Topic Editors

School of Economics and Management, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
College of Management Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
School of Management and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611130, China
1. College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Mianyang Normal University, Mianyang 621000, China
2. Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Prof. Dr. Yingwei Ai
Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China

Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development

Abstract submission deadline
closed (29 February 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 May 2024)
Viewed by
35570

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the rapid growth of the global economy, ecological and environmental problems such as climate warming, resource depletion, and population growth have become increasingly serious. Changing the economic development model has become a necessary step for achieving global sustainable development. Promoting a low-carbon economy that contributes to economic and social development and resource environmental protection has become a main trend for countries to implement low-carbon transformation. However, in the face of the complex and changing development environment and ecological issues, it is necessary to study the relationship between the economic development model and environmental issues from a macro or micro perspective and reflect on how to effectively measure the level of the sustainable development index. This theme is open to research on environmental economics and management issues around low carbon economies environmental protection and governance, and sustainable development, including but not limited to the following topics:

  1. Economic reasons affecting environmental behavior.
  2. The carbon footprint and emission reduction effects of economic behavior.
  3. Environmental studies of economic behavior from a multidisciplinary perspective.
  4. Environmental economic issues in energy production and consumption.
  5. Carbon emission reduction, carbon cycle quilt, and other sustainable ecological projects.
  6. Carbon finance and trade, green production and consumption, regulation, and taxation policies.
  7. Research on the relationship between terrestrial ecosystem and climate change and human activities.
  8. Research on environmentally induced disasters.
  9. Environmental regulations evaluation and improvements.

We look forward to receiving your response, and, if there is any further information you require, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Dr. Liang Liu
Prof. Dr. Xudong Chen
Dr. Guangxu Li
Prof. Dr. Baoguo Du
Dr. Xiaoying Lai
Prof. Dr. Yingwei Ai
Topic Editors

Pan Jiang
Topic Editor Assistant
Affiliation: School of Economics and Management, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
E-mail: [email protected]
Homepage: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6506-8805
Interests: low carbon economy; environmental policy; carbon emissions

Xinchen Gu
Topic Editor Assistant
Affiliation: 1. State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100044, China
E-mail: [email protected]
Homepage: hhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0563-2395
Interests: climate change; hydrological systems; water resources; SDGs; ecosystem services

Keywords

  • environmental and energy economics
  • energy production and consumption
  • regulation and taxation
  • carbon emission reduction
  • clean energy
  • carbon finance and trade
  • environmental and energy policy
  • environmental and energy forecast and analysis
  • sustainable development
  • low-carbon technologies
  • green technologies innovation
  • terrestrial ecosystems

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 4.9 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Energies
energies
3.2 6.2 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Forests
forests
2.9 4.4 2010 16.9 Days CHF 2600
Land
land
3.9 4.9 2012 14.8 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 6.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (24 papers)

