (ARM64) inside the robot (Raspberry) to run gradient operations and other quantum algorithms on IBMQ, Amazon Braket (D-Wave), and Pennylane locally or remotely. The proof of concept, when run in the above stated quantum environments, showed the execution time of our algorithm with different public access simulators on the market, computational results of our picking and batching algorithm, and analyze the quantum real-time execution. Our findings are that the behavior of the Amazon Braket D-Wave is better than Gate-based Quantum Computing over 20 qubits, and that AWS-Braket has better time performance than Qiskit or Pennylane.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070193

Authors: Mohamed A. Shamseldin

This paper presents an efficient coronavirus optimization algorithm (CVOA) to find the optimal values of the PID controller to track a preselected reference speed of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor under several types of disturbances. This work simulates how the coronavirus (COVID-19) spreads and infects healthy people. The initial values of PID controller parameters consider the zero patient, who infects new patients (other values of PID controller parameters). The model aims to simulate as accurately as possible the coronavirus activity. The CVOA has two major advantages compared to other similar strategies. First, the CVOA parameters are already adjusted according to disease statistics to prevent designers from initializing them with arbitrary values. Second, the approach has the ability to finish after several iterations where the infected population initially grows at an exponential rate. The proposed CVOA was investigated with well-known optimization techniques such as the genetic algorithm (GA) and Harmony Search (HS) optimization. A multi-objective function was used to allow the designer to select the desired rise time, the desired settling time, the desired overshoot, and the desired steady-state error. Several tests were performed to investigate the obtained proper values of PID controller parameters. In the first test, the BLDC motor was exposed to sudden load at a steady speed. In the second test, the continuous sinusoidal load was applied to the rotor of the BLDC motor. In the third test, different operating points of reference speed were selected to the rotor of the BLDC motor. The results proved that the CVOA-based PID controller has the best performance among the techniques. In the first test, the CVOA-based PID controller has a minimum rise time (0.0042 s), minimum settling time (0.0079 s), and acceptable overshoot (0.0511%). In the second test, the CVOA-based PID controller has the minimum deviation about the reference speed (±4 RPM). In the third test, the CVOA-based PID controller can accurately track the reference speed among other techniques.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070192

Authors: Kewei Ouyang Yi Hou Shilin Zhou Ye Zhang

Recently, some researchers adopted the convolutional neural network (CNN) for time series classification (TSC) and have achieved better performance than most hand-crafted methods in the University of California, Riverside (UCR) archive. The secret to the success of the CNN is weight sharing, which is robust to the global translation of the time series. However, global translation invariance is not the only case considered for TSC. Temporal distortion is another common phenomenon besides global translation in time series. The scale and phase changes due to temporal distortion bring significant challenges to TSC, which is out of the scope of conventional CNNs. In this paper, a CNN architecture with an elastic matching mechanism, which is named Elastic Matching CNN (short for EM-CNN), is proposed to address this challenge. Compared with the conventional CNN, EM-CNN allows local time shifting between the time series and convolutional kernels, and a matching matrix is exploited to learn the nonlinear alignment between time series and convolutional kernels of the CNN. Several EM-CNN models are proposed in this paper based on diverse CNN models. The results for 85 UCR datasets demonstrate that the elastic matching mechanism effectively improves CNN performance.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070191

Authors: Petr Němec Petr Stodola Miroslav Pecina Jiří Neubauer Martin Blaha

This article presents the possibilities in solving the Weighted Multi-Facility Location Problem and its related optimization tasks using a widely available office software—MS Excel with the Solver add-in. To verify the proposed technique, a set of benchmark instances with various point topologies (regular, combination of regular and random, and random) was designed. The optimization results are compared with results achieved by a metaheuristic algorithm based on simulated annealing principles. The influence of the hardware configuration on the performance achieved by MS Excel Solver is also examined and discussed from both the execution time and accuracy perspectives. The experiments showed that this widely available office software is practical for solving even relatively complex optimization tasks (Weighted Multi-Facility Location Problem with 100 points and 20 centers, which consists of 40 continuous optimization variables in two-dimensional space) with sufficient quality for many real-world applications. The method used is described in detail and step-by-step using an example.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070190

Authors: Nour Jnoub Admir Brankovic Wolfgang Klas

A rising number of people use online reviews to choose if they want to use or buy a service or product. Therefore, approaches for identifying fake reviews are in high request. This paper proposes a hybrid rule-based fact-checking framework based on Answer Set Programming (ASP) and natural language processing. The paper incorporates the behavioral patterns of reviewers combined with the qualitative and quantitative properties/features extracted from the content of their reviews. As a case study, we evaluated the framework using a movie review dataset, consisting of user accounts with their associated reviews, including the review title, content, and the star rating of the movie, to identify reviews that are not trustworthy and labeled them accordingly in the output. This output is then used in the front end of a movie review platform to tag reviews as fake and show their sentiment. The evaluation of the proposed approach showed promising results and high flexibility.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14070189

Authors: Abdullahi Adinoyi Ibrahim Alessandro Lonardi Caterina De Bacco

Modeling traffic distribution and extracting optimal flows in multilayer networks is of the utmost importance to design efficient, multi-modal network infrastructures. Recent results based on optimal transport theory provide powerful and computationally efficient methods to address this problem, but they are mainly focused on modeling single-layer networks. Here, we adapt these results to study how optimal flows distribute on multilayer networks. We propose a model where optimal flows on different layers contribute differently to the total cost to be minimized. This is done by means of a parameter that varies with layers, which allows to flexibly tune the sensitivity to the traffic congestion of the various layers. As an application, we consider transportation networks, where each layer is associated to a different transportation system, and show how the traffic distribution varies as we tune this parameter across layers. We show an example of this result on the real, 2-layer network of the city of Bordeaux with a bus and tram, where we find that in certain regimes, the presence of the tram network significantly unburdens the traffic on the road network. Our model paves the way for further analysis of optimal flows and navigability strategies in real, multilayer networks.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060188

Authors: Dan Yu Peng Liu Dezhi Qiao Xianglong Tang

In view of the characteristics of the guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of the lunar orbit rendezvous and docking (RVD), we design an auxiliary safety prediction system based on the human–machine collaboration framework. The system contains two parts, including the construction of the rendezvous and docking safety rule knowledge base by the use of machine learning methods, and the prediction of safety by the use of the base. First, in the ground semi-physical simulation test environment, feature extraction and matching are performed on the images taken by the navigation surveillance camera. Then, the matched features and the rendezvous and docking deviation are used to form training sample pairs, which are further used to construct the safety rule knowledge base by using the decision tree method. Finally, the safety rule knowledge base is used to predict the safety of the subsequent process of the rendezvous and docking based on the current images taken by the surveillance camera, and the probability of success is obtained. Semi-physical experiments on the ground show that the system can improve the level of intelligence in the flight control process and effectively assist ground flight controllers in data monitoring and mission decision-making.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060187

Authors: Aaron Barbosa Elijah Pelofske Georg Hahn Hristo N. Djidjev

Quantum annealers, such as the device built by D-Wave Systems, Inc., offer a way to compute solutions of NP-hard problems that can be expressed in Ising or quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) form. Although such solutions are typically of very high quality, problem instances are usually not solved to optimality due to imperfections of the current generations quantum annealers. In this contribution, we aim to understand some of the factors contributing to the hardness of a problem instance, and to use machine learning models to predict the accuracy of the D-Wave 2000Q annealer for solving specific problems. We focus on the maximum clique problem, a classic NP-hard problem with important applications in network analysis, bioinformatics, and computational chemistry. By training a machine learning classification model on basic problem characteristics such as the number of edges in the graph, or annealing parameters, such as the D-Wave’s chain strength, we are able to rank certain features in the order of their contribution to the solution hardness, and present a simple decision tree which allows to predict whether a problem will be solvable to optimality with the D-Wave 2000Q. We extend these results by training a machine learning regression model that predicts the clique size found by D-Wave.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060186

Authors: Nicola Landro Ignazio Gallo Riccardo La Grassa

Optimization methods are of great importance for the efficient training of neural networks. There are many articles in the literature that propose particular variants of existing optimizers. In our article, we propose the use of the combination of two very different optimizers that, when used simultaneously, can exceed the performance of the single optimizers in very different problems. We propose a new optimizer called ATMO (AdapTive Meta Optimizers), which integrates two different optimizers simultaneously weighing the contributions of both. Rather than trying to improve each single one, we leverage both at the same time, as a meta-optimizer, by taking the best of both. We have conducted several experiments on the classification of images and text documents, using various types of deep neural models, and we have demonstrated through experiments that the proposed ATMO produces better performance than the single optimizers.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060185

