Topic Editors

RNA/Nano-Biochemistry Lab, Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Science, Ajman University, Ajman P.O. Box 346, United Arab Emirates

Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy

Abstract submission deadline
31 August 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 October 2024
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12261

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Widespread antibiotic resistance has become one of the most serious global health threats in recent years and is much worse after COVID-19. This phenomenon has increased both mortality and morbidity as a consequence of treatment failures and its effect on healthcare costs. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics in human therapies, as well as for other areas, has resulted in the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, new developments of novel therapeutics against MDR bacteria are still challenging. In this topic, we aim to collect studies on the most recent advances in the development of novel biocompatible antimicrobials and strategies against emerging MDR pathogens concerning design, fabrication, biocompatibility, and applications. Manuscripts will be accepted either in the form of research or review articles for all areas of antibiotics or antimicrobial materials.

Prof. Dr. Kwang-sun Kim
Dr. Zehra Edis
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • antibiotic resistance
  • synergistic antibiotics
  • nanoantibiotics
  • multidrug-resistance pathgens
  • outermembrane vesicles
  • photothermal therapy
  • biocompatibility
  • bacterial small RNA

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Antibiotics
antibiotics
4.8 7.3 2012 13.7 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 5.2 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.7 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Pharmaceuticals
pharmaceuticals
4.6 6.1 2004 14.6 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Pharmaceutics
pharmaceutics
5.4 7.9 2009 14.2 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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20 pages, 1786 KiB  
Review
Progress of Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Stilbenoids
by Xiancai Li, Yongqing Li, Binghong Xiong and Shengxiang Qiu
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(5), 663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics16050663 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Antimicrobial drugs have made outstanding contributions to the treatment of pathogenic infections. However, the emergence of drug resistance continues to be a major threat to human health in recent years, and therefore, the search for novel antimicrobial drugs is particularly urgent. With a [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial drugs have made outstanding contributions to the treatment of pathogenic infections. However, the emergence of drug resistance continues to be a major threat to human health in recent years, and therefore, the search for novel antimicrobial drugs is particularly urgent. With a deeper understanding of microbial habits and drug resistance mechanisms, various creative strategies for the development of novel antibiotics have been proposed. Stilbenoids, characterized by a C6–C2–C6 carbon skeleton, have recently been widely recognized for their flexible antimicrobial roles. Here, we comprehensively summarize the mode of action of stilbenoids from the viewpoint of their direct antimicrobial properties, antibiofilm and antivirulence activities and their role in reversing drug resistance. This review will provide an important reference for the future development and research into the mechanisms of stilbenoids as antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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10 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
Aerobic Microbiological Spectrum and Antibiotic Resistance in Children Operated for Anorectal Abscesses
by Dzhevdet Chakarov, Elena Hadzhieva, Yordan Kalchev and Dimitar Hadzhiev
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(8), 2414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm13082414 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
(1) Background: Anorectal abscesses are a relatively rare pathology in childhood. Most often, male children under 1 year of age are affected. The importance of microbiological examination for the diagnosis and treatment of such patients remains debatable among surgeons, resulting in scarce data [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Anorectal abscesses are a relatively rare pathology in childhood. Most often, male children under 1 year of age are affected. The importance of microbiological examination for the diagnosis and treatment of such patients remains debatable among surgeons, resulting in scarce data being available in the literature. We aimed to identify the aerobic microbiological spectrum and antibiotic resistance of isolates in children undergoing operation to treat anorectal abscesses. (2) Methods: We performed a case series of 102 children diagnosed and operated for anorectal abscesses over a period of 10 years (2010–2019). Purulent wound exudate was used for microbiological evaluation, which was subsequently cultured on 5% sheep-blood agar and eosin–methylene blue agar. For microbiological identification, conventional biochemical tests and semi-automated (API 20, bioMerieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France) tests were used, as well as automated systems (Vitek-2 Compact, bioMerieux, France). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method of Bauer–Kirby and by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations for glycopeptides. The results were interpreted according to the EUCAST standard for the corresponding year. (3) Results: Microbiological testing in children operated for anorectal abscesses mainly identified the gut commensals that normally reside in the rectal mucosa. Monocultures were found in just over half of the cases. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae complex, and Proteus mirabilis were the most frequently isolated. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus was found in 7% of patients. In Gram-negative bacteria, antibiotic resistance was most often observed in penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. (4) Conclusions: The increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance impose the need for the local monitoring of circulating commensal bacteria associated with anorectal abscesses in children to guide antibiotic therapy when indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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11 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Linezolid-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Assessment of Risk Factors in Patients without Hemato-Oncologic Diseases
by Abrar K. Thabit, Arwa A. Alghamdi, Afnan K. Alsaeed, Nesereen M. Magbool, Yazed S. Alsowaida, Ahmad J. Mahrous, Alya Alruwaili, Ziyad K. Albakistani, Basem O. Albangali, Anas M. Alghumuy, Sara A. Youssef, Reem M. Alodayli and Masaad Saeed Almutairi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(8), 2380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm13082380 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Background: Linezolid is used for Gram-positive bacterial infections. Thrombocytopenia is one of its main adverse effects resulting from myelosuppression. Several studies have assessed risk factors that may increase the risk of this adverse effect. However, most studies included patients with hemato-oncologic diseases, [...] Read more.
