Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030109

Authors: Tunde A. Yusuf Fazle Mabood B. C. Prasannakumara Ioannis E. Sarris

The fluid flow through inclined plates has several applications in magneto-aerodynamics, materials processing and magnetohydrodynamic propulsion thermo-fluid dynamics. Inspired by these applications, the rate of entropy production in a bio-convective flow of a magnetohydrodynamic Williamson nanoliquid over an inclined convectively heated stretchy plate with the influence of thermal radiation, porous materials and chemical reaction has been deliberated in this paper. The presence of microorganisms aids in stabilizing the suspended nanoparticles through a bioconvection process. Also, the thermal radiation assumed an optically thick limit approximation. With the help of similarity transformations, the coupled partial differential equations are converted to nonlinear ordinary differential equations and the resulting model is numerically tackled using the shooting method. The influences of the determining thermo-physical parameters on the flow field are incorporated and extensively discussed. The major relevant outcomes of the present analysis are that the upsurge in values of Schmidt number decays the mass transfer characteristics, but the converse trend is depicted for boost up values of the thermophoresis parameter. Enhancement in bioconvection Peclet and Schmidt numbers deteriorates the microorganism density characteristics. Further, the upsurge in the Williamson parameter declines the Bejan number and irreversibility ratio.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030108

Authors: Victor Kozlov Kirill Rysin Aleksei Vjatkin

This article experimentally investigates thermal vibrational convection in horizontal layers, subject to circular translational oscillations in the horizontal plane. The definite direction of translational vibrations lacks investigation, and the case of a layer heated from above is considered. At large negative values of the gravitational Rayleigh number, the thermovibrational convection appears in a threshold manner with an increase in the vibration intensity. Our results show that in the case of strong gravitational stabilization, thermovibrational convection develops in the form of patterns with strong anisotropy of spatial periods in orthogonal directions. The vibroconvective patterns have the form of parallel rolls divided along their length into relatively short segments. The layer thickness determines the distance between the rolls, and the longitudinal wavelength, depends on the Rayleigh number. Convective cells are studied using the noninvasive thermohromic methodic. It is found that when using the tracers for flow visualization, the concentration and type of the visualizer particles have a serious impact on the shape of the observed vibroconvective structures. In particular, the presence of even a small number of tracers (used in the study of velocity fields by the PIV method) generates flows and intensifies the heat transfer below the threshold of thermovibrational convection excitation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030107

Authors: Sofia Peppa Lambros Kaiktsis Christos E. Frouzakis George S. Triantafyllou

The paper presents a computational study of three-dimensional flow past a cylinder forced to oscillate in a uniform stream, following a figure-eight trajectory. Flow simulations were performed for Re = 400, for different cases, defined in terms of the oscillation mode (‘counter-clockwise’ or ‘clockwise’), for values of the ratio, F, of the transverse oscillation frequency to the Strouhal frequency close to 1.0. The results demonstrate that, for F ≤ 1.0, counter-clockwise cylinder motion is associated with positive power transfer from the flow to the cylinder, corresponding to excitation; for the clockwise motion, power transfer is negative at intermediate to high amplitudes, corresponding to damping. For the clockwise mode, in the range F = 0.9–1.1, a transition to two-dimensional vortex street is identified for transverse oscillation amplitude exceeding a critical value. This results from the induced suction of vortices, which moves vortex formation and shedding closer to the cylinder surface, thus resulting in a narrower wake, characterized by an effective lower Reynolds number. Both oscillation modes are characterized by higher harmonics in the lift force spectrum, with the third harmonic being very pronounced, while even harmonics are present for the case of clockwise mode, resulting from a wake transition to a “S + P” mode.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030106

Authors: Farzad Mohebbi Ben Evans Mathieu Sellier

This study presents an extension of a previous study (On an Exact Step Length in Gradient-Based Aerodynamic Shape Optimization) to viscous transonic flows. In this work, we showed that the same procedure to derive an explicit expression for an exact step length βexact in a gradient-based optimization method for inviscid transonic flows can be employed for viscous transonic flows. The extended numerical method was evaluated for the viscous flows over the transonic RAE 2822 airfoil at two common flow conditions in the transonic regime. To do so, the RAE 2822 airfoil was reconstructed by a Bezier curve of degree 16. The numerical solution of the transonic turbulent flow over the airfoil was performed using the solver ANSYS Fluent (using the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model). Using the proposed step length, a gradient-based optimization method was employed to minimize the drag-to-lift ratio of the airfoil. The gradient of the objective function with respect to design variables was calculated by the finite-difference method. Efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method were investigated through two test cases.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030105

Authors: Ichiro Ueno

Coherent structures by the particles suspended in the half-zone thermocapillary liquid bridges via experimental approaches are introduced. General knowledge on the particle accumulation structures (PAS) is described, and then the spatial–temporal behaviours of the particles forming the PAS are illustrated with the results of the two- and three-dimensional particle tracking. Variations of the coherent structures as functions of the intensity of the thermocapillary effect and the particle size are introduced by focusing on the PAS of the azimuthal wave number m=3. Correlation between the particle behaviour and the ordered flow structures known as the Kolmogorov–Arnold—Moser tori is discussed. Recent works on the PAS of m=1 are briefly introduced.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030104

Authors: Jan Wilhelm Gärtner Ye Feng Andreas Kronenburg Oliver T. Stein

During certain operating conditions in spark-ignited direct injection engines (GDI), the injected fuel will be superheated and begin to rapidly vaporize. Fast vaporization can be beneficial for fuel–oxidizer mixing and subsequent combustion, but it poses the risk of spray collapse. In this work, spray collapse is numerically investigated for a single hole and the spray G eight-hole injector of an engine combustion network (ECN). Results from a new OpenFOAM solver are first compared against results of the commercial CONVERGE software for single-hole injectors and validated. The results corroborate the perception that the superheat ratio Rp, which is typically used for the classification of flashing regimes, cannot describe spray collapse behavior. Three cases using the eight-hole spray G injector geometry are compared with experimental data. The first case is the standard G2 test case, with iso-octane as an injected fluid, which is only slightly superheated, whereas the two other cases use propane and show spray collapse behavior in the experiment. The numerical results support the assumption that the interaction of shocks due to the underexpanded vapor jet causes spray collapse. Further, the spray structures match well with experimental data, and shock interactions that provide an explanation for the observed phenomenon are discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030103

Authors: Philippe Guyenne Adilbek Kairzhan Catherine Sulem Boyang Xu

An overview of a Hamiltonian framework for the description of nonlinear modulation of surface water waves is presented. The main result is the derivation of a Hamiltonian version of Dysthe’s equation for two-dimensional gravity waves on deep water. The reduced problem is obtained via a Birkhoff normal form transformation which not only helps eliminate all non-resonant cubic terms but also yields a non-perturbative procedure for surface reconstruction. The free surface is reconstructed from the wave envelope by solving an inviscid Burgers’ equation with an initial condition given by the modulational Ansatz. Particular attention is paid to the spatial form of this model, which is simulated numerically and tested against laboratory experiments on periodic groups and short-wave packets. Satisfactory agreement is found in all these cases.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030102

Authors: Raphael Glick Muthukumar Muthuramalingam Christoph Brücker

(1) Background: Sensing of critical events or flow signatures in nature often presents itself as a coupled interaction between a fluid and arrays of slender flexible beams, such a wind-hairs or whiskers. It is hypothesized that important information is gained in highly noisy environments by the inter-correlation within the array. (2) Methods: The present study uses a model sea lion head with artificial whiskers in the form of slender beams (optical fibres), which are subjected to a mean flow with overlaid turbulent structures generated in the wake of a cylinder. Motion tracking of the array of fibres is used to analyse the correlation of the bending deformations of pairs of fibres. (3) Results: Cross-correlation of the bending signal from tandem pairs of whiskers proves that the detection of vortices and their passage along the animals head is possible even in noisy environments. The underlying pattern, during passage of a vortex core, is a jerk-like response of the whiskers, which can be found at later arrival-times in similar form in the downstream whisker’s response. (4) Conclusion: Coherent vortical structures can be detected from cross-correlation of pairs of cantilever-beam like sensors even in highly turbulent flows. Such vortices carry important information within the environment, e.g., the underlying convection velocity. More importantly in nature, these vortices are characteristic elementary signals left by prey and predators. The present work can help to further develop flow, or critical event, sensory systems which can overcome high noise levels due to the proposed correlation principle.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030101

Authors: George C. Hsiao Tonatiuh Sánchez-Vizuet

In this paper, we are concerned with a time-dependent transmission problem for a thermo-piezoelectric elastic body that is immersed in a compressible fluid. It is shown that the problem can be treated by the boundary-field equation method, provided that an appropriate scaling factor is employed. As usual, based on estimates for solutions in the Laplace-transformed domain, we may obtain properties of corresponding solutions in the time-domain without having to perform the inversion of the Laplace-domain solutions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030100

Authors: Kelm Kampili Liu George Schumacher Druska Struth Kuhr Ramacher Allelein Prakash Kumar Cammiade Ji

The severe reactor accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (2011) has confirmed the need to understand the flow and transport processes of steam and combustible gases inside the containment and connected buildings. Over several years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, mostly based on proprietary solvers, have been developed to provide highly resolved insights; supporting the assessment of effectiveness of safety measures and possible combustion loads challenging the containment integrity. This paper summarizes the design and implementation of containmentFOAM, a tailored solver and model library based on OpenFOAM®. It is developed in support of Research &amp; Development related to containment flows, mixing processes, pressurization, and assessment of passive safety systems. Based on preliminary separate-effect verification and validation results, an application oriented integral validation case is presented on the basis of an experiment on gas mixing and H2 mitigation by means of passive auto-catalytic recombiners in the THAI facility (Becker Technologies, Eschborn, Germany). The simulation results compare well with the experimental data and demonstrate the general applicability of containmentFOAM for technical scale analysis. Concluding the paper, the strategy for dissemination of the code and measures implemented to minimize potential user errors are outlined.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030099

Authors: John V. Shebalin

We present theoretical and computational results in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that we feel are essential to understanding the geodynamo. These results are based on a mathematical model that focuses on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, but ignores compressibility and thermal effects, as well as imposing model-dependent boundary conditions. A principal finding is that when a turbulent magnetofluid is in quasi-equilibrium, the magnetic energy in the internal dipole component is equal to the magnetic helicity multiplied by the dipole wavenumber. In the case of the Earth, measurement of the exterior magnetic field gives us, through boundary conditions, the internal poloidal magnetic field. The connection between magnetic helicity and dipole field in the liquid core then gives us the toroidal part of the internal dipole field and a model value of 3 mT for the average core dipole magnetic field. Here, we present the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations that lead to these conclusions. We also test an earlier assertion that differential oblateness may be related to dipole alignment, and while there is an effect, rotation appears to be far more important. In addition, the relationship between dipole quasi-stationarity, broken ergodicity and broken symmetry is clarified. Lastly, we discuss how inertial waves in a rotating magnetofluid can affect dipole alignment.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030098

Authors: Radouan Boukharfane Aimad Er-raiy Linda Alzaben Matteo Parsani

The decomposition of the local motion of a fluid into straining, shearing, and rigid-body rotation is examined in this work for a compressible isotropic turbulence by means of direct numerical simulations. The triple decomposition is closely associated with a basic reference frame (BRF), in which the extraction of the biasing effect of shear is maximized. In this study, a new computational and inexpensive procedure is proposed to identify the BRF for a three-dimensional flow field. In addition, the influence of compressibility effects on some statistical properties of the turbulent structures is addressed. The direct numerical simulations are carried out with a Reynolds number that is based on the Taylor micro-scale of Reλ=100 for various turbulent Mach numbers that range from Mat=0.12 to Mat=0.89. The DNS database is generated with an improved seventh-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme to discretize the non-linear advective terms, and an eighth-order accurate centered finite difference scheme is retained for the diffusive terms. One of the major findings of this analysis is that regions featuring strong rigid-body rotations or straining motions are highly spatially intermittent, while most of the flow regions exhibit moderately strong shearing motions in the absence of rigid-body rotations and straining motions. The majority of compressibility effects can be estimated if the scaling laws in the case of compressible turbulence are rescaled by only considering the solenoidal contributions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030096

Authors: Filippos Sofos Theodoros E. Karakasidis

Simulations of fluid flows at the nanoscale feature massive data production and machine learning (ML) techniques have been developed during recent years to leverage them, presenting unique results. This work facilitates ML tools to provide an insight on properties among molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, covering missing data points and predicting states not previously located by the simulation. Taking the fluid flow of a simple Lennard-Jones liquid in nanoscale slits as a basis, ML regression-based algorithms are exploited to provide an alternative for the calculation of transport properties of fluids, e.g., the diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity and thermal conductivity and the average velocity across the nanochannels. Through appropriate training and testing, ML-predicted values can be extracted for various input variables, such as the geometrical characteristics of the slits, the interaction parameters between particles and the flow driving force. The proposed technique could act in parallel to simulation as a means of enriching the database of material properties, assisting in coupling between scales, and accelerating data-based scientific computations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030097

Authors: Evangelos Karvelas Christos Liosis Andreas Theodorakakos Ioannis Sarris Theodoros Karakasidis