Authors: Nikos Mylonas Basil Papadopoulos

In this paper, we develop fuzzy, possibilistic hypothesis tests for testing crisp hypotheses for a distribution parameter from crisp data. In these tests, fuzzy statistics are used, which are produced by the possibility distribution of the estimated parameter, constructed by the known from crisp statistics confidence intervals. The results of these tests are in much better agreement with crisp statistics than the ones produced by the respective tests of a popular book on fuzzy statistics, which uses fuzzy critical values. We also present an error that we found in the implementation of the unbiased fuzzy estimator of the variance in this book, due to a poor interpretation of its mathematical content, which leads to disagreement of some fuzzy hypotheses tests with their respective crisp ones. Implementing correctly this estimator, we produce test statistics that achieve results in hypotheses tests that are in much better agreement with the results of the respective crisp ones.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060184

Authors: Xia Que Siyuan Jiang Jiaoyun Yang Ning An

Many mixed datasets with both numerical and categorical attributes have been collected in various fields, including medicine, biology, etc. Designing appropriate similarity measurements plays an important role in clustering these datasets. Many traditional measurements treat various attributes equally when measuring the similarity. However, different attributes may contribute differently as the amount of information they contained could vary a lot. In this paper, we propose a similarity measurement with entropy-based weighting for clustering mixed datasets. The numerical data are first transformed into categorical data by an automatic categorization technique. Then, an entropy-based weighting strategy is applied to denote the different importances of various attributes. We incorporate the proposed measurement into an iterative clustering algorithm, and extensive experiments show that this algorithm outperforms OCIL and K-Prototype methods with 2.13% and 4.28% improvements, respectively, in terms of accuracy on six mixed datasets from UCI.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060183

Authors: Abdulaziz Alorf

Since January 2020, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected the whole world, producing a respiratory disease that can become severe and even cause death in certain groups of people. The main method for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is performing viral tests. However, the kits for carrying out these tests are scarce in certain regions of the world. Lung conditions as perceived in computed tomography and radiography images exhibit a high correlation with the presence of COVID-19 infections. This work attempted to assess the feasibility of using convolutional neural networks for the analysis of pulmonary radiography images to distinguish COVID-19 infections from non-infected cases and other types of viral or bacterial pulmonary conditions. The results obtained indicate that these networks can successfully distinguish the pulmonary radiographies of COVID-19-infected patients from radiographies that exhibit other or no pathology, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.6%. This could help future efforts to automate the process of identifying lung radiography images of suspicious cases, thereby supporting medical personnel when many patients need to be rapidly checked. The automated analysis of pulmonary radiography is not intended to be a substitute for formal viral tests or formal diagnosis by a properly trained physician but rather to assist with identification when the need arises.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060182

Authors: Hiroshi Arai Harumi Haraguchi

We proposed the method that translates the two-dimensional CSP for minimizing the number of cuts to the Ising model. After that, we conducted computer experiments of the proposed model using the benchmark problem. From the above, the following results are obtained. (1) The proposed Ising model adequately represents the target problem. (2) Acceptance rates were as low as 0.2% to 9.8% and from 21.8% to 49.4%. (3) Error rates from optimal solution were as broad as 0% to 25.9%. For future work, we propose the following changes: (1) Improve the Hamiltonian for constraints. (2) Improve the proposed model to adjust more complex two-dimensional CSP and reduce the number of spins when it deals with large materials and components. (3) Conduct experiments using a quantum annealer.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060181

Authors: Dmitri Blueschke Viktoria Blueschke-Nikolaeva Reinhard Neck

OPTCON is an algorithm for the optimal control of nonlinear stochastic systems which is particularly applicable to economic models. It delivers approximate numerical solutions to optimum control (dynamic optimization) problems with a quadratic objective function for nonlinear economic models with additive and multiplicative (parameter) uncertainties. The algorithm was first programmed in C# and then in MATLAB. It allows for deterministic and stochastic control, the latter with open loop (OPTCON1), passive learning (open-loop feedback, OPTCON2), and active learning (closed-loop, dual, or adaptive control, OPTCON3) information patterns. The mathematical aspects of the algorithm with open-loop feedback and closed-loop information patterns are presented in more detail in this paper.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060180

Authors: Lei Fu Qizhi Tang Peng Gao Jingzhou Xin Jianting Zhou

The shallow features extracted by the traditional artificial intelligence algorithm-based damage identification methods pose low sensitivity and ignore the timing characteristics of vibration signals. Thus, this study uses the high-dimensional feature extraction advantages of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and the time series modeling capability of long short-term memory networks (LSTM) to identify damage to long-span bridges. Firstly, the features extracted by CNN and LSTM are fused as the input of the fully connected layer to train the CNN-LSTM model. After that, the trained CNN-LSTM model is employed for damage identification. Finally, a numerical example of a large-span suspension bridge was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, the performance of CNN-LSTM and CNN under different noise levels was compared to test the feasibility of application in practical engineering. The results demonstrate the following: (1) the combination of CNN and LSTM is satisfactory with 94% of the damage localization accuracy and only 8.0% of the average relative identification error (ARIE) of damage severity identification; (2) in comparison to the CNN, the CNN-LSTM results in superior identification accuracy; the damage localization accuracy is improved by 8.13%, while the decrement of ARIE of damage severity identification is 5.20%; and (3) the proposed method is capable of resisting the influence of environmental noise and acquires an acceptable recognition effect for multi-location damage; in a database with a lower signal-to-noise ratio of 3.33, the damage localization accuracy of the CNN-LSTM model is 67.06%, and the ARIE of the damage severity identification is 31%. This work provides an innovative idea for damage identification of long-span bridges and is conducive to promote follow-up studies regarding structural condition evaluation.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060179

Authors: Chunxia Wang Jun Bi Qiuyue Sai Zun Yuan

With the development of the sharing economy, carsharing is a major achievement in the current mode of transportation in sharing economies. Carsharing can effectively alleviate traffic congestion and reduce the travel cost of residents. However, due to the randomness of users’ travel demand, carsharing operators are faced with problems, such as imbalance in vehicle demand at stations. Therefore, scientific prediction of users’ travel demand is important to ensure the efficient operation of carsharing. The main purpose of this study is to use gradient boosting decision tree to predict the travel demand of station-based carsharing users. The case study is conducted in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, China. To improve the accuracy, gradient boosting decision tree is designed to predict the demands of users at different stations at various times based on the actual operating data of carsharing. The prediction results are compared with results of the autoregressive integrated moving average. The conclusion shows that gradient boosting decision tree has higher prediction accuracy. This study can provide a reference value for user demand prediction in practical application.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060178

Authors: Lindokuhle J. Mpanza Jimoh Olarewaju Pedro

This paper presents the parameter optimisation of the flight control system of a singlerotor medium-scale rotorcraft. The six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) nonlinear mathematical model of the rotorcraft is developed. This model is then used to develop proportional–integral–derivative (PID)-based controllers. Since the majority of PID controllers installed in industry are poorly tuned, this paper presents a comparison of the optimised tuning of the flight controller parameters using particle swarm optimisation (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), ant colony optimisation (ACO) and cuckoo search (CS) optimisation algorithms. The aim is to find the best PID parameters that minimise the specified objective function. Two trim conditions are investigated, i.e., hover and 10 m/s forward flight. The four algorithms performed better than manual tuning of the PID controllers. It was found, through numerical simulation, that the ACO algorithm converges the fastest and finds the best gains for the selected objective function in hover trim conditions. However, for 10 m/s forward flight trim, the GA algorithm was found to be the best. Both the tuned flight controllers managed to reject a gust wind of up to 5 m/s in the lateral axis in hover and in forward flight.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060177