Background: Linezolid is used for Gram-positive bacterial infections. Thrombocytopenia is one of its main adverse effects resulting from myelosuppression. Several studies have assessed risk factors that may increase the risk of this adverse effect. However, most studies included patients with hemato-oncologic diseases, which may confound such assessments. This study aimed to investigate risk factors for linezolid-associated thrombocytopenia in patients without hemato-oncologic diseases. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective case-control study of adult patients treated with linezolid twice daily for ≥3 days. Patients with hemato-oncologic diseases, active dengue fever, active COVID-19, baseline platelet count <100 × 103/mm3, concurrent therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or valproic acid, and a recent platelet transfusion within 7 days were excluded. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a drop in platelet count below 100 × 103/mm3. Results: Out of 158 evaluated patients, 33 developed thrombocytopenia, indicating an incidence rate of 20.9%. Of all the risk factors assessed, creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min and bacteremia/infective endocarditis were significantly associated with linezolid-associated thrombocytopenia (adjusted odds ratios, 3.25 and 5.95; 95% CI 1.12–9.45 and 1.23–28.66; p = 0.031 and 0.026, respectively). End of therapy platelet counts were significantly lower in the cases than in the controls (79 vs. 243 × 103/mm3; p < 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of platelet count change was significantly different (−55.1% vs. −10.2%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In our study, the incidence rate of linezolid-associated thrombocytopenia was 20.9%, and we found that patients with renal impairment and bacteremia may need close monitoring of platelet counts. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the potential need for renal dose adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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22 pages, 2988 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Wild Ganoderma applanatum Mushroom from Kerala, South India: Insights into Dietary Nutritional, Mineral, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities
by Akbar Rijia, Raman Krishnamoorthi, Madhusoodhanan Rasmi, Pambayan Ulagan Mahalingam and Kwang-sun Kim
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(4), 509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph17040509 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
The present study focused on the mushroom Ganoderma, which has been used in Eastern countries for centuries as a food and medicinal source. Specifically, the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma applanatum from the Kerala Forest Research Institute in Thirussur, Kerala, India, were analyzed for [...] Read more.
The present study focused on the mushroom Ganoderma, which has been used in Eastern countries for centuries as a food and medicinal source. Specifically, the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma applanatum from the Kerala Forest Research Institute in Thirussur, Kerala, India, were analyzed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The methanolic extracts of G. applanatum were used to examine secondary metabolites and proximate profiles, revealing the presence of various phytochemicals such as terpenoids, phenolics, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. Further analysis revealed the presence of significant amounts of calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and manganese. The compounds were characterized using chromatographic analysis, FTIR, and GC-MS, which revealed potential therapeutic compounds with C-H and C-O bonds in the amide group, β-glycosides, and C-C/C-O vibrations of phenolic substances. Mushroom extract at a concentration of 100 µg mL−1 exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. This study suggests that G. applanatum has a rich biochemical composition and pharmacological potential, making it a promising candidate for drug development and traditional medicine, and contributes valuable insights into its diverse therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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34 pages, 627 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Therapeutic Approaches to Tuberculous Meningitis: Pharmacokinetics, Combined Dosing, and Advanced Intrathecal Therapies
by Ahmad Khalid Madadi and Moon-Jun Sohn
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(4), 540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics16040540 - 14 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) presents a critical neurologic emergency characterized by high mortality and morbidity rates, necessitating immediate therapeutic intervention, often ahead of definitive microbiological and molecular diagnoses. The primary hurdle in effective TBM treatment is the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which significantly restricts the [...] Read more.