A computational method for optimum magnetic navigation of nanoparticles that are coated with anticancer drug inside the human vascular system is presented in this study. For this reason a 3D carotid model is employed. The present model use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) techniques along with Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) evolution strategy for the evaluation of the optimal values of the gradient magnetic field. Under the influence of the blood flow the model evaluates the effect of different values of the gradient magnetic field in order to minimize the distance of particles from a pre-described desired trajectory. Results indicate that the diameter of particles is a crucial parameter for an effective magnetic navigation. The present numerical model can navigate nanoparticles with diameter above 500 nm with an efficiency of approximately 99%. It is found that the velocity of the blood seems to play insignificant role in the navigation process. A reduction of 25% in the inlet velocity leads the particles only 3% closer to the desired trajectory. Finally, the computational method is more efficient as the diameter of the vascular system is minimized because of the weak convective flow. Under a reduction of 50% in the diameter of the carotid artery the computational method navigate the particles approximately 75% closer to the desired trajectory. The present numerical model can be used as a tool for the determination of the parameters that mostly affect the magnetic navigation method.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030095

Authors: Stéphane Vincent Jean-Paul Caltagirone

The unification of the laws of fluid and solid mechanics is achieved on the basis of the concepts of discrete mechanics and the principles of equivalence and relativity, but also the Helmholtz–Hodge decomposition where a vector is written as the sum of divergence-free and curl-free components. The derived equation of motion translates the conservation of acceleration over a segment, that of the intrinsic acceleration of the material medium and the sum of the accelerations applied to it. The scalar and vector potentials of the acceleration, which are the compression and shear energies, give the discrete equation of motion the role of conservation law for total mechanical energy. Velocity and displacement are obtained using an incremental time process from acceleration. After a description of the main stages of the derivation of the equation of motion, unique for the fluid and the solid, the cases of couplings in simple shear and uniaxial compression of two media, fluid and solid, make it possible to show the role of discrete operators and to find the theoretical results. The application of the formulation is then extended to a classical validation case in fluid–structure interaction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030094

Authors: Siv Sørensen Seyed Saeed Asadzadeh Jens Honoré Walther

Choanoflagellates are unicellular microscopic organisms that are believed to be the closest living relatives of animals. They prey on bacteria through the act of the continuous beating of their flagellum, which generates a current through a crown-like filter. Subsequently, the filter retains bacterial particles from the suspension. The mechanism by which the prey is retained and transported along the filter remains unknown. We report here on the hydrodynamic effects on the transportability of bacterial prey of finite size using computational fluid dynamics. Here, the loricate choanoflagellate Diaphaoneca grandis serves as the model organism. The lorica is a basket-like structure found in only some of the species of choanoflagellates. We find that although transportation does not entirely rely on hydrodynamic forces, such forces positively contribute to the transportation of prey along the collar filter. The aiding effects are most possible in non-loricate choanoflagellate species, as compared to loricate species. As hydrodynamic effects are strongly linked to the beat and shape of the flagellum, our results indicate an alternative mechanism for prey transportation, especially in biological systems where having an active transport mechanism is costly or not feasible. This suggests an additional potential role for flagella in addition to providing propulsion and generating feeding currents.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6030093

Authors: Duilio Aguilar Vizcarra Doris Esenarro Ciro Rodriguez

The research aims to design and construct a new mixed vertical boiler (fire tube – water tube) with three gas passes. The strength of this technological innovation is in the best use of the thermic transmission receiving fluid (hot water, steam, thermal oil), this due to its multipurpose function of three steps using alternative fuels (Diesel, Liquid Petroleum Gas LPG, natural gas), by improving the thermal efficiency of the boiler its temperature is reduced with gases at low temperatures, which in turn also reduce environmental pollution. The methodology focuses on calculating the transfer area with the calculation method that will allow dimensioning the boiler, considering the calculation of losses and the fluid speed, with two defined procedures, the first for fire tube and water tube boilers. And another alternative. The results obtained allowed optimizing the thermal efficiency level, achieving very significant thermal efficiency results: With LPG 92.4% for hot water and 92.42% to generate steam in the same way with natural gas 90.25% for hot water and 90.24% to generate steam as well with Diesel 2; 89.21% for hot water and 89.31% to generate steam.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020092

Authors: Patrick Foltyn Ferdinand Restle Markus Wissmann Stefan Hengsbach Bernhard Weigand

The measurement of the apparent contact angle on structured surfaces is much more difficult to obtain than on smooth surfaces because the pinning of liquid to the roughness has a tremendous influence on the three phase contact line. The results presented here clearly show an apparent contact angle variation along the three phase contact line. Accordingly, not only one value for the apparent contact angle can be provided, but a contact angle distribution or an interval has to be given to characterize the wetting behavior. For measuring the apparent contact angle distribution on regularly structured surfaces, namely micrometric pillars and grooves, an experimental approach is presented and the results are provided. A short introduction into the manufacturing process of such structured surfaces, which is a combination of Direct LASER Writing (DLW) lithography, electroforming and hot embossing shows the high quality standard of the used surfaces.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020091

Authors: Igor V. Miroshnichenko Aidar A. Toilibayev Mikhail A. Sheremet

In this study, a numerical modelling of thermal radiation and turbulent thermogravitational convection in a large-scale chamber containing a thermally-generating element is conducted. The lower border of the cabinet is maintained under adiabatic conditions, while on the other walls the convective boundary conditions (Robin boundary condition) are used. The managing equations with corresponding restrictions are transformed using the stream function–vorticity formulation and then solved by employing a finite difference method. The influence of both the height and wall emissivity of the heated source on fluid motion and the heat transmission in a large-scale chamber is investigated. Our results of the calculations on non-uniform grids with algebraic transformation are in excellent agreement with other available experimental and numerical outcomes for turbulent thermal convection in enclosures. The computations indicate that the average total Nusselt number is enhanced up to 2 times with an increase in the heater height. The results show that the surface emissivity of the heat source has a great influence on the total thermal transference coefficient. Furthermore, a growth of the heater surface emissivity has no significant effect on the flow structure.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020090

Authors: Jingtao Ma Fang-Bao Tian John Young Joseph C. S. Lai

The dynamic behaviours of a filament in a viscoelastic uniform flow were investigated by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the Reynolds numbers (Re, ranging from 10 to 200) and the Weissenberg number (Wi, ranging from 0 to 1.2) on the filament flapping motion and the drag and lift coefficients on the filament were studied. It was found that a higher inertial effect (larger Re) promotes the flapping motion of the filament. In addition, the major effect of the viscoelasticity of the Giesekus fluid is to decrease the critical Reynolds number for the flapping motion of the filament and to promote the flapping motion. The drag coefficient on the filament in a Giesekus uniform flow decreases with the increase of Wi at low Re (Re&lt;100), and experiences oscillations with similar amplitudes at all Wi at a sufficiently high Re (Re&gt;100). In contrast, the viscoelasticity of the FENE-CR fluid increases the critical Reynolds number at lower Wi (Wi&lt;0.8), and shows little influence on the critical Reynolds number at higher Wi (Wi≥0.8). In addition, the viscoelasticity of the FENE-CR fluid hinders the flapping motion of the filament, and increases the drag coefficient on the filament at low Re (Re&lt;100).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020089

Authors: Magzhan Atykhan Bagdagul Kabdenova (Dauyeshova) Ernesto Monaco Luis R. Rojas-Solórzano

The numerical investigation of the interpenetrating flow dynamics of a gas injected into a homogeneous porous media saturated with liquid is presented. The analysis is undertaken as a function of the inlet velocity, liquid–gas viscosity ratio (D) and physical properties of the porous medium, such as porous geometry and surface wettability. The study aims to improve understanding of the interaction between the physical parameters involved in complex multiphase flow in porous media (e.g., CO2 sequestration in aquifers). The numerical simulation of a gaseous phase being introduced through a 2D porous medium constructed using seven staggered columns of either circular- or square-shaped micro-obstacles mimicking the solid walls of the pores is performed using the multiphase Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The gas–liquid fingering phenomenon is triggered by a small geometrical asymmetry deliberately introduced in the first column of obstacles. Our study shows that the amount of gas penetration into the porous medium depends on surface wettability and on a set of parameters such as capillary number (Ca), liquid–gas viscosity ratio (D), pore geometry and surface wettability. The results demonstrate that increasing the capillary number and the surface wettability leads to an increase in the effective gas penetration rate, disregarding porous medium configuration, while increasing the viscosity ratio decreases the penetration rate, again disregarding porous medium configuration.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020088

Authors: Alexander P. Hoover Joost Daniels Janna C. Nawroth Kakani Katija

Flexible propulsors are ubiquitous in aquatic and flying organisms and are of great interest for bioinspired engineering. However, many animal models, especially those found in the deep sea, remain inaccessible to direct observation in the laboratory. We address this challenge by conducting an integrative study of the giant larvacean, an invertebrate swimmer and “fluid pump” of the mesopelagic zone. We demonstrate a workflow involving deep sea robots, advanced imaging tools, and numerical modeling to assess the kinematics and resulting fluid transport of the larvacean’s beating tail. A computational model of the tail was developed to simulate the local fluid environment and the tail kinematics using embedded passive (elastic) and active (muscular) material properties. The model examines how varying the extent of muscular activation affects the resulting kinematics and fluid transport rates. We find that muscle activation in two-thirds of the tail’s length, which corresponds to the observed kinematics in giant larvaceans, generates a greater average downstream flow speed than other designs with the same power input. Our results suggest that the active and passive material properties of the larvacean tail are tuned to produce efficient fluid transport for swimming and feeding, as well as provide new insight into the role of flexibility in biological propulsors.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020087

Authors: Lyes Nasseri Nabil Himrane Djamel Eddine Ameziani Abderrahmane Bourada Rachid Bennacer

The problem of Rayleigh–Bénard’s natural convection subjected to a temporally periodic cooling condition is solved numerically by the Lattice Boltzmann method with multiple relaxation time (LBM-MRT). The study finds its interest in the field of thermal comfort where current knowledge has gaps in the fundamental phenomena requiring their exploration. The Boussinesq approximation is considered in the resolution of the physical problem studied for a Rayleigh number taken in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106 with a Prandtl number equal to 0.71 (air as working fluid). The physical phenomenon is also controlled by the amplitude of periodic cooling where, for small values of the latter, the results obtained follow a periodic evolution around an average corresponding to the formulation at a constant cold temperature. When the heating amplitude increases, the physical phenomenon is disturbed, the stream functions become mainly multicellular and an aperiodic evolution is obtained for the heat transfer illustrated by the average Nusselt number.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020086

Authors: Jaan H. Pu

When using point measurement for environmental or sediment laden flows, there is well-recognised risk for not having aligned measurements that causes misinterpretation of the measured velocity data. In reality, these kinds of mismeasurement mainly happen due to the misinterpretation of bed orientation caused by the complexity of its determination in natural flows, especially in bedload laden or rough bed flows. This study proposes a novel bed realignment method to improve the measured data benchmarking by three-dimensional (3D) bed profile orientation and implemented it into different sets of experimental data. More specifically, the effects of realignment on velocity profile and streamwise turbulence structure measurements were investigated. The proposed technique was tested against experimental data collected over a water-worked and an experimentally arranged well-packed beds. Different from the well-packed rough bed, the water-worked bed has been generated after long sediment transport and settling and hence can be used to verify the proposed bed-alignment technique thoroughly. During the flow analysis, the corrected velocity, turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress profiles were compared to the theoretical logarithmic law, exponential law and linear gravity (universal Reynolds stress distribution) profiles, respectively. It has been observed that the proposed method has improved the agreement of the measured velocity and turbulence structure data with their actual theoretical profiles, particularly in the near-bed region (where the ratio of the flow measurement vertical distance to the total water depth, z/h, is limited to ≤0.4).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020085

Authors: Jonathan M. Lilly Shane Elipot

The unsteady Ekman problem involves finding the response of the near-surface currents to wind stress forcing under linear dynamics. Its solution can be conveniently framed in the frequency domain in terms of a quantity that is known as the transfer function, the Fourier transform of the impulse response function. In this paper, a theoretical investigation of a fairly general transfer function form is undertaken with the goal of paving the way for future observational studies. Building on earlier work, we consider in detail the transfer function arising from a linearly-varying profile of the vertical eddy viscosity, subject to a no-slip lower boundary condition at a finite depth. The horizontal momentum equations, rendered linear by the assumption of horizontally uniform motion, are shown to transform to a modified Bessel’s equation for the transfer function. Two self-similarities, or rescalings that each effectively eliminate one independent variable, are identified, enabling the dependence of the transfer function on its parameters to be more readily assessed. A systematic investigation of asymptotic behaviors of the transfer function is then undertaken, yielding expressions appropriate for eighteen different regimes, and unifying the results from numerous earlier studies. A solution to a numerical overflow problem that arises in the computation of the transfer function is also found. All numerical code associated with this paper is distributed freely for use by the community.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020084

