Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010009

Authors: Cheng-Hsing Hsu Jun-Liang Chen Shan-Chi Yuan Kuang-Yuan Kung

The adaptive dynamic mesh, user-defined functions, and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) solver provided in ANSYS FLUENT 14 are engaged to simulate the activating processes of the rotor of the Grumman WS33 wind system. The rotor is activated from stationary to steady operation driven by a steady or periodic wind flow and its kinematic properties and power generation during the activating processes. The angular velocity and angular acceleration are calculated directly by the post-processed real-time 6DOF solver without presuming a known rotating speed to the computational grid frame. The maximum angular velocity of the rotor is approximately proportional to the driving wind speed, and its maximal angular acceleration is also closely proportional to the square of the driving wind speed. The evolution curves of the normalized rotor angular velocities and accelerations are almost identical due to the self-similarity properties of the rotor angular velocities and accelerations. The angular velocity of the rotor will reach its steady value. One can use these steady angular velocities to predict the mechanical power generations of the rotor. The momentum analysis theory and the blade element momentum method are applied to predicted power generations and reveal good agreements with experimental data in the low wind speed range.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010008

Authors: Bing Wu Daren Peng Rhys Jones

The problems of crack formation in orthotropic materials under 2i order polynomial function heat flow and 2j order polynomial function mechanical loading are considered. An extended local insulation crack model is proposed, and fracture analysis is carried out for the above problems. Utilizing Fourier transform technique (FTT) and principle of superposition, the jumps of temperature, elastic displacements on the crack, and so on are obtained. The advantage of this analysis is that the explicit closed form solutions of main parameters in classical fracture mechanics, i.e., the stress intensity factor, the energy release rate, and the energy density have been presented. A simple example is used to demonstrate the method proposed in this paper. The analysis results show that the non-dimensional thermal conductivity and the combined ratio of the heat flux per thickness perpendicular to the crack surface to the mechanical load have a great influence on the calculation of fracture parameters. Only when they meet certain conditions can the correct fracture parameter calculation results be obtained.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010007

Authors: Anna Rudawska

The article presents the issues of the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives and the adhesive joints strength of steel sheets which were made using the epoxy adhesives. The aim of the paper is to study the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesive of different epoxy resin/curing agent ratios (within and above the recommended stoichiometric ratio) and their effect on mechanical properties of adhesive joints of steel sheets. In experimental tests three types of epoxy adhesives, containing a low molecular weight epoxy resin based on bisphenol A and polyamide curing agent, were used. A single-lap adhesive joint type of stainless-steel sheets was also applied. Two types of strength test were used: the compressive strength tests (DIN EN 196-1) for epoxy adhesive samples and the shear strength tests (DIN EN 1465) for adhesive joints. Both the analysis of the strength results of the samples of epoxy adhesive and adhesive joints as well as the failure analysis was carried out. On the basis of the results of strength tests it can be stated that the greatest deformation occurred for the samples of epoxy adhesive containing the modified epoxy resin (epoxy number—0.40) and the polyamide curing agent, and the smallest for the samples of epoxy adhesive containing the basic epoxy resin (epoxy number—0.49–0.52) and the polyamide curing agent. The epoxy adhesives with a smaller amount of curing agent were characterized by higher strength. This applies to all analyzed epoxy resins. The same dependences were obtained for the strength of adhesive joints of steel sheets made of the analyzed epoxy adhesive.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010006

Authors: Eric Trudel Mostafa S.A. ElSayed

Tessellating a periodic unit cell of lattice material to fill a design space in complex geometries has many challenges arising from their computer-aided design (CAD) modeling intricacy. A solution to this difficulty is the use of trimmed micro-truss lattice structures with a conformal net. This paper presents a novel algorithm for constructing conformal lattice net as wireframe of one-dimensional line segments suitable for Bravais cubic symmetric truss-based topologies. The novel algorithm is an excellent candidate when dealing with lattice structures using cubic, body-centered cubic (BCC), face-centered cubic (FCC), and/or diamond unit cell configurations. The wireframe structure is easily transferred into one-dimensional beam elements for microscale optimizations to obtain a functionally graded lattice material. It is shown that introduction of the lattice net resulted in a significant reduction in the mass of the optimized design.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010005