Authors: Edina Chandiwana Caston Sigauke Alphonce Bere

Probabilistic solar power forecasting has been critical in Southern Africa because of major shortages of power due to climatic changes and other factors over the past decade. This paper discusses Gaussian process regression (GPR) coupled with core vector regression for short-term hourly global horizontal irradiance (GHI) forecasting. GPR is a powerful Bayesian non-parametric regression method that works well for small data sets and quantifies the uncertainty in the predictions. The choice of a kernel that characterises the covariance function is a crucial issue in Gaussian process regression. In this study, we adopt the minimum enclosing ball (MEB) technique. The MEB improves the forecasting power of GPR because the smaller the ball is, the shorter the training time, hence performance is robust. Forecasting of real-time data was done on two South African radiometric stations, Stellenbosch University (SUN) in a coastal area of the Western Cape Province, and the University of Venda (UNV) station in the Limpopo Province. Variables were selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator via hierarchical interactions. The Bayesian approach using informative priors was used for parameter estimation. Based on the root mean square error, mean absolute error and percentage bias the results showed that the GPR model gives the most accurate predictions compared to those from gradient boosting and support vector regression models, making this study a useful tool for decision-makers and system operators in power utility companies. The main contribution of this paper is in the use of a GPR model coupled with the core vector methodology which is used in forecasting GHI using South African data. This is the first application of GPR coupled with core vector regression in which the minimum enclosing ball is applied on GHI data, to the best of our knowledge.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060176

Authors: Wei Zhu Xiaoyang Zeng

Applications have different preferences for caches, sometimes even within the different running phases. Caches with fixed parameters may compromise the performance of a system. To solve this problem, we propose a real-time adaptive reconfigurable cache based on the decision tree algorithm, which can optimize the average memory access time of cache without modifying the cache coherent protocol. By monitoring the application running state, the cache associativity is periodically tuned to the optimal cache associativity, which is determined by the decision tree model. This paper implements the proposed decision tree-based adaptive reconfigurable cache in the GEM5 simulator and designs the key modules using Verilog HDL. The simulation results show that the proposed decision tree-based adaptive reconfigurable cache reduces the average memory access time compared with other adaptive algorithms.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060175

Authors: Guilherme Henrique Santos Miranda Alexsandro Oliveira Alexandrino Carla Negri Lintzmayer Zanoni Dias

Understanding how different two organisms are is one question addressed by the comparative genomics field. A well-accepted way to estimate the evolutionary distance between genomes of two organisms is finding the rearrangement distance, which is the smallest number of rearrangements needed to transform one genome into another. By representing genomes as permutations, one of them can be represented as the identity permutation, and, so, we reduce the problem of transforming one permutation into another to the problem of sorting a permutation using the minimum number of rearrangements. This work investigates the problems of sorting permutations using reversals and/or transpositions, with some additional restrictions of biological relevance. Given a value λ, the problem now is how to sort a λ-permutation, which is a permutation whose elements are less than λ positions away from their correct places (regarding the identity), by applying the minimum number of rearrangements. Each λ-rearrangement must have size, at most, λ, and, when applied to a λ-permutation, the result should also be a λ-permutation. We present algorithms with approximation factors of O(λ2), O(λ), and O(1) for the problems of Sorting λ-Permutations by λ-Reversals, by λ-Transpositions, and by both operations.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060174

Authors: Wenxiao Zhao

The stochastic approximation algorithm (SAA), starting from the pioneer work by Robbins and Monro in 1950s, has been successfully applied in systems and control, statistics, machine learning, and so forth. In this paper, we will review the development of SAA in China, to be specific, the stochastic approximation algorithm with expanding truncations (SAAWET) developed by Han-Fu Chen and his colleagues during the past 35 years. We first review the historical development for the centralized algorithm including the probabilistic method (PM) and the ordinary differential equation (ODE) method for SAA and the trajectory-subsequence method for SAAWET. Then, we will give an application example of SAAWET to the recursive principal component analysis. We will also introduce the recent progress on SAAWET in a networked and distributed setting, named the distributed SAAWET (DSAAWET).

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060173

Authors: Zhuo-Qiang Zhao Shi-Jian Liu Jeng-Shyang Pan

The PID (proportional–integral–derivative) controller is the most widely used control method in modern engineering control because it has the characteristics of a simple algorithm structure and easy implementation. The traditional PID controller, in the face of complex control objects, has been unable to meet the expected requirements. The emergence of the intelligent algorithm makes intelligent control widely usable. The Quasi-Affine Transformation Evolutionary (QUATRE) algorithm is a new evolutionary algorithm. Compared with other intelligent algorithms, the QUATRE algorithm has a strong global search ability. To improve the accuracy of the algorithm, the adaptive mechanism of online adjusting control parameters was introduced and the linear population reduction strategy was adopted to improve the performance of the algorithm. The standard QUATRE algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm and improved QUATRE algorithm were tested by the test function. The experimental results verify the advantages of the improved QUATRE algorithm. The improved QUATRE algorithm was combined with PID parameters, and the simulation results were compared with the PID parameter tuning method based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and standard QUATRE algorithm. From the experimental results, the control effect of the improved QUATRE algorithm is more effective.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060172

Authors: Kotaro Matsuda Shuhei Denzumi Kunihiko Sadakane

Zero-suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams (ZDDs) are data structures for representing set families in a compressed form. With ZDDs, many valuable operations on set families can be done in time polynomial in ZDD size. In some cases, however, the size of ZDDs for representing large set families becomes too huge to store them in the main memory. This paper proposes top ZDD, a novel representation of ZDDs which uses less space than existing ones. The top ZDD is an extension of the top tree, which compresses trees, to compress directed acyclic graphs by sharing identical subgraphs. We prove that navigational operations on ZDDs can be done in time poly-logarithmic in ZDD size, and show that there exist set families for which the size of the top ZDD is exponentially smaller than that of the ZDD. We also show experimentally that our top ZDDs have smaller sizes than ZDDs for real data.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060170

Authors: Samir Balbal Salim Bouamama Christian Blum

Dominating sets are among the most well-studied concepts in graph theory, with many real-world applications especially in the area of wireless sensor networks. One way to increase network lifetime in wireless sensor networks consists of assigning sensors to disjoint dominating node sets, which are then sequentially used by a sleep–wake cycling mechanism. This paper presents a greedy heuristic for solving a weighted version of the maximum disjoint dominating sets problem for energy conservation purposes in wireless sensor networks. Moreover, an integer linear programming model is presented. Experimental results based on a large set of 640 problem instances show, first, that the integer linear programming model is only useful for small problem instances. Moreover, they show that our algorithm outperforms recent local search algorithms from the literature with respect to both solution quality and computation time.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060171

Authors: Pavan Poudel Gokarna Sharma

Transactional memory has been receiving much attention from both academia and industry. In transactional memory, program code is split into transactions, blocks of code that appear to execute atomically. Transactions are executed speculatively and the speculative execution is supported through data versioning mechanism. Lazy versioning makes aborts fast but penalizes commits, whereas eager versioning makes commits fast but penalizes aborts. However, whether to use eager or lazy versioning to execute those transactions is still a hotly debated topic. Lazy versioning seems appropriate for write-dominated workloads and transactions in high contention scenarios whereas eager versioning seems appropriate for read-dominated workloads and transactions in low contention scenarios. This necessitates a priori knowledge on the workload and contention scenario to select an appropriate versioning method to achieve better performance. In this article, we present an adaptive versioning approach, called Adaptive, that dynamically switches between eager and lazy versioning at runtime, without the need of a priori knowledge on the workload and contention scenario but based on appropriate system parameters, so that the performance of a transactional memory system is always better than that is obtained using either eager or lazy versioning individually. We provide Adaptive for both persistent and non-persistent transactional memory systems using performance parameters appropriate for those systems. We implemented our adaptive versioning approach in the latest software transactional memory distribution TinySTM and extensively evaluated it through 5 micro-benchmarks and 8 complex benchmarks from STAMP and STAMPEDE suites. The results show significant benefits of our approach. Specifically, in persistent TM systems, our approach achieved performance improvements as much as 1.5× for execution time and as much as 240× for number of aborts, whereas our approach achieved performance improvements as much as 6.3× for execution time and as much as 170× for number of aborts in non-persistent transactional memory systems.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060169

Authors: Laurent Bulteau Guillaume Fertin Géraldine Jean Christian Komusiewicz

A multi-cut rearrangement of a string S is a string S′ obtained from S by an operation called k-cut rearrangement, that consists of (1) cutting S at a given number k of places in S, making S the concatenated string X1·X2·X3·…·Xk·Xk+1, where X1 and Xk+1 are possibly empty, and (2) rearranging the Xis so as to obtain S′=Xπ(1)·Xπ(2)·Xπ(3)·…·Xπ(k+1), π being a permutation on 1,2,…,k+1 satisfying π(1)=1 and π(k+1)=k+1. Given two strings S and T built on the same multiset of characters from an alphabet Σ, the Sorting by Multi-Cut Rearrangements (SMCR) problem asks whether a given number ℓ of k-cut rearrangements suffices to transform S into T. The SMCR problem generalizes several classical genomic rearrangements problems, such as Sorting by Transpositions and Sorting by Block Interchanges. It may also model chromoanagenesis, a recently discovered phenomenon consisting of massive simultaneous rearrangements. In this paper, we study the SMCR problem from an algorithmic complexity viewpoint. More precisely, we investigate its classical and parameterized complexity, as well as its approximability, in the general case or when S and T are permutations.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060168