Authors: Gaelle Lebrun Feishi Xu Claude Le Men Gilles Hébrard Nicolas Dietrich

The influence of viscosity and surface tension on oxygen transfer was investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence with inhibition (PLIF-I). The surface tension and the viscosity were modified using Triton X-100 and polyacrylamide, respectively. Changes in the hydrodynamic parameters of millimetric bubbles were identified, and transfer parameters were calculated. The results revealed a decrease in the mass transferred in the presence of a contaminant. For modified viscosity, the decrease in mass transferred was allowed for by current correlations, but the presence of surfactant led to a sharp decrease in the liquid side mass transfer coefficient, which became even lower when polymer was added. An explanation for the gap between classical correlations and experimental values of kL is discussed, and a hypothesis of the existence of an accumulation of contaminant in the diffusion layer is proposed. This led to the possibility of a decrease in the diffusion coefficient and oxygen saturation concentration in the liquid film, explaining the discrepancy between models and experience. Adapted values of DO2 and [O2] * in this layer were estimated. This original study unravels the complexity of mass transfer from an air bubble in a complex medium.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020082

Authors: Efstathios Konstantinidis

The cross-flow over a surface-mounted elastic plate and its vibratory response are studied as a fundamental two-dimensional configuration to gain physical insight into the interaction of viscous flow with flexible structures. The governing equations are numerically solved on a deforming mesh using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element method. The turbulent flow is resolved using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations at a Reynolds number of 2.5×104 based on the plate height. The material properties of the plate are selected so that the structural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding from the free edge of a rigid plate, which is studied initially as the reference case. The results show that the plate tip oscillates back and forth in response to unsteady fluid loading at twice the frequency of vortex shedding, which is attributable to the sequential formation of a primary vortex from the free edge and a secondary vortex near the base of the plate. The effects of the plate elasticity and density on the structural response are considered, and results are compiled in terms of the reduced velocity U* and the density ratio ρ*. The standard deviation of tip displacement increases with reduced velocity in the range 7.1⩽U*⩽18.4, irrespective of whether the elasticity or the density of the plate is varied. However, the average deflection of the plate in the streamwise direction displays different scaling with U* and ρ*, but scales almost linearly with the Cauchy number ∼U*2/ρ*. Interestingly, the synchronization between plate motion and vortex shedding ceases at U*=18.4, and the excitation mechanism in the latter case resembles flutter instability, rather than vortex-induced vibration found at lower U*.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020083

Authors: Giuliano De Stefano Oleg V. Vasilyev

A short review of wavelet-based adaptive methods for modeling and simulation of incompressible turbulent flows is presented. Wavelet-based computational modeling approaches of different fidelities are recast into an integrated hierarchical adaptive eddy-capturing turbulence modeling framework. The wavelet threshold filtering procedure and the associated wavelet-filtered Navier–Stokes equations are briefly discussed, along with the adaptive wavelet collocation method that is used for numerical computations. Depending on the level of wavelet thresholding, the simulation is possibly supplemented with a localized closure model. The latest advancements in spatiotemporally varying wavelet thresholding procedures along with the adaptive-anisotropic wavelet-collocation method make the development of a fully adaptive approach feasible with potential applications for complex turbulent flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020081

Authors: Norbert Jendzelovsky Roland Antal

There is a lack of detailed information about wind flow and distribution of wind pressure around atypically shaped high-rise buildings. The national standard EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1 used to determine the effects of wind on the territory of Slovakia (and indeed other countries of the European Union) does not have a procedure for determining the effects of wind on objects of triangular shape. This presents a problem for designers and engineers, as there exist no generally binding/valid rules to follow when performing the wind effect analysis. This paper shows the procedure of identification and results of the external wind pressure coefficient for the triangularly shaped high-rise building. Two methods of calculation have been chosen for this purpose. First, experimental measurements were performed on a scaled model of the building cross-section in the wind tunnel. Subsequently, software simulations were performed on the same scaled model in the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program ANSYS CFX. Results of wind pressure were obtained for two directions of wind flow measured in 16 sampling points distributed irregularly around the circumference of the model. Results were mutually compared and verified. At the end, the wind flow effects on a real-size triangular high-rise building in the built-up area performed by software simulation are shown.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020080

Authors: Yuria Okagaki Taisuke Yonomoto Masahiro Ishigaki Yoshiyasu Hirose

Many thermohydraulic issues about the safety of light water reactors are related to complicated two-phase flow phenomena. In these phenomena, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using the volume of fluid (VOF) method causes numerical diffusion generated by the first-order upwind scheme used in the convection term of the volume fraction equation. Thus, in this study, we focused on an interface compression (IC) method for such a VOF approach; this technique prevents numerical diffusion issues and maintains boundedness and conservation with negative diffusion. First, on a sufficiently high mesh resolution and without the IC method, the validation process was considered by comparing the amplitude growth of the interfacial wave between a two-dimensional gas sheet and a quiescent liquid using the linear theory. The disturbance growth rates were consistent with the linear theory, and the validation process was considered appropriate. Then, this validation process confirmed the effects of the IC method on numerical diffusion, and we derived the optimum value of the IC coefficient, which is the parameter that controls the numerical diffusion.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020079

Authors: Molly Ross Hitesh Bindra

Thermal hydraulics, in certain components of nuclear reactor systems, involve complex flow scenarios, such as flows assisted by free jets and stratified flows leading to turbulent mixing and thermal fluctuations. These complex flow patterns and thermal fluctuations can be extremely critical from a reactor safety standpoint. The component-level lumped approximations (0D) or one-dimensional approximations (1D) models for such components and subsystems in safety analysis codes cannot capture the physics accurately, and may introduce a large degree of modeling uncertainty. On the other hand, high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics codes, which provide numerical solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations, are accurate but computationally intensive, and thus cannot be used for system-wide analysis. An alternate way to improve reactor safety analysis is by building reduced-order emulators from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to improve system scale models. One of the key challenges in developing a reduced-order emulator is to preserve turbulent mixing and thermal fluctuations across different-length scales or time-scales. This paper presents the development of a reduced-order, non-linear, “Markovian” statistical surrogate for turbulent mixing and scalar transport. The method and its implementation are demonstrated on a canonical problem of differentially heated channel flow, and high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) data are used for emulator or surrogate development. This statistical surrogate model relies on Kramers–Moyal expansion and emulates the turbulent velocity signal with a high degree of accuracy.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020078

Authors: Giovanni Tretola Konstantina Vogiatzaki

The ability to accurately predict the dynamics of fast moving and deforming interfaces is of interest to a number of applications including ink printing, drug delivery and fuel injection. In the current work we present a new compressible framework within OpenFOAM which incorporates mitigation strategies for the well known issue of spurious currents. The framework incorporates the compressible algebraic Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method with additional interfacial treatment techniques including volume fraction smoothing and sharpening (for the calculation of the interface geometries and surface tension force, respectively) as well as filtering of the capillary forces. The framework is tested against different benchmarks: A 2D stationary droplet, a high velocity impact droplet case (500 m/s impact velocity) against a dry substrate and, with the same impact conditions, against a liquid film. For the 2D static droplet case, our results are consistent with what is observed in the literature when these strategies are implemented within incompressible frameworks. For the high impact droplet cases we find that accounting for both compressibility and correct representation of the interface is very important in numerical simulations, since pressure waves develop and propagate within the droplet interacting with the interface. While the implemented strategies do not alter the dynamics of the impact and the droplet shape, they have a considerable effect on the lamella formation. Our numerical method, although currently implemented for droplet cases, can also be used for any fast moving interface with or without considering the impact on a surface.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020077

Authors: Václav Tesař

If a gas volume is distributed into many microbubbles of a sub-millimetre size, the total gas/liquid surface becomes very large. This increases overall heat and/or mass transport across the sum of surfaces. The paper discusses several applications in which the use of microbubbles increases efficiency of various processes, especially in wastewater treatment and in growing microorganisms such as algae, yeast, bacteria, or primitive fungi. The problem of microbubble generation by percolation in aerator is their coalescence into larger bubbles, whatever small are the pores in the aerator in which the microbubbles are generated. The solution of this size discrepancy question was found in agitating the gas flow by a fluidic oscillator prior to its injection through the aerator. The oscillator is a no-moving-part device, simple, inexpensive, resistant to external effects like acceleration or heat, and with long maintenance-free working life.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020076

Authors: Irfan Bahiuddin Setyawan Bekti Wibowo M. Syairaji Jimmy Trio Putra Cahyo Adi Pandito Ahdiar Fikri Maulana Rian Mantasa Salve Prastica Nurhazimah Nazmi

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has been identified as being transmitted among humans with droplets from breath, cough, and sneezes. Understanding the droplets’ behavior can be critical information to avoid disease transmission, especially while designing a device deals with human air respiratory. Although various studies have provided enormous computational fluid simulations, most cases are too specific and quite challenging to combine with other similar studies directly. Therefore, this paper proposes a systematic approach to predict the droplet behavior for coughing cases using machine learning. The approach consists of three models, which are droplet generator, mask model, and free droplet model modeled using feedforward neural network (FFNN). The evaluation has shown that the three FFNNs models’ accuracies are relatively high, with R-values of more than 0.990. The model has successfully predicted the evaporation effect on the diameter reduction and the completely evaporated state, which can be considered unlearned cases for machine learning models. The predicted horizontal distance pattern also agrees with the data in the literature. In summary, the proposed approach has demonstrated the capability to predict the diameter pattern according to the experimental or previous work data at various mask face types.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020075

Authors: Arata Kimura Mitsufumi Asami Hideyuki Oka Yasushi Oka

In this paper, we describe and evaluate an algebraic model that has been adopted in a diagnostic wind flow model. Our numerical model is based on the Röckle’s wind modelling approach and we intend to reproduce the steady-state flow patterns of recirculation vortices that are generated in the near-wake region behind a vehicle. The evaluation of the practicality of our proposed model is performed by comparing the wind tunnel experiments of the flow around a vehicle conducted by the Loughborough University. We also compare the numerical results of our model with the CFD model. The proposed model reproduces the flow patterns behind a vehicle and it has significant advantages, such as low numerical costs. We expect that further improvements in the algebraic model when considering the vehicle’s shape will improve its practicality for the numerical analysis of flow fields around a vehicle.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020074

Authors: Mehti Koklu

Flow separation control over a wall-mounted hump model was studied experimentally to assess the performance of fluidic oscillators (sweeping jet actuators). An array of fluidic oscillators was used to control flow separation. The results showed that the fluidic oscillators were able to achieve substantial control over the separated flow by increasing the upstream suction pressure and downstream pressure recovery. Using the data available in the literature, the performance of the fluidic oscillators was compared to other active flow control (AFC) methods such as steady blowing, steady suction, and zero-net-mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators. Several integral parameters, such as the inviscid flow comparison coefficient, pressure drag coefficient, and modified normal force coefficient, were used as quality metrics in the performance comparison of the AFC methods. These quality metrics indicated the superiority of the steady suction method, especially at lower excitation amplitudes that is followed by the fluidic oscillators, steady blowing, and the ZNMF actuators, respectively. An aerodynamic figure of merit (AFM) was also constructed using the integral parameters and AFC power usage. The AFM results revealed that, for this study, steady suction was the most efficient AFC method at lower excitation amplitudes. The steady suction loses its efficiency as the excitation amplitude increases, and the fluidic oscillators become the most efficient AFC method. Both the steady suction and the fluidic oscillators have an AFM &gt; 1 for the range tested in this study, indicating that they provide a net benefit when the AFC power consumption is also considered. On the other hand, both the steady blowing and ZNMF actuators were found to be inefficient AFC methods (AFM &lt; 1) for the current configuration. Although they improved the flow field by controlling flow separation, the power requirement was more than their benefit.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020073

Authors: Fang-Bao Tian Li Wang

Due to rising human infertility, sperm motility has been an important subject. Among the hundreds of millions of sperms on the journey up the oviducts, only a few excellent travelers will reach the eggs. This journey is affected by many factors, some of which include sperm quality, sperm density, fluid rheology and chemotaxis. In addition, the sperm swimming through different body tracks and fluids involves complex sperm flagellar, complex fluid environment, and multi-sperm and sperm-wall interactions. Therefore, this topic has generated substantial research interest. In this paper, we present a review of computational studies on sperm swimming from an engineering perspective with focus on both simplified theoretical methods and fluid–structure interaction methods. Several open issues in this field are highlighted.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020072

Authors: Nadish Saini Igor A. Bolotnov

In the dispersed flow film boiling regime (DFFB), which exists under post-LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) conditions in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), there is a complex interplay between droplet dynamics and turbulence in the surrounding steam. Experiments have accredited particular significance to droplet collision with the spacer-grids and mixing vane structures and their consequent positive feedback to the heat transfer recorded in the immediate downstream vicinity. Enabled by high-performance computing (HPC) systems and a massively parallel finite element-based flow solver—PHASTA (Parallel Hierarchic Adaptive Stabilized Transient Analysis)—this work presents high fidelity interface capturing, two-phase, adiabatic simulations in a PWR sub-channel with spacer grids and mixing vanes. Selected flow conditions for the simulations are informed by the experimental data found in the literature, including the steam Reynolds number and collision Weber number (Wec={40,80}), and are characteristic of the DFFB regime. Data were collected from the simulations at an unprecedented resolution, which provides detailed insights into the continuous phase turbulence statistics, highlighting the effects of the presence of droplets and the comparative effect of different Weber numbers on turbulence in the surrounding steam. Further, axial evolution of droplet dynamics was analyzed through cross-sectionally averaged quantities, including droplet volume, surface area and Sauter mean diameter (SMD). The downstream SMD values agree well with the existing empirical correlations for the selected range of Wec. The high-resolution data repository from the simulations herein is expected to be of significance to guide model development for system-level thermal hydraulic codes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020071