Authors: Noushad Bin Jamal Bin Jamal M Hsiao Wei Lee Chebolu Lakshmana Rao Cemal Basaran

Traditionally dynamic analysis is done using Newton’s universal laws of the equation of motion. According to the laws of Newtonian mechanics, the x, y, z, space-time coordinate system does not include a term for energy loss, an empirical damping term “C” is used in the dynamic equilibrium equation. Energy loss in any system is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Unified Mechanics Theory (UMT) unifies the universal laws of motion of Newton and the laws of thermodynamics at ab-initio level. As a result, the energy loss [entropy generation] is automatically included in the laws of the Unified Mechanics Theory (UMT). Using unified mechanics theory, the dynamic equilibrium equation is derived and presented. One-dimensional free vibration analysis with frictional dissipation is used to compare the results of the proposed model with that of a Newtonian mechanics equation. For the proposed entropy generation equation in the system, the trend of predictions is comparable with the reported experimental results and Newtonian mechanics-based predictions.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010004

Authors: Santiago Iglesias-Baniela Juan Vinagre-Ríos José M. Pérez-Canosa

It is a well-known fact that the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster caused the escort towing of laden tankers in many coastal areas of the world to become compulsory. In order to implement a new type of escort towing, specially designed to be employed in very adverse weather conditions, considerable changes in the hull form of escort tugs had to be made to improve their stability and performance. Since traditional winch and ropes technologies were only effective in calm waters, tugs had to be fitted with new devices. These improvements allowed the remodeled tugs to counterbalance the strong forces generated by the maneuvers in open waters. The aim of this paper is to perform a comprehensive literature review of the new high-performance automatic dynamic winches. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the best available technologies regarding towline, essential to properly exploit the new winches, will be carried out. Through this review, the way in which the escort towing industry has faced this technological challenge is shown.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010003

Authors: Riley Carriere Aleksandr Cherniaev

Sandwich panels are widely used in the design of unmanned satellites and, in addition to having a structural function, can often serve as shielding, protecting the satellites’ equipment from hypervelocity impacts (HVI) of orbital debris and micrometeoroids. This paper provides a comprehensive review of experimental studies in the field of HVI on sandwich panels with honeycomb- and open-cell foam cores, as well as an examination of available predictive models for the assessment of the panels’ ballistic limits. The emphasis of the review is placed on: (i) identifying gaps in the existing experimental database and the appropriate directions for its further expansion; and (ii) understanding the limitations of the available predictive models and the potential for their improvement.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010002

Authors: Yutaka Fujita Shoji Ishihara Yuki Nakashima Kosuke Nishigaya Katsuaki Tanabe

Fluidic self-assembly is a versatile on-chip integration method. In this scheme, a large number of semiconductor microchips are spontaneously deposited onto a host chip. The host chip typically comprises a Si substrate with an array of pockets at the designated microchip placement sites. In this study, we installed an SiO2 layer on the terrace region between the pockets of the host chip, to reduce the attraction with the Si microchips. By the SiO2-topped terrace scheme, we demonstrated a significant enhancement in the deposition selectivity of the Si microchips to the pocket sites, relative to the case of the conventional Si-only host chip. We theoretically explained the deposition selectivity enhancement in terms of the van der Waals interaction. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis implicated a potential applicability of the commonly used interlayer dielectrics, such as HfO2, silsesquioxanes, and allyl ethers, directly as the terrace component.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech2010001