Authors: Manon Ruffini Jelena Vucinic Simon de de Givry George Katsirelos Sophie Barbe Thomas Schiex

Proteins are the main active molecules of life. Although natural proteins play many roles, as enzymes or antibodies for example, there is a need to go beyond the repertoire of natural proteins to produce engineered proteins that precisely meet application requirements, in terms of function, stability, activity or other protein capacities. Computational Protein Design aims at designing new proteins from first principles, using full-atom molecular models. However, the size and complexity of proteins require approximations to make them amenable to energetic optimization queries. These approximations make the design process less reliable, and a provable optimal solution may fail. In practice, expensive libraries of solutions are therefore generated and tested. In this paper, we explore the idea of generating libraries of provably diverse low-energy solutions by extending cost function network algorithms with dedicated automaton-based diversity constraints on a large set of realistic full protein redesign problems. We observe that it is possible to generate provably diverse libraries in reasonable time and that the produced libraries do enhance the Native Sequence Recovery, a traditional measure of design methods reliability.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060167

Authors: Agus Irawan Asmiati Asmiati La Zakaria Kurnia Muludi

The locating-chromatic number of a graph combines two graph concepts, namely coloring vertices and partition dimension of a graph. The locating-chromatic number is the smallest k such that G has a locating k-coloring, denoted by χL(G). This article proposes a procedure for obtaining a locating-chromatic number for an origami graph and its subdivision (one vertex on an outer edge) through two theorems with proofs.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060166

Authors: Amin Totounferoush Frédéric Simonis Benjamin Uekermann Miriam Schulte

preCICE is an open-source library, that provides comprehensive functionality to couple independent parallelized solver codes to establish a partitioned multi-physics multi-code simulation environment. For data communication between the respective executables at runtime, it implements a peer-to-peer concept, which renders the computational cost of the coupling per time step negligible compared to the typical run time of the coupled codes. To initialize the peer-to-peer coupling, the mesh partitions of the respective solvers need to be compared to determine the point-to-point communication channels between the processes of both codes. This initialization effort can become a limiting factor, if we either reach memory limits or if we have to re-initialize communication relations in every time step. In this contribution, we remove two remaining bottlenecks: (i) We base the neighborhood search between mesh entities of two solvers on a tree data structure to avoid quadratic complexity, and (ii) we replace the sequential gather-scatter comparison of both mesh partitions by a two-level approach that first compares bounding boxes around mesh partitions in a sequential manner, subsequently establishes pairwise communication between processes of the two solvers, and finally compares mesh partitions between connected processes in parallel. We show, that the two-level initialization method is fives times faster than the old one-level scheme on 24,567 CPU-cores using a mesh with 628,898 vertices. In addition, the two-level scheme is able to handle much larger computational meshes, since the central mesh communication of the one-level scheme is replaced with a fully point-to-point mesh communication scheme.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060165

Authors: Shiyu Guo Mengna Shi Yanqi Zhou Jiayin Yu Erfu Wang

As the main method of information transmission, it is particularly important to ensure the security of speech communication. Considering the more complex multipath channel transmission situation in the wireless communication of speech signals and separating or extracting the source signal from the convolutional signal are crucial steps in obtaining source information. In this paper, chaotic masking technology is used to guarantee the transmission safety of speech signals, and a fast fixed-point independent vector analysis algorithm is used to solve the problem of convolutional blind source separation. First, the chaotic masking is performed before the speech signal is sent, and the convolutional mixing process of multiple signals is simulated by impulse response filter. Then, the observed signal is transformed to the frequency domain by short-time Fourier transform, and instantaneous blind source separation is performed using a fast fixed-point independent vector analysis algorithm. The algorithm can preserve the high-order statistical correlation between frequencies to solve the permutation ambiguity problem in independent component analysis. Simulation experiments show that this algorithm can efficiently complete the blind extraction of convolutional signals, and the quality of recovered speech signals is better. It provides a solution for the secure transmission and effective separation of speech signals in multipath transmission channels.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060164

Authors: Tobias Rupp Stefan Funke

We prove a Ω(n) lower bound on the query time for contraction hierarchies (CH) as well as hub labels, two popular speed-up techniques for shortest path routing. Our construction is based on a graph family not too far from subgraphs that occur in real-world road networks, in particular, it is planar and has a bounded degree. Additionally, we borrow ideas from our lower bound proof to come up with instance-based lower bounds for concrete road network instances of moderate size, reaching up to 96% of an upper bound given by a constructed CH. For a variant of our instance-based schema applied to some special graph classes, we can even show matching upper and lower bounds.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060163

Authors: Yaru Li Yulai Zhang Yongping Cai

The selection of the hyper-parameters plays a critical role in the task of prediction based on the recurrent neural networks (RNN). Traditionally, the hyper-parameters of the machine learning models are selected by simulations as well as human experiences. In recent years, multiple algorithms based on Bayesian optimization (BO) are developed to determine the optimal values of the hyper-parameters. In most of these methods, gradients are required to be calculated. In this work, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used under the BO framework to develop a new method for hyper-parameter optimization. The proposed algorithm (BO-PSO) is free of gradient calculation and the particles can be optimized in parallel naturally. So the computational complexity can be effectively reduced which means better hyper-parameters can be obtained under the same amount of calculation. Experiments are done on real world power load data, where the proposed method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art algorithms, BO with limit-BFGS-bound (BO-L-BFGS-B) and BO with truncated-newton (BO-TNC), in terms of the prediction accuracy. The errors of the prediction result in different models show that BO-PSO is an effective hyper-parameter optimization method.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060162

Authors: Yajing Huang Feng Chen

This paper studies the community structure of the bank correlation network in the financial system and analyzes the systemic risk of the community sub-networks. Based on the balance sheet data of U.S. commercial banks from 2008, we establish a bank correlation network for each state according to the banks’ investment portfolio ratio. First, we analyze the community structure of each bank’s correlation network and verify the effectiveness of the community division from the point of view of the importance of nodes. Then, combining the data of failed banks after the 2008 financial crisis, we find that for small communities, the financial systemic risk will appear to have obvious volatility, and it is quite likely to reach an extremely high level. With the increase in the number of nodes in the community, systemic risk will tend towards a stable and low level. Furthermore, if only communities with failed banks are considered, the regression analysis shows that systemic risk and the size of the community almost follow a power law distribution trend. These results reveal the importance of supervising the banking system at the level of community sub-networks, which has certain guiding significance for the stability of the financial system.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060161

Authors: Dominik Köppl

We present linear-time algorithms computing the reversed Lempel–Ziv factorization [Kolpakov and Kucherov, TCS’09] within the space bounds of two different suffix tree representations. We can adapt these algorithms to compute the longest previous non-overlapping reverse factor table [Crochemore et al., JDA’12] within the same space but pay a multiplicative logarithmic time penalty.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060160

Authors: Qiaoji Xu Lingling Jin James H. Leebens-Mack David Sankoff

The RACCROCHE pipeline reconstructs ancestral gene orders and chromosomal contents of the ancestral genomes at all internal vertices of a phylogenetic tree. The strategy is to accumulate a very large number of generalized adjacencies, phylogenetically justified for each ancestor, to produce long ancestral contigs through maximum weight matching. It constructs chromosomes by counting the frequencies of ancestral contig co-occurrences on the extant genomes, clustering these for each ancestor and ordering them. The main objective of this paper is to closely simulate the evolutionary process giving rise to the gene content and order of a set of extant genomes (six distantly related monocots), and to assess to what extent an updated version of RACCROCHE can recover the artificial ancestral genome at the root of the phylogenetic tree relating to the simulated genomes.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14060159

Authors: Feng Sun Ajith Kumar V Guanci Yang Ansi Zhang Yiyun Zhang

State-of-the-art semantic segmentation methods rely too much on complicated deep networks and thus cannot train efficiently. This paper introduces a novel Circle-U-Net architecture that exceeds the original U-Net on several standards. The proposed model includes circle connect layers, which is the backbone of ResUNet-a architecture. The model possesses a contracting part with residual bottleneck and circle connect layers that capture context and expanding paths, with sampling layers and merging layers for a pixel-wise localization. The results of the experiment show that the proposed Circle-U-Net achieves an improved accuracy of 5.6676%, 2.1587% IoU (Intersection of union, IoU) and can detect 67% classes greater than U-Net, which is better than current results.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050158