Authors: Leandro Marques Gustavo R. Anjos

The present work aims at developing a numerical study on the drug diffusion in the bloodstream in a coronary artery with drug-eluting stent implanted. The blood was modeled as a single-phase, incompressible and Newtonian fluid and the Navier–Stokes equation was approximated according to the Finite Element Method (FEM). The dynamics of drug-eluting concentration in bloodstream was investigated using four drug-eluting stents with different mass diffusivities in microchannels with variable cross sections, including a real coronary artery geometry with atherosclerosis. The results reveal complex drug concentration patterns and accumulation in the vicinity of the fat buildup.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020070

Authors: Xudong An Lin Jiang Fatemeh Hassanipour

In many industrial applications, a permeable mesh (porous screen) is used to control the unsteady (most commonly vortex) flows. Vortex flows are known to display intriguing behavior while propagating through porous screens. This numerical study aims to investigate the effects of physical properties such as porosity, Reynolds number, inlet flow dimension, and distance to the screen on the flow behavior. The simulation model includes a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator and a permeable mesh constructed by evenly arranged rods. Two methods of user-defined function and moving mesh have been applied to model the vortex ring generation. The results show the formation, evolution, and characteristics of the vortical rings under various conditions. The results for vorticity contours and the kinetic energy dissipation indicate that the physical properties alter the flow behavior in various ways while propagating through the porous screens. The numerical model, cross-validated with the experimental results, provides a better understanding of the fluid–solid interactions of vortex flows and porous screens.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020069

Authors: Francisco J. Rubio-Hernández

Flowing through porous media is a matter of interest in different research fields such as medicine, engineering and science. The spontaneous appearance of ionic distribution at the solid liquid interface gives place to a reduction in the flow rate, which is generally named electroviscous effect. However, this should be differentiated in two more specific effects, the primary effect due to the distortion of ionic clouds, and the secondary effect due to the overlapping of ionic clouds. Theoretical and experimental works have not always been clearly conducted in order to separate both effects. Instead, they have been globally grouped. The purpose of this review is to revise theoretical and experimental bibliography on the electroviscous effect in stationary solid phase suspensions (porous plugs, membranes, microchannels, capillaries). The main conclusions of this brief revision are: (i) when ionic clouds are relatively small, it is possible to accept that only the primary effect is the cause for the apparent increase of the viscosity of the liquid phase when it is forced to flow relative to the stationary solid phase; (ii) although theory predicts a maximum for the variation of the overall electroviscous effect vs the relative size of the ionic cloud, it has been experimentally observed but not properly reasoned that its existence depends on the salt type; and (iii) it is necessary to justify why, if the fluid is non-Newtonian, electrokinetic parameters dominate the characteristics of the flow due to high pressure gradients, but the rheological parameters are more decisive when the flow is generated by low pressure gradients.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020068

Authors: Chloé Mimeau Iraj Mortazavi

This review paper presents an overview of Vortex Methods for flow simulation and their different sub-approaches, from their creation to the present. Particle methods distinguish themselves by their intuitive and natural description of the fluid flow as well as their low numerical dissipation and their stability. Vortex methods belong to Lagrangian approaches and allow us to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in their velocity-vorticity formulation. In the last three decades, the wide range of research works performed on these methods allowed us to highlight their robustness and accuracy while providing efficient computational algorithms and a solid mathematical framework. On the other hand, many efforts have been devoted to overcoming their main intrinsic difficulties, mostly relying on the treatment of the boundary conditions and the distortion of particle distribution. The present review aims to describe the Vortex methods by following their chronological evolution and provides for each step of their development the mathematical framework, the strengths and limits as well as references to applications and numerical simulations. The paper ends with a presentation of some challenging and very recent works based on Vortex methods and successfully applied to problems such as hydrodynamics, turbulent wake dynamics, sediment or porous flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020067

Authors: Alireza Sharifi David Bark

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric hemostatic protein. VWF is critical in arresting platelets in regions of high shear stress found in blood circulation. Excessive cleavage of VWF that leads to reduced VWF multimer size in plasma can cause acquired von Willebrand syndrome, which is a bleeding disorder found in some heart valve diseases and in patients receiving mechanical circulatory support. It has been proposed that hemodynamics (blood flow) found in these environments ultimately leads to VWF cleavage. In the context of experiments reported in the literature, scission theory, developed for polymers, is applied here to provide insight into flow that can produce strong extensional forces on VWF that leads to domain unfolding and exposure of a cryptic site for cleavage through a metalloproteinase. Based on theoretical tensile forces, laminar flow only enables VWF cleavage when shear rate is large enough (&gt;2800 s−1) or when VWF is exposed to constant shear stress for nonphysiological exposure times (&gt;20 min). Predicted forces increase in turbulence, increasing the chance for VWF cleavage. These findings can be used when designing blood-contacting medical devices by providing hemodynamic limits to these devices that can otherwise lead to acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020066

Authors: Ruben J. Paredes Maria T. Quintuña Mijail Arias-Hidalgo Raju Datla

The safety of underwater operation depends on the accuracy of its speed logs which depends on the location of its probe and the calibration thoroughness. Thus, probes are placed in areas where the flow of water is smooth, continuous, without high velocity gradients, air bubbles, or vortical structures. In the present work, the flow around two different submarines is numerically described in deep-water and near-surface conditions to identify hull zones where probes could be installed. First, the numerical setup of a multiphase solver supplied with OpenFOAM v7 was verified and validated using the DARPA SUBOFF-5470 submarine at scaled model including the hull and sail configuration at H/D=5.4 and Fr=0.466. Later, the grid sensitivity of the resistance was assessed for the full-scale Type 209/1300 submarine at H/D=0.347 and Fr=0.194. Free-surface effect on resistance and flow characteristics was evaluated by comparing different operational conditions. Results shows that the bow and near free-surface regions should be avoided due to high flow velocity gradient, pressure fluctuations, and large turbulent vortical structures. Moreover, free-surface effect is stronger close to the bow nose. In conclusion, the probe could be installed in the acceleration region where the local flow velocity is 15% higher than the navigation speed at surface condition. A 4% correction factor should be applied to the probe readings to compensate free-surface effect.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020065

Authors: Sergio Bobbo Bernardo Buonomo Oronzio Manca Silvio Vigna Laura Fedele

Nanofluids are obtained by dispersing nanoparticles and dispersant, when present, in a base fluid. Their properties, in particular their stability, however, are strictly related to several other parameters, knowledge of which is important to reproduce the nanofluids and correctly interpret their behavior. Due to this complexity, the results appear to be frequently unreliable, contradictory, not comparable and/or not repeatable, in particular for the scarcity of information on their preparation. Thus, it is essential to define what is the minimum amount of information necessary to fully describe the nanofluid, so as to ensure the possibility of reproduction of both their formulation and the measurements of their properties. In this paper, a literature analysis is performed to highlight what are the most important parameters necessary to describe the configuration of each nanofluid and their influence on the nanofluid’s properties. A case study is discussed, analyzing the information reported and the results obtained for the thermophysical properties of nanofluids formed by water and TiO2 nanoparticles. The aim is to highlight the differences in the amount of information given by the different authors and exemplify how results can be contradictory. A final discussion gives some suggestions on the minimum amount of information that should be given on a nanofluid to have the possibility to compare results obtained for similar nanofluids and to reproduce the same nanofluid in other laboratories.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020064

Authors: Geoffrey Le Good Max Resnick Peter Boardman Brian Clough

The potential energy-saving benefit for vehicles when travelling in a ‘platoon’ formation results from the reduction in total aerodynamic drag which may result from the interaction of bluff bodies in close-proximity. Early investigations of platooning, prompted by problems of congestion, had shown the potential for drag reduction but was not pursued. More recently, technologies developed for connected-autonomous vehicle control have provided a renewed interest in platooning particularly within the commercial vehicle industry. To date, most aerodynamics-based considerations of platooning have been conducted to assess the sensitivity of drag-saving to vehicle spacing and were based on formations of identically shaped constituents. In this study, the interest was the sensitivity of drag-saving to the shape of the individual platoon constituents. A new reference car, the Resnick model, was specially designed to include front and rear-end add-on sections to make distinct changes in profile form and simulate large-scale body morphing. The results of wind tunnel tests on small-scale models suggested that current trends in low-drag styling may not provide the ideal shape for platoon constituent members and that optimised forms are likely to be dependent upon position in the platoon.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020063

Authors: Mohammed Loukili Kamila Kotrasova Denys Dutykh

In this manuscript, the injection of a homogeneous jet in a numerical tank is considered to revolve around discussing the limitation of the direct numerical simulation (DNS), to resolve the equations governing the problem of a jet emitted from the bottom of a numerical tank. The investigation has been made in the context of an unsteady, viscous, and incompressible fluid. The numerical resolution of the equations governing the problem is made by the compact Hermitian finite differences method (HFDM) high accuracy Oh2,h4 First, the numerical code used in this work is validated by comparing the profiles of the velocity components at the median of the lid-driven cavity with the results of the literature. Furthermore, to confirm the validity of the present numerical code, an evaluation of mesh domain sensitivity is assessed by comparing the numerical vertical velocity profiles for different steps of y-direction (flow direction) with the analytical solution. Afterward, the aim is to perform the nonlinear simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations in a large computational domain. Next, the goal is to characterize the instabilities associated with high Reynolds numbers when a jet is emitted from the bottom of the numerical tank.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020062

Authors: Takashi Arima Tommaso Ruggeri

The aim of this paper is to construct the molecular extended thermodynamics for classical rarefied polyatomic gases with a new hierarchy, which is absent in the previous procedures of moment equations. The new hierarchy is deduced recently from the classical limit of the relativistic theory of moments associated with the Boltzmann–Chernikov equation. The field equations for 15 moments of the distribution function, in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule are taken into account, are closed with the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the theory contains, as a principal subsystem, the previously polyatomic 14 fields theory, and in the monatomic limit, in which the dynamical pressure vanishes, the differential system converges, instead of to the Grad 13-moment system, to the Kremer 14-moment system.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020061

Authors: Jinyong Feng Liangyu Xu Emilio Baglietto

The accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions plays a fundamental role in supporting the operation of the current nuclear reactor fleet, and even more importantly the licensing of advanced high-efficiency reactor concepts, where local temperature oscillations driven by thermal striping, cycling and stratification can limit the structural performance of vessels and components. The complexity of the geometrical configurations, coupled to the long operational transients, inhibits the adoption of large eddy simulation (LES) methods, mandating the acceptance of the more efficient Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based models, even though they are unable to provide a complete physical description of the flow in regions dominated by complex unsteady coherent structures. A new strategy has been proposed and demonstrated at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) toward the enhancement of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) predictions, using local resolution of coherent turbulence, to provide higher fidelity modeling in support of safety-related issues. In this paper, a comprehensive assessment of the recently proposed Structure-based (STRUCT-ε) turbulence model is presented, starting from fundamental validation of the model capabilities and later focusing on a representative safety-relevant application, i.e., thermal mixing in a T-junction. Solutions of STRUCT-ε, the widely used Realizable k−ε model (RKE) and Large Eddy Simulation with Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity subgrid scale closure (LES-WALE) are compared against the experimental data. Both the velocity and temperature fields predicted by the STRUCT-ε model are in close agreement with the high-fidelity data from the experiments and reference LES solutions, across all validation cases. The approach demonstrates the potential to address the accuracy requirements for application to nuclear safety-related issues, by resolving the turbulent flow structures, while the computational efficiency provides the ability to perform consistent uncertainty quantification.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020059

Authors: Kshma Trivedi Santanu Koley

In the present study, the effect of an undulated bottom topography on the radiation of water waves by a floating rectangular buoy is analyzed. Various physical quantities of interest such as the added mass and damping coefficients associated with the surge, heave, and pitch motions are analyzed for a variety of parameters associated with the incident waves and bottom undulations. The study reveals that the added mass and damping coefficients associated with the surge and pitch motions of the floating buoy vary in an oscillatory manner with the variation in wavenumber for a sinusoidally varying bottom topography. Moreover, the oscillation amplitude is higher around the primary Bragg value. Further, this oscillatory pattern and oscillation amplitude increase with an increase in the ripple amplitude and the number of ripples for a sinusoidally varying bottom. However, a reverse pattern is formed with an increase in the depth ratio. In the long-wave regime, the added mass and damping coefficient corresponding to the surge motion become higher for a protrusion-type bed profile and lower for a depression-type bed profile. However, a reverse pattern is observed in the intermediate- and short-wave regimes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020060

Authors: Alexey Kiverin Boris Kichatov Alexey Korshunov Vladimir Gubernov Ivan Yakovenko Andrey Yarkov