Authors: Miles Skinner Pierre Mertiny

Flywheel energy storage has a wide range of applications in energy grids and transportation. The adoption of high-performance components has made this technology a viable alternative for substituting or complementing other storage devices. Flywheel energy storage systems are subject to passive discharge attributed primarily to electrical machine losses, bearing rolling friction, and aerodynamic drag of the flywheel rotor. In the present study, measurements are presented for complete discharge experiments using a flywheel system featuring a vacuum enclosure. Best-fit equations were applied to the test data and compared to analytical models. Analysis of the best-fit equations indicates that they may serve as empirical models for approximating passive discharge under given conditions. Bearing losses, which varied linearly with velocity but were otherwise unaffected throughout the experiments, were larger than aerodynamic drag at low air pressures and low velocities. Aerodynamic drag became significant as velocity exceeded approximately 3400 rpm. The electrical machine was found to be the most significant source of passive discharge at all velocities and pressures. Based on these findings, it is recommended to maintain a low-pressure environment in the flywheel enclosure and to decouple the electrical machine from the rotor whenever possible to eliminate associated losses.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1040013

Authors: Ayodeji Olamide Abdeldjalil Bennecer Stefan Kaczmarczyk

Fatigue lifetime of offshore pipelines with semi-elliptical circumferential surface cracks is often underestimated. An accurate prediction of the pipeline structural integrity is nevertheless important in order to prevent unnecessary and expensive downtime, failures leading to leakage or spillage of pipeline contents to the surrounding environment, and ultimately improve the reliability of the pipeline. The estimation of crack growth in pipelines under varying loads is highly dependent on the calculation of crack driving parameters, such as the stress intensity factor and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) using the 3D J-integral or its equivalent. This paper presents a numerical study to predict the fatigue lifetime of cracks in pipes, determining the J-integral that includes first and second derivatives of the displacement field for pipes containing a range of circumferential surface cracks. A pipe segment is structurally loaded and stress intensity factors (SIF) evaluated using the finite element method (FEM). Based on the results, a number-of-cycles to failure curve shows a longer lifetime than previously predicted by about 5% for a pipe with semi-elliptical external surface cracks. In addition, they indicate that the external short cracks are more dangerous than the internal long surface crack hereby requiring earlier assessment.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1040012

Authors: Nedaa Amraish Andreas Reisinger Dieter H. Pahr

Digital image correlation (DIC) systems have been used in many engineering fields to obtain surface full-field strain distribution. However, noise affects the accuracy and precision of the measurements due to many factors. The aim of this study was to find out how different filtering options; namely, simple mean filtering, Gaussian mean filtering and Gaussian low-pass filtering (LPF), reduce noise while maintaining the full-field information based on constant, linear and quadratic strain fields. Investigations are done in two steps. First, linear and quadratic strain fields with and without noise are simulated and projected to discrete measurement points which build up strain window sizes consisting of 6&times;5, 12&times;11, and 26&times;17 points. Optimal filter sizes are computed for each filter strategy, strain field type, and strain windows size, with minimal impairment of the signal information. Second, these filter sizes are used to filter full-field strain distributions of steel samples under tensile tests by using an ARAMIS DIC system to show their practical applicability. Results for the first part show that for a typical 12&times;11 strain window, simple mean filtering achieves an error reduction of 66&ndash;69%, Gaussian mean filtering of 72&ndash;75%, and Gaussian LPF of 66&ndash;69%. If optimized filters are used for DIC measurements on steel samples, the total strain error can be reduced from initial 240&minus;300 &mu;strain to 100&ndash;150 &mu;strain. In conclusion, the noise-floor of DIC signals is considerable and the preferable filters were a simple mean with s*&macr; = 2, a Gaussian mean with &sigma;*&macr; = 1.7, and a Gaussian LPF with D0*&macr; = 2.5 in the examined cases.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1030011

Authors: Jeongeun Son Dongping Du Yuncheng Du

Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an important part of mathematical modeling and simulations, which quantifies the impact of parametric uncertainty on model predictions. This paper presents an efficient approach for polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) based UQ method in biological systems. For PCE, the key step is the stochastic Galerkin (SG) projection, which yields a family of deterministic models of PCE coefficients to describe the original stochastic system. When dealing with systems that involve nonpolynomial terms and many uncertainties, the SG-based PCE is computationally prohibitive because it often involves high-dimensional integrals. To address this, a generalized dimension reduction method (gDRM) is coupled with quadrature rules to convert a high-dimensional integral in the SG into a few lower dimensional ones that can be rapidly solved. The performance of the algorithm is validated with two examples describing the dynamic behavior of cells. Compared to other UQ techniques (e.g., nonintrusive PCE), the results show the potential of the algorithm to tackle UQ in more complicated biological systems.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1020010