Authors: Soha Abd El-Moamen Mohamed Marghany Hassan Mohamed Mohammed F. Farghally

In this paper, a proposed algorithm that dynamically changes the neural network structure is presented. The structure is changed based on some features in the cascade correlation algorithm. Cascade correlation is an important algorithm that is used to solve the actual problem by artificial neural networks as a new architecture and supervised learning algorithm. This process optimizes the architectures of the network which intends to accelerate the learning process and produce better performance in generalization. Many researchers have to date proposed several growing algorithms to optimize the feedforward neural network architectures. The proposed algorithm has been tested on various medical data sets. The results prove that the proposed algorithm is a better method to evaluate the accuracy and flexibility resulting from it.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050157

Authors: Rahmat Ullah Tughrul Arslan

Microwave imaging systems are currently being investigated for breast cancer, brain stroke and neurodegenerative disease detection due to their low cost, portable and wearable nature. At present, commonly used radar-based algorithms for microwave imaging are based on the delay and sum algorithm. These algorithms use ultra-wideband signals to reconstruct a 2D image of the targeted object or region. Delay multiply and sum is an extended version of the delay and sum algorithm. However, it is computationally expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, the delay multiply and sum algorithm is parallelised using a big data framework. The algorithm uses the Spark MapReduce programming model to improve its efficiency. The most computational part of the algorithm is pixel value calculation, where signals need to be multiplied in pairs and summed. The proposed algorithm broadcasts the input data and executes it in parallel in a distributed manner. The Spark-based parallel algorithm is compared with sequential and Python multiprocessing library implementation. The experimental results on both a standalone machine and a high-performance cluster show that Spark significantly accelerates the image reconstruction process without affecting its accuracy.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050156

Authors: Kamel Arafet Rafael Berlanga

The generation of electricity through renewable energy sources increases every day, with solar energy being one of the fastest-growing. The emergence of information technologies such as Digital Twins (DT) in the field of the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 allows a substantial development in automatic diagnostic systems. The objective of this work is to obtain the DT of a Photovoltaic Solar Farm (PVSF) with a deep-learning (DL) approach. To build such a DT, sensor-based time series are properly analyzed and processed. The resulting data are used to train a DL model (e.g., autoencoders) in order to detect anomalies of the physical system in its DT. Results show a reconstruction error around 0.1, a recall score of 0.92 and an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.97. Therefore, this paper demonstrates that the DT can reproduce the behavior as well as detect efficiently anomalies of the physical system.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050155

Authors: Huifang Pan Qi Zhu

In this paper, to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) in the two-hop multi-relay cooperative decoding and forwarding (DF) system for simultaneous wireless information and power transmission (SWIPT), an optimal power allocation algorithm is proposed, in which the relay energy harvesting (EH) adopts a nonlinear model. Under the constraints, including energy causality, the minimum transmission quality of information and the total transmission power at the relays, an optimization problem is constructed to jointly optimize the transmit power and power-splitting (PS) ratios of multiple relays. Although this problem is a nonlinear fractional programming problem, an iterative algorithm is developed to obtain the optimal power allocation. In particular, the joint power allocation at multiple relays is first decoupled into a single relay power allocation, and then single-relay power allocation is performed by the Dinkelbach iteration algorithm, which can be proven that it is a convex programming problem. Its closed form solutions for different polylines of EH models are obtained by using mathematical methods, such as monotonicity, Lagrange multipliers, the KKT condition and the Cardan formula. The simulation results show the superiority of the power allocation algorithm proposed in this paper in terms of EE.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050154

Authors: Marcus Walldén Masao Okita Fumihiko Ino Dimitris Drikakis Ioannis Kokkinakis

Increasing processing capabilities and input/output constraints of supercomputers have increased the use of co-processing approaches, i.e., visualizing and analyzing data sets of simulations on the fly. We present a method that evaluates the importance of different regions of simulation data and a data-driven approach that uses the proposed method to accelerate in-transit co-processing of large-scale simulations. We use the importance metrics to simultaneously employ multiple compression methods on different data regions to accelerate the in-transit co-processing. Our approach strives to adaptively compress data on the fly and uses load balancing to counteract memory imbalances. We demonstrate the method’s efficiency through a fluid mechanics application, a Richtmyer–Meshkov instability simulation, showing how to accelerate the in-transit co-processing of simulations. The results show that the proposed method expeditiously can identify regions of interest, even when using multiple metrics. Our approach achieved a speedup of 1.29× in a lossless scenario. The data decompression time was sped up by 2× compared to using a single compression method uniformly.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050152

Authors: Nadia El-Mabrouk

Syntenies are genomic segments of consecutive genes identified by a certain conservation in gene content and order. The notion of conservation may vary from one definition to another, the more constrained requiring identical gene contents and gene orders, while more relaxed definitions just require a certain similarity in gene content, and not necessarily in the same order. Regardless of the way they are identified, the goal is to characterize homologous genomic regions, i.e., regions deriving from a common ancestral region, reflecting a certain gene co-evolution that can enlighten important functional properties. In addition of being able to identify them, it is also necessary to infer the evolutionary history that has led from the ancestral segment to the extant ones. In this field, most algorithmic studies address the problem of inferring rearrangement scenarios explaining the disruption in gene order between segments with the same gene content, some of them extending the evolutionary model to gene insertion and deletion. However, syntenies also evolve through other events modifying their content in genes, such as duplications, losses or horizontal gene transfers, i.e., the movement of genes from one species to another. Although the reconciliation approach between a gene tree and a species tree addresses the problem of inferring such events for single-gene families, little effort has been dedicated to the generalization to segmental events and to syntenies. This paper reviews some of the main algorithmic methods for inferring ancestral syntenies and focus on those integrating both gene orders and gene trees.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050153

Authors: John L. Pfaltz

Three computer algorithms are presented. One reduces a network N to its interior, I. Another counts all the triangles in a network, and the last randomly generates networks similar to N given just its interior I. However, these algorithms are not the usual numeric programs that manipulate a matrix representation of the network; they are set-based. Union and meet are essential binary operators; contained_in is the basic relational comparator. The interior I is shown to have desirable formal properties and to provide an effective way of revealing “communities” in social networks. A series of networks randomly generated from I is compared with the original network, N.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050151

Authors: Michele Flammini Gianpiero Monaco Luca Moscardelli Mordechai Shalom Shmuel Zaks

All-optical networks transmit messages along lightpaths in which the signal is transmitted using the same wavelength in all the relevant links. We consider the problem of switching cost minimization in these networks. Specifically, the input to the problem under consideration is an optical network modeled by a graph G, a set of lightpaths modeled by paths on G, and an integer g termed the grooming factor. One has to assign a wavelength (modeled by a color) to every lightpath, so that every edge of the graph is used by at most g paths of the same color. A lightpath operating at some wavelength λ uses one Add/Drop multiplexer (ADM) at both endpoints and one Optical Add/Drop multiplexer (OADM) at every intermediate node, all operating at a wavelength of λ. Two lightpaths, both operating at the same wavelength λ, share the ADMs and OADMs in their common nodes. Therefore, the total switching cost due to the usage of ADMs and OADMs depends on the wavelength assignment. We consider networks of ring and path topology and a cost function that is a convex combination α·|OADMs|+(1−α)|ADMs| of the number of ADMs and the number of OADMs deployed in the network. We showed that the problem of minimizing this cost function is NP-complete for every convex combination, even in a path topology network with g=2. On the positive side, we present a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the problem.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050150

Authors: Serafino Cicerone Gabriele Di Stefano

The mixture of data in real life exhibits structure or connection property in nature. Typical data include biological data, communication network data, image data, etc. Graphs provide a natural way to represent and analyze these types of data and their relationships. For instance, more recently, graphs have found new applications in solving problems for emerging research fields such as social network analysis, design of robust computer network topologies, frequency allocation in wireless networks, and bioinformatics. Unfortunately, the related algorithms usually suffer from high computational complexity, since some of these problems are NP-hard. Therefore, in recent years, many graph models and optimization algorithms have been proposed to achieve a better balance between efficacy and efficiency. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an opportunity for researchers and engineers from both academia and the industry to publish their latest and original results on graph models, algorithms, and applications to problems in the real world, with a focus on optimization and computational complexity.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050149

Authors: Petros Zervoudakis Haridimos Kondylakis Nicolas Spyratos Dimitris Plexousakis