This paper is devoted to the analysis of the effect of gas injection on the efficiency of gaseous fuel burning. A coaxial burner with a perforated inner wall is presented in which the methane–air acceleration is observed. With the use of numerical analysis, it is demonstrated that the flame acceleration is related to the flow separation from the inner wall that, in turn, leads to the reduction in heat losses to the wall as well as to vortex formation and reduction in momentum losses. On the basis of the obtained results, a new technology of efficient burning of gaseous fuels can be proposed with the use of gas and/or liquid fuel injection.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020058

Authors: Alessandro Mercuri Pierluigi Fanelli Stefano Ubertini Giacomo Falcucci Elio Jannelli Chiara Biscarini

The need for effective and reliable damage detection and localization systems is growing in several engineering fields, in particular in water impact problems characterized by impulsive loading conditions, high amplitude vibrations and large local deformations. In this paper, we further develop the approach presented in previous works to detect damage of water-impacting structures. Specifically, we provide a set of experimental tests on a flexible plastic cylinder impacting the water after a 50 cm free fall. The cylindrical specimen is artificially damaged in a known position. Strain measurements are performed through a set of nine fiber Bragg gratings distributed along the circumference of a cylinder section. We show that strain sensors can be used as reference sensors, for structure displacements reconstruction, and control sensors, for damage detection purposes, and the computation of the difference between measured and expected deformation may allow damage detection. Moreover, we investigate how exchanging control and reference sensors in the same sensor arrangement affect damage detection and localization.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020057

Authors: Salvatore Rionero

The onset of oscillatory bifurcations in a porous horizontal layer L, uniformly rotating about a vertical axis, with vertically stratified porosity, heated from below and salted from above and below, is investigated. Denoting by Pi,(i=1,2), the Prandtl numbers of the salt Si salting L from below (i=1) and above (i=2) respectively, it is shown that: (i) in L the oscillatory bifurcations can occur only if one of the structural conditions P1&gt;1,P2&lt;1 or P1=1,P2&lt;1 or P1&gt;1,P2=1 is verified; (ii) exists a bound R¯2 for the Rayleigh number R2 of S2 such that R2&lt;R¯2 guarantees the absence of cold convection; (iii) via a new approach based on the instability power of each coefficient of the spectrum equation, criteria of existence, location and frequency of oscillatory (Hopf) bifurcations are furnished for any porosity stratification law. These criteria, as far as we know are, for the case at stake, the first criteria of Hopf bifurcations appearing in literature. We are confident that, via experimental results, will be validated.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020056

Authors: Hidekatsu Yamazaki J. Rudi Strickler

These first lines of Hensen’s article (Figure 1) in the “Fünfter Bericht” (1887) translate as follows [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020055

Authors: Gennaro Criscuolo Wiebke Brix Markussen Knud Erik Meyer Björn Palm Martin Ryhl Kærn

This study aims to characterize experimentally the heat transfer in micro-milled multi-microchannels copper heat sinks operating with flow boiling, in the attempt to contribute to the development of novel and high heat flux thermal management systems for power electronics. The working fluid was R-134a and the investigation was conducted for a nominal outlet saturation temperature of 30 ∘C. The microchannels were 1 cm long and covered a square footprint area of 1 cm2. Boiling curves starting at low vapor quality and average heat transfer coefficients were obtained for nominal channel mass fluxes from 250 kg/m2s to 1100 kg/m2s. The measurements were conducted by gradually increasing the power dissipation over a serpentine heater soldered at the bottom of the multi-microchannels, until a maximum heater temperature of 150 ∘C was reached. Infrared thermography was used for the heater temperature measurements, while high-speed imaging through a transparent top cover provided visual access over the entire length of the channels. The average heat transfer coefficient increased with the dissipated heat flux until a decrease dependent on hydrodynamic effects occurred, possibly due to incomplete wall wetting. Depending on the channel geometry, a peak value of 200 kW/m2K for the footprint heat transfer coefficient and a maximum dissipation of 620 W/cm2 at the footprint with a limit temperature of 150 ∘C could be obtained, showing the suitability of the investigated geometries in high heat flux cooling of power electronics. The experimental dataset was used to assess the prediction capability of selected literature correlations. The prediction method by Bertsch et al. gave the best agreement with a mean absolute percent error of 24.5%, resulting to be a good design tool for flow boiling in high aspect ratio multi-microchannels as considered in this study.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020054

Authors: Paulo H. R. Calil Nobuhiro Suzuki Burkard Baschek Ilson C. A. da Silveira

We investigate the dynamics of meso- and submesoscale features of the northern South Brazil Bight shelf region with a 500-m horizontal resolution regional model. We focus on the Cabo Frio upwelling center, where nutrient-rich, coastal waters are transported into the mid- and outer shelf, because of its importance for local and remote productivity. The Cabo Frio upwelling center undergoes an upwelling phase, from late September to March, and a relaxation phase, from April to early September. During the upwelling phase, an intense front around 200 km long and 20 km wide with horizontal temperature gradients as large as 8 ∘C over less than 10 km develops. A surface-intensified frontal jet of 0.7 ms&minus;1 in the upper 20 m and velocities of around 0.3 ms&minus;1 reaching down to 65 m depth makes this front a preferential cross-shelf transport pathway. Large vertical mixing and vertical velocities are observed within the frontal region. The front is associated with strong cyclonic vorticity and strong variance in relative vorticity, frequently with O(1) Rossby numbers. The dynamical balance within the front is between the pressure gradient, Coriolis and vertical mixing terms, which are induced both by the winds, during the upwelling season, and by the geostrophic frontal jet. Therefore, the frontal dynamics may be largely described as sum of Ekman and turbulent thermal wind balances. During the upwelling phase, a mix of barotropic and baroclinic instabilities dominates in the upwelling center. However, these instabilities do not lead to the local formation of coherent eddies when the front is strong. In the relaxation phase, the front vanishes, and the water column becomes less stratified. The interaction between eastward coastal currents generated by sea level variability, coastal intrusions of the Brazil Current, and sporadic wind-driven, coastal upwelling events induce the formation of cyclonic eddies with diameters of, approximately, 20 km. They are in gradient-wind balance and propagate along the 100-m isobath on the shelf. During this phase baroclinic instability dominates. Cold filaments with widths of 2 km are formed due to straining and stretching of cold, coastal temperature anomalies. They last for a few days and are characterized by downwelling as large as 1 cms&minus;1. The turbulent thermal wind balance provides a good first order estimate of the dynamical balance within the filament, but vertical and horizontal advection are shown to be important. To our knowledge, this is the first account of these smaller scale features in the region. Because these meso- and submesoscale features on the shelf heavily affect the water properties crucial to productivity of the South Brazil Bight, it is important to take these features into account for a better understanding of the functioning of this ecosystem and its resilience to both direct human activities as well as to climate change.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020053

Authors: Violeta Carvalho Diana Pinho Rui A. Lima José Carlos Teixeira Senhorinha Teixeira

Atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of cardiovascular events, namely, myocardium infarction and cerebral stroke, responsible for a great number of deaths every year worldwide. This pathology is caused by the progressive accumulation of low-density lipoproteins, cholesterol, and other substances on the arterial wall, narrowing its lumen. To date, many hemodynamic studies have been conducted experimentally and/or numerically; however, this disease is not yet fully understood. For this reason, the research of this pathology is still ongoing, mainly, resorting to computational methods. These have been increasingly used in biomedical research of atherosclerosis because of their high-performance hardware and software. Taking into account the attempts that have been made in computational techniques to simulate realistic conditions of blood flow in both diseased and healthy arteries, the present review aims to give an overview of the most recent numerical studies focused on coronary arteries, by addressing the blood viscosity models, and applied physiological flow conditions. In general, regardless of the boundary conditions, numerical studies have been contributed to a better understanding of the development of this disease, its diagnosis, and its treatment.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020050

Authors: Louis Dressler Fernando Luiz Sacomano Filho Florian Ries Hendrik Nicolai Johannes Janicka Amsini Sadiki

The Eulerian stochastic fields (ESF) method, which is based on the transport equation of the joint subgrid scalar probability density function, is applied to Large Eddy Simulation of a turbulent dilute spray flame. The approach is coupled with a tabulated chemistry approach to represent the subgrid turbulence&ndash;chemistry interaction. Following a two-way coupled Eulerian&ndash;Lagrangian procedure, the spray is treated as a multitude of computational parcels described in a Lagrangian manner, each representing a heap of real spray droplets. The present contribution has two objectives: First, the predictive capabilities of the modeling framework are evaluated by comparing simulation results using 8, 16, and 32 stochastic fields with available experimental data. At the same time, the results are compared to previous studies, where the artificially thickened flame (ATF) model was applied to the investigated configuration. The results suggest that the ESF method can reproduce the experimental measurements reasonably well. Comparisons with the ATF approach indicate that the ESF results better describe the flame entrainment into the cold spray core of the flame. Secondly, the dynamics of the subgrid scalar contributions are investigated and the reconstructed probability density distributions are compared to common presumed shapes qualitatively and quantitatively in the context of spray combustion. It is demonstrated that the ESF method can be a valuable tool to evaluate approaches relying on a pre-integration of the thermochemical lookup-table.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020052

Authors: Marcel Zijlema

This paper discusses the discretization methods that have been commonly employed to solve the wave action balance equation, and that have gained a renewed interest with the widespread use of unstructured grids for third-generation spectral wind-wave models. These methods are the first-order upwind finite difference and first-order vertex-centered upwind finite volume schemes for the transport of wave action in geographical space. The discussion addresses the derivation of these schemes from a different perspective. A mathematical framework for mimetic discretizations based on discrete calculus is utilized herein. A key feature of this algebraic approach is that the process of exact discretization is segregated from the process of interpolation, the latter typically involved in constitutive relations. This can help gain insight into the performance characteristics of the discretization method. On this basis, we conclude that the upwind finite difference scheme captures the wave action flux conservation exactly, which is a plus for wave shoaling. In addition, we provide a justification for the intrinsic low accuracy of the vertex-centred upwind finite volume scheme, due to the physically inaccurate but common flux constitutive relation, and we propose an improvement to overcome this drawback. Finally, by way of a comparative demonstration, a few test cases is introduced to establish the ability of the considered methods to capture the relevant physics on unstructured triangular meshes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020051

Authors: Othman Yakhlef Cornel Marius Murea

An implicit scheme by partitioned procedures is proposed to solve a dynamic fluid&ndash;structure interaction problem in the case when the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. For the fluid equations (Sokes or Navier&ndash;Stokes), the fictitious domain method with penalization was used. The equality of the fluid and structure velocities at the interface was obtained using the penalization technique. The surface forces at the fluid&ndash;structure interface were computed using the fluid solution in the structure domain. A quadratic optimization problem with linear inequalities constraints was solved to obtain the structure displacements. Numerical results are presented.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020049

Authors: Moussa Ndour Kathrin Padberg-Gehle Martin Rasmussen

Lagrangian coherent sets are known to crucially determine transport and mixing processes in non-autonomous flows. Prominent examples include vortices and jets in geophysical fluid flows. Coherent sets can be identified computationally by a probabilistic transfer-operator-based approach within a set-oriented numerical framework. Here, we study sudden changes in flow patterns that correspond to bifurcations of coherent sets. Significant changes in the spectral properties of a numerical transfer operator are heuristically related to critical events in the phase space of a time-dependent system. The transfer operator approach is applied to different example systems of increasing complexity. In particular, we study the 2002 splitting event of the Antarctic polar vortex.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020048

Authors: Mohammad Tauviqirrahman M. Fadhli Afif P. Paryanto J. Jamari Wahyu Caesarendra

The slip boundary has an important influence on hydrodynamic journal bearing. However, less attention has been paid to the positive effect of slip on thermal behaviour. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis investigating the thermo-hydrodynamic (THD) characteristics of heterogeneous slip/no-slip bearings running under steady, incompressible, and turbulent conditions is presented. A comprehensive analysis is made to investigate the THD behaviours of heterogeneous slip/no-slip bearings in terms of lubricant pressure, temperature distribution, volume fraction of vapor, and load-carrying capacity when they are running under different shaft rotational speeds. The multiphase cavitation model is adopted to represent the real operational condition of the journal bearing. Numerical results show that the load-carrying capacity of the heterogeneous slip/no-slip bearing can be significantly increased by up to 100% depending on the rotational speed. It is also observed that there is an optimal journal rotational speed for maximizing the load-carrying capacity. An insightful new finding is revealed in a numerical framework, wherein it is found that by introducing the heterogeneous slip/no-slip pattern, the maximum temperature can be reduced by up to 25% in comparison with a conventional bearing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6020047

Authors: Fernando Luiz Sacomano Filho Luis Eduardo de Albuquerque Paixão e Freire de Carvalho Jeroen Adrianus van Oijen Guenther Carlos Krieger Filho