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) presents a critical neurologic emergency characterized by high mortality and morbidity rates, necessitating immediate therapeutic intervention, often ahead of definitive microbiological and molecular diagnoses. The primary hurdle in effective TBM treatment is the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which significantly restricts the delivery of anti-tuberculous medications to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to subtherapeutic drug levels and poor treatment outcomes. The standard regimen for initial TBM treatment frequently falls short, followed by adverse side effects, vasculitis, and hydrocephalus, driving the condition toward a refractory state. To overcome this obstacle, intrathecal (IT) sustained release of anti-TB medication emerges as a promising approach. This method enables a steady, uninterrupted, and prolonged release of medication directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thus preventing systemic side effects by limiting drug exposure to the rest of the body. Our review diligently investigates the existing literature and treatment methodologies, aiming to highlight their shortcomings. As part of our enhanced strategy for sustained IT anti-TB delivery, we particularly seek to explore the utilization of nanoparticle-infused hydrogels containing isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), alongside osmotic pump usage, as innovative treatments for TBM. This comprehensive review delineates an optimized framework for the management of TBM, including an integrated approach that combines pharmacokinetic insights, concomitant drug administration strategies, and the latest advancements in IT and intraventricular (IVT) therapy for CNS infections. By proposing a multifaceted treatment strategy, this analysis aims to enhance the clinical outcomes for TBM patients, highlighting the critical role of targeted drug delivery in overcoming the formidable challenges presented by the blood–brain barrier and the complex pathophysiology of TBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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23 pages, 7243 KiB  
Review
Bacterial Efflux Pump Inhibitors Reduce Antibiotic Resistance
by Lan Zhang, Xiaoyuan Tian, Lei Sun, Kun Mi, Ru Wang, Fengying Gong and Lingli Huang
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(2), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics16020170 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Bacterial resistance is a growing problem worldwide, and the number of deaths due to drug resistance is increasing every year. We must pay great attention to bacterial resistance. Otherwise, we may go back to the pre-antibiotic era and have no drugs on which [...] Read more.
Bacterial resistance is a growing problem worldwide, and the number of deaths due to drug resistance is increasing every year. We must pay great attention to bacterial resistance. Otherwise, we may go back to the pre-antibiotic era and have no drugs on which to rely. Bacterial resistance is the result of several causes, with efflux mechanisms widely recognised as a significant factor in the development of resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial medications. Efflux pump inhibitors, small molecules capable of restoring the effectiveness of existing antibiotics, are considered potential solutions to antibiotic resistance and have been an active area of research in recent years. This article provides a review of the efflux mechanisms of common clinical pathogenic bacteria and their efflux pump inhibitors and describes the effects of efflux pump inhibitors on biofilm formation, bacterial virulence, the formation of bacterial persister cells, the transfer of drug resistance among bacteria, and mismatch repair. Numerous efforts have been made in the past 20 years to find novel efflux pump inhibitors which are known to increase the effectiveness of medicines against multidrug-resistant strains. Therefore, the application of efflux pump inhibitors has excellent potential to address and reduce bacterial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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13 pages, 5672 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Efficacy of Endolysin LysAB1245 against a Panel of Important Pathogens
by Rosesathorn Soontarach, Potjanee Srimanote, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai and Sarunyou Chusri
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(2), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph17020155 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a significant global challenge. This study explores the antibacterial effects of a bacteriophage-derived endolysin, LysAB1245, against important pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimal [...] Read more.
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a significant global challenge. This study explores the antibacterial effects of a bacteriophage-derived endolysin, LysAB1245, against important pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for all tested isolates. A time–kill study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in bacterial survival following treatment with LysAB1245. Additionally, the effects of LysAB1245 on P. aeruginosa K1455 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) NPRC 001R-formed biofilms were investigated. The MIC and MBC of LysAB1245 against all the tested isolates ranged from 4.68 to 9.36 µg/mL and 4.68 to 18.72 µg/mL, respectively. The time–kill study demonstrated more than a 4 log CFU/mL (99.99%) reduction in bacterial survival within 6 h of LysAB1245 treatment at 2MIC. LysAB1245 (1/8–1/2MIC) treatment significantly reduced biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa and MRSA in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential inhibition effects on 3-day established biofilms formed on abiotic surfaces upon treatment with LysAB1245 at 2MIC. The findings indicate that endolysin LysAB1245 could be employed as a new alternative therapeutic antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent for combating biofilm-related infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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15 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial, Anticancer, and Antioxidant Activities of Maize and Clover Pollen Grains Extracts: A Comparative Study with Phytochemical Characterizations
by Heba Barnawi, Husam Qanash, Abdu Aldarhami, Ghaida Alsaif, Bandar Alharbi, Majed N. Almashjary, Alhomidi Almotiri and Abdulrahman S. Bazaid
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(12), 1731; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph16121731 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The failure to treat infectious diseases due to the continual emergence of drug-resistant microbes poses a huge and serious challenge for human health globally. Currently, the discovery and development of natural therapeutic compounds are attracting considerable attention from researchers worldwide. In this project, [...] Read more.