Authors: Duong Huong Nguyen Long Viet Ho Thanh Bui-Tien Guido De Roeck Magd Abdel Wahab

Damage can be detected by vibration responses of a structure. Damage changes the modal properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios. Natural frequency is one of the most frequently used damage indicators. In this paper, the natural frequency is used to monitor damage in a free-free beam. The modal properties of the intact free-free beam are identified based on a setup of 15 accelerometers. A finite element model is used to model the free-free beam. Three models are considered: beam (1D), shell (2D), and solid (3D). The numerical models are updated based on the first five bending natural frequencies. The free-free beam is damaged by a rectangle cut. The experiment is re-setup and the model properties of the damaged beam are re-identified. The cuttings are modeled in the numerical simulations. The first five numerical bending natural frequencies of the damaged beam are compared with the experimental ones. The results showed that the 1D beam element model has the highest errors, while the 2D and 3D models have approximately the same results. Therefore, the 2D representation can be used to model the damaged beam for fast computation.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1020009

Authors: José Manuel Pérez-Canosa Santiago Iglesias-Baniela Alsira Salgado-Don

Heavy cargo units with a relatively reduced footprint area require a support surface large enough to transfer the forces onto the largest possible surface and/or the main stiffening (longitudinal and transverse) in order to not collapse or overstress the ship&rsquo;s structure and, consequently, put the ship, the cargo, and the crew at risk. For that reason, it is necessary to project stowage and securing systems (including bedding design) to ensure that, by applying the principles of good seamanship and securing practices, the shipment is maintained in a safe condition throughout the trip until destination port arrival. Despite the increase in project cargo shipments in recent years, in many cases, International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations are followed by default. The main purpose of this paper, thus, is to highlight certain shipments for which IMO guidelines should be taken into account in future revisions. This is done through what was considered innovative project cargo on a particular ship due to its special characteristics. To this end, because of limitations found in the IMO CSS Code regarding acceleration and force calculations, it was necessary to resort to the internationally accepted guidelines of one of the strictest classification societies.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1020008

Authors: Aaron S. Blumenthal Michael Nosonovsky

The tower clocks designed and built in Europe starting from the end of the 13th century employed the &ldquo;verge and foliot escapement&rdquo; mechanism. This mechanism provided a relatively low accuracy of time measurement. The introduction of the pendulum into the clock mechanism by Christiaan Huygens in 1658&ndash;1673 improved the accuracy by about 30 times. The improvement is attributed to the isochronicity of small linear vibrations of a mathematical pendulum. We develop a mathematical model of both mechanisms. Using scaling arguments, we show that the introduction of the pendulum resulted in accuracy improvement by approximately &pi;/&mu; &asymp; 30 times, where &mu; &asymp; 0.1 is the coefficient of friction. Several historic clocks are discussed, as well as the implications of both mechanisms to the history of science and technology.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1020007

Authors: Stefanos C. Spathopoulos Georgios E. Stavroulakis

Sheet metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes applied in many industrial sectors, with the most prevalent being the automotive and aerospace industries. The main purpose of that operation is to produce a desired formed shape blank, without any material failures, which should lie well within the acceptable tolerance limits. Springback is affected by factors such as material properties, sheet thickness, forming tools geometry, contact and friction, etc. The present paper proposes a novel neural network system for the prediction of springback in sheet metal forming processes. It is based on Bayesian regularized backpropagation networks, which have not been tested in the literature, according to the authors&rsquo; best knowledge. For the creation of training examples a carefully prepared Finite Element model has been created and validated for a test case used in similar industrial studies.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1010006