HIFUN is a high-level query language for expressing analytic queries of big datasets, offering a clear separation between the conceptual layer, where analytic queries are defined independently of the nature and location of data, and the physical layer, where queries are evaluated. In this paper, we present a methodology based on the HIFUN language, and the corresponding algorithms for the incremental evaluation of continuous queries. In essence, our approach is able to process the most recent data batch by exploiting already computed information, without requiring the evaluation of the query over the complete dataset. We present the generic algorithm which we translated to both SQL and MapReduce using SPARK; it implements various query rewriting methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in temrs of query answering efficiency. Finally, we show that by exploiting the formal query rewriting methods of HIFUN, we can further reduce the computational cost, adding another layer of query optimization to our implementation.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050148

Authors: Minhyuk Park Paul Zaharias Tandy Warnow

The estimation of phylogenetic trees for individual genes or multi-locus datasets is a basic part of considerable biological research. In order to enable large trees to be computed, Disjoint Tree Mergers (DTMs) have been developed; these methods operate by dividing the input sequence dataset into disjoint sets, constructing trees on each subset, and then combining the subset trees (using auxiliary information) into a tree on the full dataset. DTMs have been used to advantage for multi-locus species tree estimation, enabling highly accurate species trees at reduced computational effort, compared to leading species tree estimation methods. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of using DTMs to improve the scalability of maximum likelihood (ML) gene tree estimation to large numbers of input sequences. Our study shows distinct differences between the three selected ML codes—RAxML-NG, IQ-TREE 2, and FastTree 2—and shows that good DTM pipeline design can provide advantages over these ML codes on large datasets.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050147

Authors: Felix D. Beacher Lilianne R. Mujica-Parodi Shreyash Gupta Leonardo A. Ancora

The ability to predict the individual outcomes of clinical trials could support the development of tools for precision medicine and improve the efficiency of clinical-stage drug development. However, there are no published attempts to predict individual outcomes of clinical trials for cancer. We used machine learning (ML) to predict individual responses to a two-year course of bicalutamide, a standard treatment for prostate cancer, based on data from three Phase III clinical trials (n = 3653). We developed models that used a merged dataset from all three studies. The best performing models using merged data from all three studies had an accuracy of 76%. The performance of these models was confirmed by further modeling using a merged dataset from two of the three studies, and a separate study for testing. Together, our results indicate the feasibility of ML-based tools for predicting cancer treatment outcomes, with implications for precision oncology and improving the efficiency of clinical-stage drug development.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050146

Authors: Aleksei Vakhnin Evgenii Sopov

Modern real-valued optimization problems are complex and high-dimensional, and they are known as “large-scale global optimization (LSGO)” problems. Classic evolutionary algorithms (EAs) perform poorly on this class of problems because of the curse of dimensionality. Cooperative Coevolution (CC) is a high-performed framework for performing the decomposition of large-scale problems into smaller and easier subproblems by grouping objective variables. The efficiency of CC strongly depends on the size of groups and the grouping approach. In this study, an improved CC (iCC) approach for solving LSGO problems has been proposed and investigated. iCC changes the number of variables in subcomponents dynamically during the optimization process. The SHADE algorithm is used as a subcomponent optimizer. We have investigated the performance of iCC-SHADE and CC-SHADE on fifteen problems from the LSGO CEC’13 benchmark set provided by the IEEE Congress of Evolutionary Computation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that iCC-SHADE outperforms, on average, CC-SHADE with a fixed number of subcomponents. Also, we have compared iCC-SHADE with some state-of-the-art LSGO metaheuristics. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm is competitive with other efficient metaheuristics.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050145

Authors: Mingming Xu Shuning Zhang Guanlong Deng

When no-wait constraint holds in job shops, a job has to be processed with no waiting time from the first to the last operation, and the start time of a job is greatly restricted. Using key elements of the iterated greedy algorithm, this paper proposes a population-based iterated greedy (PBIG) algorithm for finding high-quality schedules in no-wait job shops. Firstly, the Nawaz–Enscore–Ham (NEH) heuristic used for flow shop is extended in no-wait job shops, and an initialization scheme based on the NEH heuristic is developed to generate start solutions with a certain quality and diversity. Secondly, the iterated greedy procedure is introduced based on the destruction and construction perturbator and the insert-based local search. Furthermore, a population-based co-evolutionary scheme is presented by imposing the iterated greedy procedure in parallel and hybridizing both the left timetabling and inverse left timetabling methods. Computational results based on well-known benchmark instances show that the proposed algorithm outperforms two existing metaheuristics by a significant margin.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050144

Authors: Yuexing Han Xiaolong Li Bing Wang Lu Wang

Image segmentation plays an important role in the field of image processing, helping to understand images and recognize objects. However, most existing methods are often unable to effectively explore the spatial information in 3D image segmentation, and they neglect the information from the contours and boundaries of the observed objects. In addition, shape boundaries can help to locate the positions of the observed objects, but most of the existing loss functions neglect the information from the boundaries. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a new cascaded 2.5D fully convolutional networks (FCNs) learning framework to segment 3D medical images. A new boundary loss that incorporates distance, area, and boundary information is also proposed for the cascaded FCNs to learning more boundary and contour features from the 3D medical images. Moreover, an effective post-processing method is developed to further improve the segmentation accuracy. We verified the proposed method on LITS and 3DIRCADb datasets that include the liver and tumors. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than existing methods with a Dice Per Case score of 74.5% for tumor segmentation, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050143

Authors: Alexis Thibault Lénaïc Chizat Charles Dossal Nicolas Papadakis

This article describes a set of methods for quickly computing the solution to the regularized optimal transport problem. It generalizes and improves upon the widely used iterative Bregman projections algorithm (or Sinkhorn–Knopp algorithm). We first proposed to rely on regularized nonlinear acceleration schemes. In practice, such approaches lead to fast algorithms, but their global convergence is not ensured. Hence, we next proposed a new algorithm with convergence guarantees. The idea is to overrelax the Bregman projection operators, allowing for faster convergence. We proposed a simple method for establishing global convergence by ensuring the decrease of a Lyapunov function at each step. An adaptive choice of the overrelaxation parameter based on the Lyapunov function was constructed. We also suggested a heuristic to choose a suitable asymptotic overrelaxation parameter, based on a local convergence analysis. Our numerical experiments showed a gain in convergence speed by an order of magnitude in certain regimes.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050142

Authors: Morgan Louédec Luc Jaulin

The extended Kalman filter has been shown to be a precise method for nonlinear state estimation and is the facto standard in navigation systems. However, if the initial estimated state is far from the true one, the filter may diverge, mainly due to an inconsistent linearization. Moreover, interval filters guarantee a robust and reliable, yet unprecise and discontinuous localization. This paper proposes to choose a point estimated by an interval method, as a linearization point of the extended Kalman filter. We will show that this combination allows us to get a higher level of integrity of the extended Kalman filter.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050141

Authors: Francesco Di Caprio Roberto Scigliano Roberto Fauci Domenico Tescione

Re-entry winged body vehicles have several advantages w.r.t capsules, such as maneuverability and controlled landing opportunity. On the other hand, they show an increment in design level complexity, especially from an aerodynamic, aero-thermodynamic, and structural point of view, and in the difficulties of housing in operative existing launchers. In this framework, the idea of designing unmanned vehicles equipped with deployable wings for suborbital flight was born. This work details a preliminary study for identifying the best configuration for the hinge system aimed at the in-orbit deployment of an unmanned re-entry vehicle’s wings. In particular, the adopted optimization methodology is described. The adopted approach uses a genetic algorithm available in commercial software in conjunction with fully parametric models created in FEM environments and, in particular, it can optimize the hinge position considering both the deployed and folded configuration. The results identify the best hinge configuration that minimizes interface loads, thus, realizing a lighter and more efficient deployment system. Indeed, for such a category of vehicle, it is mandatory to reduce the structural mass, as much as possible in order to increase the payload and reduce service costs.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050140

Authors: Miguel Ângelo Lellis Moreira Igor Pinheiro de Araújo Costa Maria Teresa Pereira Marcos dos Santos Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes Fernando Martins Muradas