The failure to treat infectious diseases due to the continual emergence of drug-resistant microbes poses a huge and serious challenge for human health globally. Currently, the discovery and development of natural therapeutic compounds are attracting considerable attention from researchers worldwide. In this project, two types of pollen grains (maize and clover) were evaluated for potential antimicrobial activities. Extracts of both pollen grains were purified using HPLC, which has been shown to have numerous phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Pyro catechol and methyl gallate were detected in high concentrations (1145.56 and 1056.57 µg/mL, respectively) in the maize extract, while caffeic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol (464.73, 393.05, and 390.93 µg/mL, respectively) were among the compounds observed at high concentrations in the clover pollen grains extract. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans were more sensitive to the clover pollen grains extract with inhibition zones of 22 ± 0.2, 18 ± 0.1, 29 ± 0.3, and 42 ± 0.4 mm compared to the size of the inhibitory zones caused by the maize pollen grains extract (19 ± 0.3, 15 ± 0.4, 27 ± 0.1, and 22 ± 0.4 mm, respectively). Moreover, lower MIC values for the clover pollen grains extract were recorded against C. albicans (1.97 ± 0.04 µg/mL), S. aureus (62.5 ± 1.00 µg/mL), and E. coli (62.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) than the MICs caused by the maize pollen grains extract. The use of a transmission electron microscope revealed that the E. coli that had been treated with the clover pollen grains extract showed changes in its cell walls compared to that treated with the maize pollen grains extract. The clover pollen grains extract exhibited a stronger antioxidant potential, with an IC50 value of 22.18 µg/mL, compared to an IC50 value of 54.85 µg/mL for the maize pollen grains extract, via a DPPH scavenging assay. Regarding anticancer activity, the maize pollen grains extract was revealed to be more effective in terms of inhibiting the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116, with an IC50 value of 67.02 ± 1.37 µg/mL, compared with the observed toxicity caused by the clover extract, with an IC50 value of 75.03 ± 1.02 µg/mL. Overall, the clover pollen grains extract demonstrated potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities, but not anticancer activity, when compared to the maize grains extract. Thus, the current findings related to both types of pollen grains (clover and maize) highlight their potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of certain infectious diseases and malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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19 pages, 7423 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with Capparis cartilaginea Decne Extract: Insights into Characterization and Antigenotoxicity In Vivo
by Asmaa S. Salman, Shaza N. Alkhatib, Fatimah M. Ahmed and Ragaa A. Hamouda
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(11), 2551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pharmaceutics15112551 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Plant-based foods may enhance the prevention of cancer. The present investigation aimed to assess the antigenotoxic effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) when loaded with the ethanol extract of C. cartilaginea (CNPs/Cc). Synthesis of CNPs and CNPs/Cc and their characterization were carried out using TEM, [...] Read more.
Plant-based foods may enhance the prevention of cancer. The present investigation aimed to assess the antigenotoxic effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) when loaded with the ethanol extract of C. cartilaginea (CNPs/Cc). Synthesis of CNPs and CNPs/Cc and their characterization were carried out using TEM, EDS, DSC, and Zeta potential. For in vivo experiments, animal groups were treated in the following groups: negative control, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (240 mg/kg), CNPs (350 mg/kg), high and low doses of CNPs/Cc, CNPs plus EMS, high dose of CNPs/Cc plus EMS, and low dose of CNPs/Cc plus EMS. Bone marrow chromosomal aberrations and sperm shape abnormalities were examined. TEM results showed that CNPs and CNPs/Cc are spherical particles. CNPs’ physical stability was observed to be lower than that of CNPs/Cc due to the presence of more positive charges on CNPs/Cc. EMS significantly enhanced chromosomal abnormalities and sperm shape abnormalities. CNPs showed powerful antigenotoxic properties. For the first time, it could be concluded that loading chitosan nanoparticles with C. cartilaginea extract significantly promotes its protective properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Challenges and Future Prospects of Antibacterial Therapy)
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