The influence of chemistry and differential diffusion transport modeling on methane oxy-fuel combustion is analyzed considering different diluent characteristics. Analyses are conducted in terms of numerical simulations using a detailed description of the chemistry. Herein, different reaction mechanisms are employed to represent the combustion of methane. Simulations were performed with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CHEM1D following different numerical setups, freely propagating flame, counter flow flame, and propagating flame in droplet mist reactors. The employed method is validated against experimental data and simulation results available in the literature. While the counter-flow flame reactor is exclusively used in the validation stage, different scenarios have been established for propagating flame simulations, as in single- or two-phase flow configuration. These comprehend variations in diluent compositions, reaction mechanisms, and different models to account for diffusion transport. Conducted investigations show that the choice for a specific reaction mechanism can interfere with computed flame speed values, which may agree or deviate from experimental observations. The achieved outcomes from these investigations indicate that the so-called GRI 3.0 mechanism is the best option for general application purposes, as a good balance is found between accuracy and computational efforts. However, in cases where more detailed information and accuracy are required, the CRECK C1-C3 mechanism demonstrated to be the best choice from the evaluated mechanisms. Additionally, the results clearly indicate that commonly applied simplifications to general flame modeling as the unitary Lewis number and mixture averaged approach strongly interfere with the computation of flame propagation speed values for single- and two-phase flows. While the application of unitary Lewis number approach is limited to certain conditions, the mixture averaged approach demonstrated a good agreement with the complex model for flame speed computations in the various tested scenarios. Such an outcome is not limited to oxy-fuel applications, but are straightly extensible to oxy-steam and air-blown combustion.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010046

Authors: Prajakta Nakate Domenico Lahaye Cornelis Vuik Marco Talice

The emissions from the industrial furnaces impact the environment. Among the various factories, those having anode baking furnaces are working on reducing the pollutant emissions. The aerodynamics in the furnace influences the emissions due to the high dependence of combustion and radiation phenomena on the mixing characteristics. Therefore, this paper aims to establish the numerical simulation results for the three-dimensional turbulent flow in a single section of an anode baking furnace with a high rate of fuel injection. The stabilized non-linear finite element approach on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is used with COMSOLMultiphysics. The turbulent viscosity ratio is highly sensitive to the mesh for the standard k-ϵ model. The requirements of the Cartesian and refined mesh near the jet development region is explained. The comparison of meshes generated by two meshing tools namely cfMesh and COMSOL Multiphysics default Mesher is carried out. The high numerical diffusion in the flow models due to the coarser mesh leads to convergence but deficit the precision in the results. This paper shows that the mesh generated by cfMesh with flow aligned refinement combined with the non-linear finite element solver in COMSOL Multiphysics proves to provide accurate results of turbulent quantities.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010045

Authors: Fluids Editorial Office Fluids Editorial Office

Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Fluids maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010044

Authors: Jeff Howell Steve Windsor Martin Passmore

The car aerodynamicist developing passenger cars is primarily interested in reducing aerodynamic drag. Considerably less attention is paid to the lift characteristics except in the case of high-performance cars. Lift, however, can have an effect on both performance and stability, even at moderate speeds. In this paper, the basic shape features which affect lift and the lift distribution, as determined from the axle loads, are examined from wind tunnel tests on various small-scale bodies representing passenger cars. In most cases, the effects of yaw are also considered. The front-end shape is found to have very little effect on overall lift, although it can influence the lift distribution. The shape of the rear end of the car, however, is shown to be highly influential on the lift. The add-on components and other features can have a significant effect on the lift characteristics of real passenger cars and are briefly discussed. The increase in lift at yaw is, surprisingly, almost independent of shape, as shown for the simple bodies. This characteristic is less pronounced on real passenger cars but lift increase at yaw is shown to rise with vehicle length.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010043

Authors: Syaiful Monica Pranita Hendraswari M.S.K. Tony S.U. Maria F. Soetanto

Passive methods using vortex generators (VGs) to enhance heat transfer have been a concern of researchers in recent decades. This study is intended to investigate the strength of the vortex generated by VGs by trying to reduce the pressure drop in the flow. The present work also takes into account the influence of the vortex intensity on the improvement of heat transfer, which can be indicated by the low value of the synergy angle. Experiments were carried out in the current investigation to validate the results of the numerical simulations in the Reynolds number range of 3102 to 16,132. The study results indicate that the observed heat transfer coefficients from the experimental and simulation results have a similar tendency with relatively small errors. A reduction in pressure drop is observed with the use of perforated concave rectangular winglets (PCRWs) against the nonperforated ones although there was a slight decrease in heat transfer improvements.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010042

Authors: Luigi C. Berselli Stefano Spirito

We give a rather short and self-contained presentation of the global existence for Leray-Hopf weak solutions to the three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with constant density. We give a unified treatment in terms of the domains and the relative boundary conditions and in terms of the approximation methods. More precisely, we consider the case of the whole space, the flat torus, and the case of a general bounded domain with a smooth boundary (the latter supplemented with homogeneous Dirichlet conditions). We consider as approximation schemes the Leray approximation method, the Faedo-Galerkin method, the semi-discretization in time and the approximation by adding a Smagorinsky-Ladyžhenskaya term. We mainly focus on developing a unified treatment especially in the compactness argument needed to show that approximations converge to the weak solutions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010041

Authors: Radostin D. Simitev Friedrich H. Busse

The onset of convection in the form of magneto-inertial waves in a rotating fluid sphere permeated by a constant axial electric current is studied in this paper. Thermo-inertial convection is a distinctive flow regime on the border between rotating thermal convection and wave propagation. It occurs in astrophysical and geophysical contexts where self-sustained or external magnetic fields are commonly present. To investigate the onset of motion, a perturbation method is used here with an inviscid balance in the leading order and a buoyancy force acting against weak viscous dissipation in the next order of approximation. Analytical evaluation of constituent integral quantities is enabled by applying a Green&rsquo;s function method for the exact solution of the heat equation following our earlier non-magnetic analysis. Results for the case of thermally infinitely conducting boundaries and for the case of nearly thermally insulating boundaries are obtained. In both cases, explicit expressions for the dependence of the Rayleigh number on the azimuthal wavenumber are derived in the limit of high thermal diffusivity. It is found that an imposed azimuthal magnetic field exerts a stabilizing influence on the onset of inertial convection and as a consequence magneto-inertial convection with azimuthal wave number of unity is generally preferred.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010039

Authors: Margaux Filippi Irina I. Rypina Alireza Hadjighasem Thomas Peacock

In Lagrangian dynamics, the detection of coherent clusters can help understand the organization of transport by identifying regions with coherent trajectory patterns. Many clustering algorithms, however, rely on user-input parameters, requiring a priori knowledge about the flow and making the outcome subjective. Building on the conventional spectral clustering method of Hadjighasem et al. (2016), a new optimized-parameter spectral clustering approach is developed that automatically identifies optimal parameters within pre-defined ranges. A noise-based metric for quantifying the coherence of the resulting coherent clusters is also introduced. The optimized-parameter spectral clustering is applied to two benchmark analytical flows, the Bickley Jet and the asymmetric Duffing oscillator, and to a realistic, numerically generated oceanic coastal flow. In the latter case, the identified model-based clusters are tested using observed trajectories of real drifters. In all examples, our approach succeeded in performing the partition of the domain into coherent clusters with minimal inter-cluster similarity and maximum intra-cluster similarity. For the coastal flow, the resulting coherent clusters are qualitatively similar over the same phase of the tide on different days and even different years, whereas coherent clusters for the opposite tidal phase are qualitatively different.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010040

Authors: Felix Bräuer Elias Trautner Josef Hasslberger Paolo Cifani Markus Klein

The influence of non-Newtonian fluid behavior on the flow statistics of turbulent bubble-laden downflow in a vertical channel is investigated. A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) study is conducted for power-law fluids with power-law indexes of 0.7 (shear-thinning), 1 (Newtonian) and 1.3 (shear-thickening) in the liquid phase at a gas volume fraction of 6%. The flow is driven downward by a constant volumetric flow rate corresponding to a friction Reynolds number of Reτ≈127.3. The Eötvös number is varied between Eo=0.3125 and Eo=3.75 in order to investigate the influence of quasi-spherical as well as wobbling bubbles and thus the interplay of the bubble deformability with the power-law behavior of the liquid bulk. The resulting first- and second-order fluid statistics, i.e., the gas fraction, mean velocity and velocity fluctuation profiles across the channel, show clear trends in reply to varying power-law indexes. In addition, it was observed that the bubble oscillations increase with decreasing power-law index. In the channel core, the bubbles significantly increase the dissipation rate, which, in contrast to its behavior at the wall, shows similar orders of magnitude for all power-law indexes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010038

Authors: Samireh Vahid Valentino Burattini Saeed Afshinjavid Arash Dashtkar

In this paper, the rheological behaviour of a petroleum-based epoxy (EL2 laminating epoxy) was compared with the Super Sap CLR clear bio-resin epoxy. The focus of the work was on the viscous and viscoelastic performance of these epoxy resins. Rheological tests were carried out at 15, 30, and 60 min after the mixing of the pure epoxies and the hardeners at a constant temperature of 25 &deg;C. The results obtained from the rheometer tests showed that the viscosity of both epoxy systems decreased with increasing shear rate, which is typical behaviour of a shear thinning fluid. Regarding the oscillatory rheology tests, the viscoelastic properties of both epoxy resins were studied within their linear viscoelastic region (LVER) by amplitude sweep test, which was also carried out 15, 30, and 60 min after mixing the epoxies with the hardeners. It was noticed that the petroleum-based epoxy possessed a more significant LVER relative to the bio-based resin. Finally, the storage modulus (G&prime;), the loss modulus (G&Prime;), and the phase angle were extracted, and these parameters were investigated over low and high frequencies. From the test results, we observed that both epoxy resins showed a liquid-like viscoelastic behaviour due to their phase angle values, which were always between 45&deg; and 90&deg;, and by the general tendency of the G&Prime; predominance over G&prime; at low and high frequencies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010036

Authors: Orlando J. Ugarte V’yacheslav Akkerman

This investigation evaluates the propagation of premixed flames in narrow channels with isothermal walls. The study is based on the numerical solution of the set of fully-compressible, reacting flow equations that includes viscosity, diffusion, thermal conduction and Arrhenius chemical kinetics. Specifically, channels and pipes with one extreme open and one extreme closed are considered such that a flame is sparked at the closed extreme and propagates towards the open one. The isothermal channel walls are kept at multiple constant temperatures in the range from Tw=300&nbsp;K to 1200&nbsp;K. The impact of these isothermal walls on the flame dynamics is studied for multiple radii of the channel (R) and for various thermal expansion ratios (&Theta;), which approximate the thermal behavior of different fuel mixtures in the system. The flame dynamics in isothermal channels is also compared to that with adiabatic walls, which were previously found to produce exponential flame acceleration at the initial stage of the burning process. The results show that the heat losses at the walls prevent strong acceleration and lead to much slower flame propagation in isothermal channels as compared to adiabatic ones. Four distinctive regimes of premixed burning in isothermal channels have been identified in the &Theta;&minus;Tw&minus;R space: (i) flame extinction; (ii) linear flame acceleration; (iii) steady or near-steady flame propagation; and (iv) flame oscillations. The physical processes in each of these regimes are discussed, and the corresponding regime diagrams are presented.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010037

Authors: Helena Vitoshkin Alexander Gelfgat

A non-modal transient disturbances growth in a stably stratified mixing layer flow is studied numerically. The model accounts for a density gradient within a shear region, implying a heavier layer at the bottom. Numerical analysis of non-modal stability is followed by a full three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) with the optimally perturbed base flow. It is found that the transient growth of two-dimensional disturbances diminishes with the strengthening of stratification, while three-dimensional disturbances cause significant non-modal growth, even for a strong, stable stratification. This non-modal growth is governed mainly by the Holmboe modes and does not necessarily weaken with the increase of the Richardson number. The optimal perturbation consists of two waves traveling in opposite directions. Compared to the two-dimensional transient growth, the three-dimensional growth is found to be larger, taking place at shorter times. The non-modal growth is observed in linearly stable regimes and, in slightly linearly supercritical regimes, is steeper than that defined by the most unstable eigenmode. The DNS analysis confirms the presence of the structures determined by the transient growth analysis.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010035

Authors: Lhendup Namgyal Joseph W. Hall

The dynamics of the coherent structures in a turbulent three-dimensional wall jet with an exit Reynolds number of 250,000 were investigated using the Snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A low-dimensional reconstruction using the first 10 POD modes indicates that the turbulent flow is dominated by streamwise vortex structures that grow in size and relative strength, and that are often accompanied by strong lateral sweeps of fluid across the wall. This causes an increase in the bulging and distortions of streamwise velocity contours as the flow evolves downstream. The instantaneous streamwise vorticity computed from the reconstructed instantaneous velocities has a high level of vorticity associated with these outer streamwise vortex structures, but often has a persistent pair of counter-rotating regions located close to the wall on either side of the jet centerline. A model of the coherent structures in the wall jet is presented. In this model, streamwise vortex structures are produced in the near-field by the breakdown of vortex rings formed at the jet outlet. Separate structures are associated with the near-wall streamwise vorticity. As the flow evolves downstream, the inner near-wall structures tilt outward, while the outer streamwise structures amalgamate to form larger streamwise asymmetric structures. In all cases, these streamwise vortex structures tend to cause large lateral velocity sweeps in the intermediate and far-field regions of the three-dimensional wall jet. Further, these structures meander laterally across the jet, causing a strongly intermittent jet flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010034