Authors: Luís Bernardo Cátia Taborda

The Generalized Softened Variable Angle Truss Model (GSVATM) allows one to compute the global behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams under torsion, including the pre- and post-cracking stage. In a previous study, such a model was successfully extended to cover prestressed concrete beams under torsion with longitudinal and uniform prestress. In order to continue to extend the theoretical model for other loading cases, in this article, the GSVATM is extended to cover RC beams under torsion combined with external and centered axial forces. The changes in GSVATM are presented, as well as the modified calculation solution procedure. Some theoretical predictions from the extended GSVATM are compared with numerical results from the non-linear finite element method (FEM), where good agreement is observed for the studied trends.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1010005

Authors: Aleksandr Cherniaev Svetlana Pavlova Aleksandr Pavlov Valeriy Komarov

Assessments of residual load-carrying capacity are often conducted for composite structural components that have received impact damage. The availability of a verified simulation methodology can provide significant cost savings when such assessments are required. To support the development of a reliable and accurate simulation methodology, this study investigated the predictive capabilities of a stacked solid-shell finite element model of a cylindrical composite component with a damage mechanics-based description of the intra-ply material response and a cohesive contact model used for simulation of the inter-ply behavior. Identification of material properties for the model was conducted through mechanical characterization. Special attention was paid to understanding the influence of non-physical parameters of the intra- and inter-ply material models on predicting compressive failure load of damaged composite cylinders. Calibration of the model conducted using the response surface methodology allowed for identifying rational values of the non-physical parameters. The results of simulations with the identified and calibrated finite element model showed reasonable correlation with experimental data in terms of the predicted failure loads and post-impact and post-failure damage modes. The investigated modeling technique can be recommended for evaluating the residual load-bearing capacity of flat and curved composite parts with impact damage working under the action of compressive loads.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1010004

Authors: Laddu Bhagya Jayasinghe Daniele Waldmann Junlong Shang

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions, due to horizontal loads, thereby leading to hazardous outcomes. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Finite Element Method (SPH-FEM) model, which was established to investigate pile punching and its impact on adjacent piles subjected to lateral loads. This approach handles the large distortions by avoiding mesh tangling and remeshing, contributing greatly high computational efficiency. The SPH-FEM model was validated against field measurements. The results of this study indicated that the soil type in which piles were embedded affected the interaction between piles during the pile punching. A comprehensive parametric study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil properties on the displacement of piles due to the punching of an adjacent pile. It was found that the interaction between piles was comparatively weak when the piles were driven in stiff clays; while the pile-soil interactions were much more significant in sandy soils and soft clays.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1010003

Authors: Mario Buchely Alejandro Marañon

In recent years, Spherical Cavity Expansion (SCE) theory has been extensively utilized to model dynamic deformation processes related to indentation and penetration problems in many fields. In this review, the SCE theory is introduced by explaining the different mathematical features of this theory, its solution, and a potential application to model the penetration of a rigid penetrator into a deformable target. First, a chronologically literature review of the most common models used to study this kind of penetration problems is introduced, focusing on the SCE theory. Then, the engineering model of penetration is presented using the SCE approach. The model is then compared and validated with some FE numerical simulations and with previous penetration results. It is concluded that this engineering model based on the SCE theory can be utilized to predict the projectile deceleration and penetration depth into the semi-infinite and finite targets impacted by rigid penetrators.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1010002

Authors: Abbas Tamadon Dirk J. Pons Don Clucas

Material flow transportation around the rotating tool and the mass deposition at the backside of the tool are critical characteristics of friction stir welding. To achieve an optimized weld structure, the history of the plastic deformation needs to be identified with a flow-based elucidation. In this study, an analogue model was applied to evaluate the formation of a banded structure using the bobbin tool, with a focus on the interaction between the tool-workpiece. The flow visualization in plasticine analogue was validated in comparison with the aluminium welds. The plastic flow mechanism was visualized both, at the surface and the cross-section of the weld-seam. The cross-section of the weld shows the details of the formation of tunnel voids, caused by the failure of the flow regimes. A physical model of the material flow was proposed to explain the formation mechanism of the tunnel void as a discontinuity during the mass refilling at the rear of the tool.

]]>Applied Mechanics doi: 10.3390/applmech1010001

Authors: Magd Abdel Wahab

Mechanics is a branch of physics that describes the theoretical aspects related to the response of objects to external forces and displacements [...]

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