This paper presents a new approach based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), named PROMETHEE-SAPEVO-M1, through its implementation and feasibility related to the decision-making process regarding the evaluation of helicopters of attack of the Brazilian Navy. The proposed methodology aims to present an integration of ordinal evaluation into the cardinal procedure from the PROMETHEE method, enabling to perform qualitative and quantitative data and generate the criteria weights by pairwise evaluation, transparently. The modeling provides three models of preference analysis, as partial, complete, and outranking by intervals, along with an intra-criterion analysis by veto threshold, enabling the analysis of the performance of an alternative in a specific criterion. As a demonstration of the application, is carried out a case study by the PROMETHEE-SAPEVO-M1 web platform, addressing a strategic analysis of attack helicopters to be acquired by the Brazilian Navy, from the need to be evaluating multiple specifications with different levels of importance within the context problem. The modeling implementation in the case study is made in detail, first performing the alternatives in each criterion and then presenting the results by three different models of preference analysis, along with the intra-criterion analysis and a rank reversal procedure. Moreover, is realized a comparison analysis to the PROMETHEE method, exploring the main features of the PROMETHEE-SAPEVO-M1. Moreover, a section of discussion is presented, exposing some features and main points of the proposal. Therefore, this paper provides a valuable contribution to academia and society since it represents the application of an MCDA method in the state of the art, contributing to the decision-making resolution of the most diverse real problems.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050139

Authors: Claudio Ciprian Kirill Masychev Maryam Ravan Akshaya Manimaran AnkitaAmol Deshmukh

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness associated with neurobiological deficits. Even though the brain activities during tasks (i.e., P300 activities) are considered as biomarkers to diagnose schizophrenia, brain activities at rest have the potential to show an inherent dysfunctionality in schizophrenia and can be used to understand the cognitive deficits in these patients. In this study, we developed a machine learning algorithm (MLA) based on eyes closed resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) datasets, which record the neural activity in the absence of any tasks or external stimuli given to the subjects, aiming to distinguish schizophrenic patients (SCZs) from healthy controls (HCs). The MLA has two steps. In the first step, symbolic transfer entropy (STE), which is a measure of effective connectivity, is applied to resting-state EEG data. In the second step, the MLA uses the STE matrix to find a set of features that can successfully discriminate SCZ from HC. From the results, we found that the MLA could achieve a total accuracy of 96.92%, with a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 98.57%, precision of 98.33%, F1-score of 0.97, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.94 using only 10 out of 1900 STE features, which implies that the STE matrix extracted from resting-state EEG data may be a promising tool for the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050138

Authors: Daniele Codetta-Raiteri

In the field of Artificial Intelligence, Bayesian Networks (BN) [...]

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050137

Authors: Zhou Lei Kangkang Yang Kai Jiang Shengbo Chen

Person re-Identification(Re-ID) based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) achieves remarkable success with its fast speed. However, prevailing Re-ID models are usually built upon backbones that manually design for classification. In order to automatically design an effective Re-ID architecture, we propose a pedestrian re-identification algorithm based on knowledge distillation, called KDAS-ReID. When the knowledge of the teacher model is transferred to the student model, the importance of knowledge in the teacher model will gradually decrease with the improvement of the performance of the student model. Therefore, instead of applying the distillation loss function directly, we consider using dynamic temperatures during the search stage and training stage. Specifically, we start searching and training at a high temperature and gradually reduce the temperature to 1 so that the student model can better learn from the teacher model through soft targets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that KDAS-ReID performs not only better than other state-of-the-art Re-ID models on three benchmarks, but also better than the teacher model based on the ResNet-50 backbone.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050136

Authors: Aritra Bose Filippo Utro Daniel E. Platt Laxmi Parida

As studies move into deeper characterization of the impact of selection through non-neutral mutations in whole genome population genetics, modeling for selection becomes crucial. Moreover, epistasis has long been recognized as a significant component in understanding the evolution of complex genetic systems. We present a backward coalescent model, EpiSimRA, that accommodates multiple loci selection, with multi-way (k-way) epistasis for any arbitrary k. Starting from arbitrary extant populations with epistatic sites, we trace the Ancestral Recombination Graph (ARG), sampling relevant recombination and coalescent events. Our framework allows for studying different complex evolutionary scenarios in the presence of selective sweeps, positive and negative selection with multiway epistasis. We also present a forward counterpart of the coalescent model based on a Wright-Fisher (WF) process, which we use as a validation framework, comparing the hallmarks of the ARG between the two. We provide the first framework that allows a nose-to-nose comparison of multiway epistasis in a coalescent simulator with its forward counterpart with respect to the hallmarks of the ARG. We demonstrate, through extensive experiments, that EpiSimRA is consistently superior in terms of performance (seconds vs. hours) in comparison to the forward model without compromising on its accuracy.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050135

Authors: Liliya A. Demidova Julia S. Sokolova

The problem of the analysis of datasets formed by the results of group expert assessment of objects by a certain set of features is considered. Such datasets may contain mismatched, including conflicting values of object evaluations by the analyzed features. In addition, the values of the assessments for the features can be not only point, but also interval due to the incompleteness and inaccuracy of the experts’ knowledge. Taking into account all the results of group expert assessment of objects for a certain set of features, estimated pointwise, can be carried out using the multiset toolkit. To process interval values of assessments, it is proposed to use a linguistic approach which involves the use of a linguistic scale in order to describe various strategies for evaluating objects: conservative, neutral and risky, and implement various decision-making strategies in the problems of clustering, classification, and ordering of objects. The linguistic approach to working with objects assessed by a group of experts with setting interval values of assessments has been successfully applied to the analysis of the dataset presented by competitive projects. A herewith, for the dataset under consideration, using various assessment strategies, solutions of clustering, classification, and ordering problems were obtained with the study of the influence of the chosen assessment strategy on the results of solving the corresponding problem.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050134

Authors: Loai Abdallah Murad Badarna Waleed Khalifa Malik Yousef

In the computational biology community there are many biological cases that are considered as multi-one-class classification problems. Examples include the classification of multiple tumor types, protein fold recognition and the molecular classification of multiple cancer types. In all of these cases the real world appropriately characterized negative cases or outliers are impractical to achieve and the positive cases might consist of different clusters, which in turn might lead to accuracy degradation. In this paper we present a novel algorithm named MultiKOC multi-one-class classifiers based K-means to deal with this problem. The main idea is to execute a clustering algorithm over the positive samples to capture the hidden subdata of the given positive data, and then building up a one-class classifier for every cluster member’s examples separately: in other word, train the OC classifier on each piece of subdata. For a given new sample, the generated classifiers are applied. If it is rejected by all of those classifiers, the given sample is considered as a negative sample, otherwise it is a positive sample. The results of MultiKOC are compared with the traditional one-class, multi-one-class, ensemble one-classes and two-class methods, yielding a significant improvement over the one-class and like the two-class performance.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050133

Authors: Daniel Gibney Sharma V. Thankachan

Finding substrings of a text T that match a regular expression p is a fundamental problem. Despite being the subject of extensive research, no solution with a time complexity significantly better than O(|T||p|) has been found. Backurs and Indyk in FOCS 2016 established conditional lower bounds for the algorithmic problem based on the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis that helps explain this difficulty. A natural question is whether we can improve the time complexity for matching the regular expression by preprocessing the text T? We show that conditioned on the Online Matrix–Vector Multiplication (OMv) conjecture, even with arbitrary polynomial preprocessing time, a regular expression query on a text cannot be answered in strongly sublinear time, i.e., O(|T|1−ε) for any ε&gt;0. Furthermore, if we extend the OMv conjecture to a plausible conjecture regarding Boolean matrix multiplication with polynomial preprocessing time, which we call Online Matrix–Matrix Multiplication (OMM), we can strengthen this hardness result to there being no solution with a query time that is O(|T|3/2−ε). These results hold for alphabet sizes three or greater. We then provide data structures that answer queries in O(|T||p|τ) time where τ∈[1,|T|] is fixed at construction. These include a solution that works for all regular expressions with Expτ·|T| preprocessing time and space. For patterns containing only ‘concatenation’ and ‘or’ operators (the same type used in the hardness result), we provide (1) a deterministic solution which requires Expτ·|T|log2|T| preprocessing time and space, and (2) when |p|≤|T|z for z=2o(log|T|), a randomized solution with amortized query time which answers queries correctly with high probability, requiring Expτ·|T|2Ωlog|T| preprocessing time and space.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050132