Authors: Dan Gabriel Cacuci

Responses defined at critical points are particularly important for reactor safety analyses and licensing (e.g., the maximum fuel and/or clad temperature). The novel mathematical framework of the first-order comprehensive adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology for critical points (1st-CASAM-CP) is applied in this work to develop a reactor safety thermal-hydraulics benchmark model which admits exact closed-form expressions for the adjoint functions and for the first-order sensitivities of responses defined at critical points (maxima, minima, saddle points) in physical systems characterized by imprecisely known parameters, external and internal boundaries. This benchmark model is designed for verifying the capabilities and accuracies of computational tools for modeling numerically thermal-hydraulics systems. The unique and extensive capabilities of the 1st-CASAM-CP methodology are demonstrated in this work by considering two responses of paramount importance in reactor safety, namely, (i) the maximum rod surface temperature, which occurs at the imprecisely known interface between the subsystem that models the heat conduction inside the heated rod and the subsystem modeling the heat convection process surrounding the rod; and (ii) the maximum temperature inside the heated rod, which has a critical point with two components, one located at a precisely known boundary of the subsystem that models the heat conduction inside the heated rod, while the other component depends on an imprecisely known boundary (i.e., the rod length). The exact analytical expressions developed in this work for the sensitivities of the maximum internal rod temperature and maximum rod surface temperature, as well as for the sensitivities of the locations where these respective maxima occur, provide exact benchmarks for verifying the accuracy of thermal-hydraulics computational tools. The sensitivities of such responses and of their critical points with respect to model parameters enable the quantification of uncertainties induced by uncertainties stemming from the system&rsquo;s parameters and boundaries in the respective responses and their underlying critical points.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010033

Authors: Dan Gabriel Cacuci

This work presents the novel first-order comprehensive adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology for critical points (1st-CASAM-CP), which enables the exact and efficient computation of the first-order sensitivities of responses defined at critical points (maxima, minima, saddle points) of coupled nonlinear models of physical systems characterized by imprecisely known parameters underlying the models, boundaries, and interfaces between the coupled systems. Responses defined at critical points are important in many applications, including system optimization, safety analyses and licensing. For the design and licensing of nuclear reactors, such essentially important responses include the maximum temperatures of the fuel and cladding in hot channels. The 1st-CASAM-CP presented in this work makes it possible to determine, using a single large-scale &ldquo;adjoint&rdquo; computation, the first-order sensitivities of the magnitude of a response defined at a critical point of a function in the phase-space of the systems&rsquo; independent variables. In addition, the 1st-CASAM-CP enables the computation of the sensitivities of the location in phase-space of the critical point at which the respective response is located: one &ldquo;adjoint&rdquo; computation is required for each component of the respective critical point in the phase-space of independent variables. By enabling the exact and efficient computation of the sensitivities of responses and of their critical locations to imprecisely known model parameters, boundaries, and interfaces, the 1st-CASAM-CP significantly extends the practicality of analyzing crucially important responses for large-scale systems involving many uncertain parameters, interfaces, and boundaries.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010030

Authors: Georgie Crewdson Marcello Lappa

Thermovibrational flow can be seen as a variant of standard thermogravitational convection where steady gravity is replaced by a time-periodic acceleration. As in the parent phenomena, this type of thermal flow is extremely sensitive to the relative directions of the acceleration and the prevailing temperature gradient. Starting from the realization that the overwhelming majority of research has focused on circumstances where the directions of vibrations and of the imposed temperature difference are perpendicular, we concentrate on the companion case in which they are parallel. The increased complexity of this situation essentially stems from the properties that are inherited from the corresponding case with steady gravity, i.e., the standard Rayleigh&ndash;B&eacute;nard convection. The need to overcome a threshold to induce convection from an initial quiescent state, together with the opposite tendency of acceleration to damp fluid motion when its sign is reversed, causes a variety of possible solutions that can display synchronous, non-synchronous, time-periodic, and multi-frequency responses. Assuming a square cavity as a reference case and a fluid with Pr = 15, we tackle the problem in a numerical framework based on the solution of the governing time-dependent and non-linear equations considering different amplitudes and frequencies of the applied vibrations. The corresponding vibrational Rayleigh number spans the interval from Ra&omega; = 104 to Ra&omega; = 106. It is shown that a kaleidoscope of possible variants exist whose nature and variety calls for the simultaneous analysis of their temporal and spatial behavior, thermofluid-dynamic (TFD) distortions, and the Nusselt number, in synergy with existing theories on the effect of periodic accelerations on fluid systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010031

Authors: Mohammad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

The use of resonators, filters, interdigital transducers (IDT) and stable sources in electronic industry is widespread today. One of the most used filters are the surface acoustic wave (SAW) type, which is mostly based on Rayleigh waves propagation on the surface. On the other hand, the use of Phase change materials (PCMs) is considered as a heat sink method in the field of thermal cooling of electronic circuits. Recent development in heat transfer is obtained by nanoparticle-enhanced PCM (NEPCM), which is a result of combining nanoparticles with PCMs. Increase of thermal conductivity of NEPCM in comparison with common PCM enhances the heat transfer rate. The aim of the current study is thermal management of SAW for the application of high frequency heating by phase change material. Melting of NEPCMs inside a rectangular cavity next to the SAW cell is used for the cooling purpose. Free convection heat transfer of a NEPCMs in an square cavity is modeled throughout the mass and momentum. Energy governing equations are solved by using the finite element method. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) forces exist in natural convection heat transfer within the fluid part of the enclosure. The results also show that the NEPCM causes heat transfer improvement up to 10%.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010032

Authors: Kazuo Aoki Marzia Bisi Maria Groppi Shingo Kosuge

The two-temperature Navier&ndash;Stokes equations derived from an ellipsoidal Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) model for a polyatomic gas (Phys. Rev. E102, 023104 (2020)) are considered in regimes where bulk viscosity is much greater than the shear viscosity. Possible existence of a shock-wave solution for the steady version of these hydrodynamic equations is investigated resorting to the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. Stability properties of upstream and downstream equilibria are discussed for varying parameters.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010029

Authors: Michael H. Meylan

The motion of a circular elastic plate floating on the surface is investigated in the time-domain. The solution is found from the single frequency solutions, and the method to solve for the circular plate is given using the eigenfunction matching method. Simple plane incident waves with a Gaussian profile in wavenumber space are considered, and a more complex focused wave group is considered. Results are given for a range of plate and incident wave parameters. Code is provided to show how to simulate the complex motion.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010028

Authors: Griet Decorte Alessandro Toffoli Geert Lombaert Jaak Monbaliu

During recent years, thorough experimental and numerical investigations have led to an improved understanding of dynamic phenomena affecting the fatigue life and survivability of offshore structures, e.g., ringing and springing and extreme wave impacts. However, most of these efforts have focused on modeling either selected extreme events or sequences of highly nonlinear waves impacting offshore structures, possibly overestimating the actual load to be experienced by the structure. Overall, not much has been done regarding short-term statistics. Although clear non-Gaussian statistics and therefore higher probabilities of extreme waves have been observed in random seas due to wave&ndash;wave interaction phenomena, which can impact short-term statistics for the structural load, they have not been studied extensively regarding the assessment of the dynamic behavior of offshore structures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have shown their viability for studying wave&ndash;structure interaction phenomena. Despite the continuously increasing computational resources, these models remain too computationally demanding for applications to the large spatial domains and long periods of time necessary for studying short-term statistics of non-Gaussian seas. Higher-order spectral (HOS) models, on the other hand, have been proven to be efficient and adequate in studying non-Gaussian seas. We therefore propose a one-way domain decomposition strategy, which takes full advantage of the recent advances in CFD and of the computational benefits of HOS. When applying this domain decomposition strategy, it appeared to be possible to deduce response statistics regarding the impact of nonlinear wave&ndash;wave interactions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010027

Authors: J. Barry Greenberg David Katoshevski

A theoretical investigation of the influence of a standing wave flow-field on the dynamics of a laminar two-dimensional spray diffusion flame is presented for the first time. The mathematical analysis permits mild slip between the droplets and their host surroundings. For the liquid phase, the use of a small Stokes number as the perturbation parameater enables a solution of the governing equations to be developed. Influence of the standing wave flow-field on droplet grouping is described by a specially constructed modification of the vaporization Damkohler number. Instantaneous flame front shapes are found via a solution for the usual Schwab&ndash;Zeldovitch parameter. Numerical results obtained from the analytical solution uncover the strong bearing that droplet grouping, induced by the standing wave flow-field, can have on flame height, shape, and type (over- or under-ventilated) and on the existence of multiple flame fronts.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010026

Authors: Putu Veri Swastika Sri Redjeki Pudjaprasetya Leo Hari Wiryanto Revi Nurfathhiyah Hadiarti

We consider the extension of the momentum conservative staggered-grid (MCS) scheme for flow simulation in channels with varying depth and width. The scheme is formulated using the conservative properties of the Saint-Venant equations. The proposed scheme was successful in handling various steady flows and achieved results that are in complete accordance with the analytical steady solutions. Different choices of boundary conditions have created steady solutions according to the mass and energy conservations. This assessment has served as a validation of the proposed numerical scheme. Further, in a channel with a contraction and a nonuniform bed, we simulate two cases of dam break. The simulation results show a good agreement with existing experimental data. Moreover, our scheme, that uses a quasi-1-dimensional approach, has shown some fair agreement with existing 2-dimensional numerical results. This evaluation demonstrates the merits of the MCS scheme for various flow simulations in channels of varying width and bathymetry, suitable for river flow modeling.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010025

Authors: Iris Gerken Thomas Wetzel Jürgen J. Brandner

Micro heat exchangers have been revealed to be efficient devices for improved heat transfer due to short heat transfer distances and increased surface-to-volume ratios. Further augmentation of the heat transfer behaviour within microstructured devices can be achieved with heat transfer enhancement techniques, and more precisely for this study, with passive enhancement techniques. Pin fin geometries influence the flow path and, therefore, were chosen as the option for further improvement of the heat transfer performance. The augmentation of heat transfer with micro heat exchangers was performed with the consideration of an improved heat transfer behaviour, and with additional pressure losses due to the change of flow path (pin fin geometries). To capture the impact of the heat transfer, as well as the impact of additional pressure losses, an assessment method should be considered. The overall exergy loss method can be applied to micro heat exchangers, and serves as a simple assessment for characterization. Experimental investigations with micro heat exchanger structures were performed to evaluate the assessment method and its importance. The heat transfer enhancement was experimentally investigated with microstructured pin fin geometries to understand the impact on pressure loss behaviour with air.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010024

Authors: Zahra Seifollahi Moghadam François Guibault André Garon

The central aim of this paper is to use OpenFOAM for the assessment of mesh resolution requirements for large-eddy simulation (LES) of flows similar to the ones which occur inside the draft-tube of hydraulic turbines at off-design operating conditions. The importance of this study is related to the fact that hydraulic turbines often need to be operated over an extended range of operating conditions, which makes the investigation of fluctuating stresses crucial. Scale-resolving simulation (SRS) approaches, such as LES and detached-eddy simulation (DES), have received more interests in the recent decade for understanding and mitigating unsteady operational behavior of hydro turbines. This interest is due to their ability to resolve a larger part of turbulent flows. However, verification studies in LES are very challenging, since errors in numerical discretization, but also subgrid-scale (SGS) models, are both influenced by grid resolution. A comprehensive examination of the literature shows that SRS for different operating conditions of hydraulic turbines is still quite limited and that there is no consensus on mesh resolution requirement for SRS studies. Therefore, the goal of this research is to develop a reliable framework for the validation and verification of SRS, especially LES, so that it can be applied for the investigation of flow phenomena inside hydraulic turbine draft-tube and runner at their off-design operating conditions. Two academic test cases are considered in this research, a turbulent channel flow and a case of sudden expansion. The sudden expansion test case resembles the flow inside the draft-tube of hydraulic turbines at part load. In this study, we concentrate on these academic test cases, but it is expected that hydraulic turbine flow simulations will eventually benefit from the results of the current research. The results show that two-point autocorrelation is more sensitive to mesh resolution than energy spectra. In addition, for the case of sudden expansion, the mesh resolution has a tremendous effect on the results, and, so far, we have not capture an asymptotic converging behavior in the results of Root Mean Square (RMS) of velocity fluctuations and two-point autocorrelation. This case, which represents complex flow behavior, needs further mesh resolution studies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010023

Authors: Mohamed El Ouafa Stephane Vincent Vincent Le Chenadec

In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and robustness of three classes of methods for solving two-phase incompressible flows on a staggered grid. Here, the unsteady two-phase flow equations are simulated by finite volumes and penalty methods using implicit and monolithic approaches (such as the augmented Lagrangian and the fully coupled methods), where all velocity components and pressure variables are solved simultaneously (as opposed to segregated methods). The interface tracking is performed with a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, using the Piecewise Linear Interface Construction (PLIC) technique. The home code Fugu is used for implementing the various methods. Our target application is the simulation of two-phase flows at high density and viscosity ratios, which are known to be challenging to simulate. The resulting strategies of monolithic approaches will be proven to be considerably better suited for these two-phase cases, they also allow to use larger time step than segregated methods.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010022

Authors: Nicola Suzzi Marco Lorenzini

Electro-osmotic flow, that is, the motion of a polar fluid in microducts induced by an external electric field, is one micro-effect which allows fluid circulation without the use of mechanical pumping. This is of interest in the thermal management of electronic devices, as microchannels with cross sections of almost arbitrary shape can easily be integrated on the chips. It is therefore important to assess how the geometry of the channel influences the heat transfer performance. In this paper, the thermal entry region and the fully developed electro-osmotic flow in a microchannel of rectangular cross section with smoothed corners is investigated for uniform wall temperature. For the fully developed region, correlations for the Poiseuille and Nusselt numbers considering the aspect ratio and nondimensional smoothing radius are given, which can be used for practical design purposes. For thermally developing flow, it is highlighted how smoothing the corners increases the value of the local Nusselt number, with increases up to 18% over sharp corners, but that it also shortens the thermal entry length. It is also found that Joule heating in the fluid may cause a reversal of the heat flux, and that the thermal entry length has a linear dependence on the Reynolds number and the hydraulic diameter and on the logarithm of the nondimensional Joule heating.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010021

Authors: Ivan Yakovenko Alexey Kiverin Ksenia Melnikova

Development of the combustion process in the gaseous mixtures of near-limit composition is of great interest for fundamental aspects of combustion theory and fire-safety applications. The dynamics of ultra-lean gaseous flames in near-limit mixtures is governed by many effects, such as buoyancy, preferential diffusion, radiation, and instability development. Though ultra-lean combustion was extensively studied in microgravity conditions, the influence of gravity on the ultra-lean flame structure and stability is still poorly understood. The paper is devoted to deepening the knowledge of ultra-lean flame dynamics in hydrogen-air mixtures under terrestrial gravity conditions. The spatial structures of the flame developing under the effect of buoyancy forces are investigated employing detailed numerical analysis. Different modes of near-limit flame evolution are observed depending on the mixture concentration. In particular, we registered and described three distinct spatial structures: individual kernels tending to extinguish in leanest compounds, complex multi-kernel structures in marginal compositions, and stable cap-shaped flames in more chemically active mixtures. We apply the flame-bubble analogy to interpret flame dynamics. On this basis, the diagram in the Re-Fr plane is developed. That allows classifying the emerging flame structures and determine flame stability. Additionally, different ignition modes are studied, and the mechanisms determining the impact of ignition mode on the flammability limits are distinguished. Obtained results provide useful insights into the processes of flame quenching and development in near-limit hydrogen-air mixtures under real gravity conditions and can be applied in the design of contemporary fire-safety systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010020

Authors: Christopher A. Roseman Brian M. Argrow

Numerical simulations of hotwire anemometers in low-speed, high-altitude conditions have been carried out using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Hotwire instruments are commonly used for in-situ turbulence measurements because of their ability to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution data. Fast time responses are achieved by the wires having small diameters (1&ndash;5 &mu;m). Hotwire instruments are currently being used to make in-situ measurements of high-altitude turbulence (20&ndash;40 km). At these altitudes, hotwires experience Knudsen number values that lie in the transition-regime between slip-flow and free-molecular flow. This article expands the current knowledge of hotwire anemometers by investigating their behavior in the transition-regime. Challenges involved with simulating hotwires at high Knudsen number and low Reynolds number conditions are discussed. The ability of the DSMC method to simulate hotwires from the free-molecular to slip-flow regimes is demonstrated. Dependence of heat transfer on surface accommodation coefficient is explored and discussed. Simulation results of Nusselt number dependence on Reynolds number show good agreement with experimental data. Magnitude discrepancies are attributed to differences between simulation and experimental conditions, while discrepancies in trend are attributed to finite simulation domain size.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010019

Authors: Emmanuele D’Andrea Maurizio Arena Massimo Viscardi Tommaso Coppola

An increasing attention has recently been paid to the effect of the underwater noise field generated by ship activities on the marine environment. Although this problem is widely discussed in international treaties and conventions, it has not yet found a consolidated technical-scientific treatment capable of quantifying the level of underwater noise emissions produced by naval systems. As part of a national research collaboration, a novel code has been developed to predict noise propagation according to the Ray Tracing approach. Such optical geometry-based technique allows for calculating the Transmission Loss (TL) trend in its respective contributions: geometrical loss (due to the distance between the source and receiver), dissipation loss (due to the characteristics of the propagation environment), and reflection loss (due to the surfaces that delimit the field). The simulation requires as input parameters the source info as spatial position, frequency, and sound pressure level (SPL) as well as the sea properties like seabed depth, the speed of sound profile, the layers thickness the water column is divided into, the sea salinity, temperature, and pH. The simulation code provides the SPL spatial distribution useful as a fast industrial tool in the future studies addressed to identify the emission limits for the protection of marine wildlife.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010018

Authors: Mikhail Modestov

A general method for solving a linear stability problem of an interface with a continuous internal structure is described. Such interfaces or fronts are commonly found in various branches of physics, such as combustion and plasma physics. It extends simplified analysis of an infinitely thin discontinuous front by means of numerical integration along the steady-state solution. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the method for 1D pulsating instability in magnetic deflagration and 2D Darrieus&ndash;Landau instability in a laser ablation wave.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010017

Authors: Giorgos Tatsios Alexandros Tsimpoukis Dimitris Valougeorgis

The formulation of the half-range moment method (HRMM), well defined in steady rarefied gas flows, is extended to linear oscillatory rarefied gas flows, driven by oscillating boundaries. The oscillatory Stokes (also known as Stokes second problem) and the oscillatory Couette flows, as representative ones for harmonically oscillating half-space and finite-medium flow setups respectively, are solved. The moment equations are derived from the linearized time-dependent BGK kinetic equation, operating accordingly over the positive and negative halves of the molecular velocity space. Moreover, the boundary conditions of the &ldquo;positive&rdquo; and &ldquo;negative&rdquo; moment equations are accordingly constructed from the half-range moments of the boundary conditions of the outgoing distribution function, assuming purely diffuse reflection. The oscillatory Stokes flow is characterized by the oscillation parameter, while the oscillatory Couette flow by the oscillation and rarefaction parameters. HRMM results for the amplitude and phase of the velocity and shear stress in a wide range of the flow parameters are presented and compared with corresponding results, obtained by the discrete velocity method (DVM). In the oscillatory Stokes flow the so-called penetration depth is also computed. When the oscillation frequency is lower than the collision frequency excellent agreement is observed, while when it is about the same or larger some differences are present. Overall, it is demonstrated that the HRMM can be applied to linear oscillatory rarefied gas flows, providing accurate results in a very wide range of the involved flow parameters. Since the computational effort is negligible, it is worthwhile to consider the efficient implementation of the HRMM to stationary and transient multidimensional rarefied gas flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010016

Authors: Changhong Mou Zhu Wang David R. Wells Xuping Xie Traian Iliescu

Reduced order models (ROMs) are computational models whose dimension is significantly lower than those obtained through classical numerical discretizations (e.g., finite element, finite difference, finite volume, or spectral methods). Thus, ROMs have been used to accelerate numerical simulations of many query problems, e.g., uncertainty quantification, control, and shape optimization. Projection-based ROMs have been particularly successful in the numerical simulation of fluid flows. In this brief survey, we summarize some recent ROM developments for the quasi-geostrophic equations (QGE) (also known as the barotropic vorticity equations), which are a simplified model for geophysical flows in which rotation plays a central role, such as wind-driven ocean circulation in mid-latitude ocean basins. Since the QGE represent a practical compromise between efficient numerical simulations of ocean flows and accurate representations of large scale ocean dynamics, these equations have often been used in the testing of new numerical methods for ocean flows. ROMs have also been tested on the QGE for various settings in order to understand their potential in efficient numerical simulations of ocean flows. In this paper, we survey the ROMs developed for the QGE in order to understand their potential in efficient numerical simulations of more complex ocean flows: We explain how classical numerical methods for the QGE are used to generate the ROM basis functions, we outline the main steps in the construction of projection-based ROMs (with a particular focus on the under-resolved regime, when the closure problem needs to be addressed), we illustrate the ROMs in the numerical simulation of the QGE for various settings, and we present several potential future research avenues in the ROM exploration of the QGE and more complex models of geophysical flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010015

Authors: Markus Klein Massimo Germano

A multiscale dynamic analysis of the commutation error, based on the filtering approach is performed. The similarity multiscale hypothesis proposed by Bardina (1983) and extended by Geurts and Holm (2006) to the commutation error is examined in detail and an extension of the Germano identity to the analysis and the modelling of the commutation error is proposed. For a detailed analysis under controlled condition the method is first applied to synthetic turbulence and subsequently to the a-priori analysis of a turbulent channel flow at Re&tau;=590. The results illustrate the flexibility of the dynamic modelling approach. Combined with a scale similarity assumption for the commutation error very satisfactory results have been obtained for first order derivatives and reasonable results for second order derivatives. In all cases the modelling of the commutation error resulted in smaller errors than the error obtained by neglecting the commutation error.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010014

Authors: Sarah Oscroft Adam M. Sykulski Jeffrey J. Early

Drifters deployed in close proximity collectively provide a unique observational data set with which to separate mesoscale and submesoscale flows. In this paper we provide a principled approach for doing so by fitting observed velocities to a local Taylor expansion of the velocity flow field. We demonstrate how to estimate mesoscale and submesoscale quantities that evolve slowly over time, as well as their associated statistical uncertainty. We show that in practice the mesoscale component of our model can explain much first and second-moment variability in drifter velocities, especially at low frequencies. This results in much lower and more meaningful measures of submesoscale diffusivity, which would otherwise be contaminated by unresolved mesoscale flow. We quantify these effects theoretically via computing Lagrangian frequency spectra, and demonstrate the usefulness of our methodology through simulations as well as with real observations from the LatMix deployment of drifters. The outcome of this method is a full Lagrangian decomposition of each drifter trajectory into three components that represent the background, mesoscale, and submesoscale flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010013

Authors: Gustavo R. Anjos

This work aims at investigating numerically the effects of channel corrugation in two-phase flows with single and multiples drops subject to buoyancy-driven motion. A state-of-the-art model is employed to accurately compute the dynamics of the drop&rsquo;s interface deformation using a modern moving frame/moving mesh technique within the arbitrary Lagrangian&ndash;Eulerian framework, which allows one to simulate very large domains. The results reveal a complex and interesting dynamics when more than one drop is present in the system, leading eventually in coalescence due to the amplitude of the corrugated sinusoidal channel and distance between drops.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010012

Authors: John Gilbert Jonathan Pitt

This work aims to better understand how small scale disturbances that are generated at the air-sea interface propagate into the surrounding atmosphere under realistic environmental conditions. To that end, a one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean model is presented, in which predictions of sea surface currents and sea surface temperatures from a microscale ocean model are used as constant boundary conditions in a larger atmospheric model. The coupled model consists of an ocean component implemented while using the open source CFD software OpenFOAM, an atmospheric component solved using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, and a Python-based utility foamToWRF, which is responsible for mapping field data between the ocean and atmospheric domains. The results are presented for two demonstration cases, which indicate that the proposed coupled model is able to capture the propagation of small scale sea surface disturbances in the atmosphere, although a more thorough study is required in order to properly validate the model.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010011

Authors: Magnus Andersson Matts Karlsson

Model verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification are essential procedures to estimate errors within cardiovascular flow modeling, where acceptable confidence levels are needed for clinical reliability. While more turbulent-like studies are frequently observed within the biofluid community, practical modeling guidelines are scarce. Verification procedures determine the agreement between the conceptual model and its numerical solution by comparing for example, discretization and phase-averaging-related errors of specific output parameters. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study presents a comprehensive and practical verification approach for pulsatile turbulent-like blood flow predictions by considering the amplitude and shape of the turbulence-related tensor field using anisotropic invariant mapping. These procedures were demonstrated by investigating the Reynolds stress tensor characteristics in a patient-specific aortic coarctation model, focusing on modeling-related errors associated with the spatiotemporal resolution and phase-averaging sampling size. Findings in this work suggest that attention should also be put on reducing phase-averaging related errors, as these could easily outweigh the errors associated with the spatiotemporal resolution when including too few cardiac cycles. Also, substantially more cycles are likely needed than typically reported for these flow regimes to sufficiently converge the phase-instant tensor characteristics. Here, higher degrees of active fluctuating directions, especially of lower amplitudes, appeared to be the most sensitive turbulence characteristics.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6010010

Authors: Hyekyung Ryu Andrew N. Cookson

A discontinuous change in sequential velocity fields is known to generate laminar flow mixing through the mechanism of streamline crossing. However, previous research has suggested that a small degree of continuous transition between velocity fields may not necessarily be detrimental. This study therefore used a modified blinking vortex system with varying degree of continuous transition to assess the precise effect that this continuous transition has on mixing performance. This system was studied for the parameters: blinking period, vortex spacing, and the fraction of time spent in transition. Continuous Eulerian indicators were computed to investigate their correspondence with Lagrangian-based metrics, such as Intensity of Segregation, under such conditions. The results showed that up to 30% transition time yielded improvements in mixing, most notably when vortex spacing was large, and this was consistent across different time periods. The mixing prediction by the Eulerian indicators, particularly mobility, showed good agreement with actual mixing quality, albeit not perfectly, suggesting room for refinement in these metrics. Overall, the findings imply that mixing systems, such as continuous pipe flow-based devices, which are designed assuming a discontinuous change in velocity fields, might benefit from the presence of a small degree of continuous transition between discrete states.

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