Authors: Malik Yousef Jens Allmer

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA sequences that are actively involved in gene regulation. These regulators on the post-transcriptional level have been discovered in virtually all eukaryotic organisms. Additionally, miRNAs seem to exist in viruses and might also be produced in microbial pathogens. Initially, transcribed RNA is cleaved by Drosha, producing precursor miRNAs. We have previously shown that it is possible to distinguish between microRNA precursors of different clades by representing the sequences in a k-mer feature space. The k-mer representation considers the frequency of a k-mer in the given sequence. We further hypothesized that the relationship between k-mers (e.g., distance between k-mers) could be useful for classification. Three different distance-based features were created, tested, and compared. The three feature sets were entitled inter k-mer distance, k-mer location distance, and k-mer first–last distance. Here, we show that classification performance above 80% (depending on the evolutionary distance) is possible with a combination of distance-based and regular k-mer features. With these novel features, classification at closer evolutionary distances is better than using k-mers alone. Combining the features leads to accurate classification for larger evolutionary distances. For example, categorizing Homo sapiens versus Brassicaceae leads to an accuracy of 93%. When considering average accuracy, the novel distance-based features lead to an overall increase in effectiveness. On the contrary, secondary-structure-based features did not lead to any effective separation among clades in this study. With this line of research, we support the differentiation between true and false miRNAs detected from next-generation sequencing data, provide an additional viewpoint for confirming miRNAs when the species of origin is known, and open up a new strategy for analyzing miRNA evolution.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050131

Authors: Martin Vu Henning Fernau

Insertion-deletion systems have been introduced as a formalism to model operations that find their counterparts in ideas of bio-computing, more specifically, when using DNA or RNA strings and biological mechanisms that work on these strings. So-called matrix control has been introduced to insertion-deletion systems in order to enable writing short program fragments. We discuss substitutions as a further type of operation, added to matrix insertion-deletion systems. For such systems, we additionally discuss the effect of appearance checking. This way, we obtain new characterizations of the family of context-sensitive and the family of recursively enumerable languages. Not much context is needed for systems with appearance checking to reach computational completeness. This also suggests that bio-computers may run rather traditionally written programs, as our simulations also show how Turing machines, like any other computational device, can be simulated by certain matrix insertion-deletion-substitution systems.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050130

Authors: Lev Kazakovtsev Ivan Rozhnov Guzel Shkaberina

The continuous p-median problem (CPMP) is one of the most popular and widely used models in location theory that minimizes the sum of distances from known demand points to the sought points called centers or medians. This NP-hard location problem is also useful for clustering (automatic grouping). In this case, sought points are considered as cluster centers. Unlike similar k-means model, p-median clustering is less sensitive to noisy data and appearance of the outliers (separately located demand points that do not belong to any cluster). Local search algorithms including Variable Neighborhood Search as well as evolutionary algorithms demonstrate rather precise results. Various algorithms based on the use of greedy agglomerative procedures are capable of obtaining very accurate results that are difficult to improve on with other methods. The computational complexity of such procedures limits their use for large problems, although computations on massively parallel systems significantly expand their capabilities. In addition, the efficiency of agglomerative procedures is highly dependent on the setting of their parameters. For the majority of practically important p-median problems, one can choose a very efficient algorithm based on the agglomerative procedures. However, the parameters of such algorithms, which ensure their high efficiency, are difficult to predict. We introduce the concept of the AGGLr neighborhood based on the application of the agglomerative procedure, and investigate the search efficiency in such a neighborhood depending on its parameter r. Using the similarities between local search algorithms and (1 + 1)-evolutionary algorithms, as well as the ability of the latter to adapt their search parameters, we propose a new algorithm based on a greedy agglomerative procedure with the automatically tuned parameter r. Our new algorithm does not require preliminary tuning of the parameter r of the agglomerative procedure, adjusting this parameter online, thus representing a more versatile computational tool. The advantages of the new algorithm are shown experimentally on problems with a data volume of up to 2,000,000 demand points.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050129

Authors: Yuan Li Ni Zhang Yuejiao Gong Wentao Mao Shiguang Zhang

Compared with continuous elements, discontinuous elements advance in processing the discontinuity of physical variables at corner points and discretized models with complex boundaries. However, the computational accuracy of discontinuous elements is sensitive to the positions of element nodes. To reduce the side effect of the node position on the results, this paper proposes employing partially discontinuous elements to compute the time-domain boundary integral equation of 3D elastodynamics. Using the partially discontinuous element, the nodes located at the corner points will be shrunk into the element, whereas the nodes at the non-corner points remain unchanged. As such, a discrete model that is continuous on surfaces and discontinuous between adjacent surfaces can be generated. First, we present a numerical integration scheme of the partially discontinuous element. For the singular integral, an improved element subdivision method is proposed to reduce the side effect of the time step on the integral accuracy. Then, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by two numerical examples. Meanwhile, we study the influence of the positions of the nodes on the stability and accuracy of the computation results by cases. Finally, the recommended value range of the inward shrink ratio of the element nodes is provided.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14050127

Authors: Vladimir Stanovov Shakhnaz Akhmedova Eugene Semenkin

In this paper, a novel search operation is proposed for the neuroevolution of augmented topologies, namely the difference-based mutation. This operator uses the differences between individuals in the population to perform more efficient search for optimal weights and structure of the model. The difference is determined according to the innovation numbers assigned to each node and connection, allowing tracking the changes. The implemented neuroevolution algorithm allows backward connections and loops in the topology, and uses a set of mutation operators, including connections merging and deletion. The algorithm is tested on a set of classification problems and the rotary inverted pendulum control problem. The comparison is performed between the basic approach and modified versions. The sensitivity to parameter values is examined. The experimental results prove that the newly developed operator delivers significant improvements to the classification quality in several cases, and allow finding better control algorithms.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14040128

Authors: George Odongo Richard Musabe Damien Hanyurwimfura

This study investigates the use of machine-learning approaches to interpret Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) data to find incipient faults early in oil-impregnated transformers. Transformers are critical pieces of equipment in transmitting and distributing electrical energy. The failure of a single unit disturbs a huge number of consumers and suppresses economic activities in the vicinity. Because of this, it is important that power utility companies accord high priority to condition monitoring of critical assets. The analysis of dissolved gases is a technique popularly used for monitoring the condition of transformers dipped in oil. The interpretation of DGA data is however inconclusive as far as the determination of incipient faults is concerned and depends largely on the expertise of technical personnel. To have a coherent, accurate, and clear interpretation of DGA, this study proposes a novel multinomial classification model christened KosaNet that is based on decision trees. Actual DGA data with 2912 entries was used to compute the performance of KosaNet against other algorithms with multiclass classification ability namely the decision tree, k-NN, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, and Gradient Boost. Investigative results show that KosaNet demonstrated an improved DGA classification ability particularly when classifying multinomial data.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14040126

Authors: Elena A. Petrova Arseny M. Shur

Binary cube-free language and ternary square-free language are two “canonical” representatives of a wide class of languages defined by avoidance properties. Each of these two languages can be viewed as an infinite binary tree reflecting the prefix order of its elements. We study how “homogenious” these trees are, analysing the following parameter: the density of branching nodes along infinite paths. We present combinatorial results and an efficient search algorithm, which together allowed us to get the following numerical results for the cube-free language: the minimal density of branching points is between 3509/9120≈0.38476 and 13/29≈0.44828, and the maximal density is between 0.72 and 67/93≈0.72043. We also prove the lower bound 223/868≈0.25691 on the density of branching points in the tree of the ternary square-free language.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14040125

Authors: Martin Geier Hussein Alihussein

We propose and validate a method to find an implicit representation of a surface placed at a distance h from another implicit surface. With two such surfaces on either side of the original surface, a volumetric shell of predefined thickness can be obtained. The usability of the proposed method is demonstrated through providing solid models of triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) geometries with a predefined constant and variable thickness. The method has an adjustable order of convergence. If applied to surfaces with spatially varying thickness, the convergence order is limited to second order. This accuracy is still substantially higher than the accuracy of any contemporary 3D printer that could benefit from the function as an infill volume for shells with predefined thicknesses.

]]>Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a14040124

Authors: La Zakaria Endah Yuliani Asmiati Asmiati

Cryptography is the science and study of protecting data in computer and communication systems from unauthorized disclosure and modification. An ordinary difference equation (a map) can be used in encryption–decryption algorithms. In particular, the Arnold’s cat and the sine-Gordon linear maps can be used in cryptographic algorithms for encoding digital images. In this article, a two-dimensional linear mKdV map derived from an ordinary difference mKdV equation will be used in a cryptographic encoding algorithm. The proposed encoding algorithm will be compared with those generated using sine-Gordon and Arnold’s cat maps via the correlations between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image and the uniformity of the pixel distribution. Note that the mKdV map is derived from the partial discrete mKdV equation with Consistency Around the Cube (CAC) properties, whereas the sine-Gordon map is derived from the partial discrete sine-Gordon equation, which does not have CAC properties.

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