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20 pages, 652 KiB  
Article
Research on the Impact of Agricultural Socialization Services on the Ecological Efficiency of Agricultural Land Use
by Ping Li, Lijie He, Jun Zhang, Huihui Han and Yu Song
Land 2024, 13(6), 853; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land13060853 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 143
Abstract
This study intends to build a theoretical mechanism of agricultural socialization services for the eco-efficiency of agricultural land use from two paths, namely the agricultural division of labor and technological progress, and empirically calibrate the Tobit model based on the data of the [...] Read more.
This study intends to build a theoretical mechanism of agricultural socialization services for the eco-efficiency of agricultural land use from two paths, namely the agricultural division of labor and technological progress, and empirically calibrate the Tobit model based on the data of the China Family Tracking Survey (CFPS) for 4453 farming households in 23 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across China. The results of the study show the following: (1) Agricultural socialization services can significantly improve the eco-efficiency of agricultural land use. (2) Hired labor services are more likely to promote eco-efficiency in agricultural land use than farm machinery leasing, especially in major food-producing areas; however, in non-major food-producing areas, the effectiveness of farm machinery leasing services is limited or affected by regional policy differences. (3) In the analysis of the mechanism of agricultural socialization services on the eco-efficiency of agricultural land use, the division of labor in agriculture plays an intermediary role, and the intermediary effect accounts for about 11.4%; however, there is a masking effect of technological progress. This means that China should further develop the role of agricultural socialized services in promoting the ecological efficiency of agricultural land use by developing agricultural socialized service organizations, accelerating the integration of farmers into the modern agricultural division of labor, and promoting the application of green agricultural machinery, among other measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effect of Fiscal Support for Agriculture on Three-Industry Integration in Rural China
by Jing Li, Haoyang Liu and Wei-Yew Chang
Agriculture 2024, 14(6), 912; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture14060912 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 270
Abstract
The integration of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas, known as three-industry integration, is a crucial strategy for developing rural industries and implementing the rural revitalization initiative in China. The government’s fiscal support for agriculture serves as a cornerstone for [...] Read more.
The integration of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in rural areas, known as three-industry integration, is a crucial strategy for developing rural industries and implementing the rural revitalization initiative in China. The government’s fiscal support for agriculture serves as a cornerstone for the sustainable development of agriculture and rural regions. This study investigates the mechanisms through which fiscal support for agriculture facilitates the integration of the rural three-industry sectors by driving industrial innovation, enhancing the circulation of production factors, and optimizing resource utilization in rural areas. Using panel data from 30 provinces in China spanning from 2008 to 2020, we evaluate the level of three-industry integration in rural areas using an entropy method and analyze the effects of fiscal support for agriculture on this integration. Our findings reveal that: (1) fiscal support for agriculture significantly promotes the incorporated development of rural three-industry integration in China by acting as a catalyst for horizontal and vertical integration; (2) fiscal support enhances rural infrastructure quality, fosters market connectivity, and attracts business clusters, while also optimizing factor markets and facilitating the efficient allocation of land, finance, and resources, thereby enabling new business entities, such as leading enterprises, to benefit from economies of scale and to expand the rural industrial value chain; (3) the effects of fiscal support for agriculture exhibit significant regional and agricultural development heterogeneity, with Central China and major agricultural provinces demonstrating the most pronounced role in promoting rural three-industry integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
26 pages, 1182 KiB  
Article
Study on the Efficiency, Evolutionary Trend, and Influencing Factors of Rural–Urban Integration Development in Sichuan and Chongqing Regions under the Background of Dual Carbon
by Pan Jiang, Yirui Yang, Wei Ye, Liang Liu, Xinchen Gu, Haipeng Chen and Yuhan Zhang
Land 2024, 13(5), 696; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land13050696 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Re-evaluating how urban and rural development can be integrated is a necessary step towards achieving the “dual-carbon” objective and facilitating a thorough transition towards a green and low-carbon economy and society. This study empirically investigates the geographical disparities, evolving patterns, and determinants of [...] Read more.
Re-evaluating how urban and rural development can be integrated is a necessary step towards achieving the “dual-carbon” objective and facilitating a thorough transition towards a green and low-carbon economy and society. This study empirically investigates the geographical disparities, evolving patterns, and determinants of the effectiveness of urban–rural integration development in Sichuan and Chongqing. Results of the study indicate that (1) the effectiveness of urban–rural integration development in Sichuan and Chongqing is generally poor, and external environmental factors adversely affect the urban–rural integration of economically developed cities; (2) the urban–rural integration development efficiency in Sichuan and Chongqing does not show a more obvious polarization phenomenon, but the gap between the cities gradually widens; and (3) regarding influencing factors, market dynamics are favorable to overall urban–rural integration development in the Sichuan and Chongqing regions, while the development of the digital economy and the level of financial development can exacerbate the imbalance of regional urban–rural integration development. Based on this premise, pertinent policy suggestions are offered to facilitate the merger of urban and rural areas and foster efficient development in the regions of Sichuan and Chongqing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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23 pages, 3224 KiB  
Article
Differential Analysis of Carbon Emissions between Growing and Shrinking Cities: A Case of Three Northeastern Provinces in China
by Yuanzhen Song, Jian Tian, Weijie He, Aihemaiti Namaiti and Jian Zeng
Land 2024, 13(5), 648; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land13050648 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Carbon emission issues are becoming increasingly severe, and the carbon emissions in shrinking cities, primarily characterized by population loss, are often overlooked and insufficiently studied. This paper focuses on the carbon emissions from county-level administrative units in China’s three northeastern provinces from 2001 [...] Read more.
Carbon emission issues are becoming increasingly severe, and the carbon emissions in shrinking cities, primarily characterized by population loss, are often overlooked and insufficiently studied. This paper focuses on the carbon emissions from county-level administrative units in China’s three northeastern provinces from 2001 to 2017. The study scientifically identified shrinking cities and measured the differences in carbon emission characteristics between growing and shrinking cities using the Theil index. Ultimately, the paper constructs a panel spatial econometric model to analyze the factors influencing them and explore their spatial effects. (1) The total carbon emissions in the Three Northeastern Provinces exhibited an inverted U-shaped trend, increasing from 734.21 million tons in 2001 to 1731.73 million tons in 2017, with the Mann–Kendall trend test showing a significant increase; spatially, this manifests as a significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (2) The region has 138 shrinking cities, accounting for over 50%; regarding carbon emission characteristics, the Theil index has consistently remained above 0.18, indicating significant differences between the carbon emissions of growing and shrinking cities. (3) The panel spatial econometric model results show that the influencing factors of carbon emissions in shrinking cities have unique directions, intensities, and spatial effects. In shrinking cities, aside from localized GDP effects and per-capita GDP acting as a suppressant, the population size has a pronounced inhibitory effect on local and surrounding carbon emissions. The analysis reveals significant differences in the carbon emission patterns and mechanisms between growing and shrinking cities; based on these results, the paper proposes differentiated carbon control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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22 pages, 321 KiB  
Article
Can the Top Management Team’s Environmental Attention Promote Corporate Green Innovation?
by Ying Wang and Yiyang Liu
Sustainability 2024, 16(8), 3495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su16083495 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Enterprise green innovation (GI) is the micro foundation for coping with the challenges of the ecological environment and achieving sustainable development. The top management team’s environmental attention (TMTEA) is crucial for guiding environmental strategy and resource investment and promoting enterprise transformation towards sustainable [...] Read more.
Enterprise green innovation (GI) is the micro foundation for coping with the challenges of the ecological environment and achieving sustainable development. The top management team’s environmental attention (TMTEA) is crucial for guiding environmental strategy and resource investment and promoting enterprise transformation towards sustainable development and GI. Drawing on an attention-based view (ABV) and lifecycle theory, this study analyzes data from 1722 listed companies in China (2010–2021) to examine TMTEA’s impact on corporate GI and its regulatory mechanisms. The results show the following: (1) TMTEA promotes enterprise GI, particularly in the growth and decline stages. (2) Government environmental attention negatively moderates TMTEA’s influence on corporate GI. (3) Compensation and equity incentives positively moderate the TMTEA–GI relationship. These insights enrich executive attention and GI literature, aiding decision-makers and enterprises in formulating effective GI strategies. Limitations include reliance on Chinese-listed company data, potentially limiting generalizability, and the need for qualitative research to deepen understanding of management processes and governance mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
24 pages, 3341 KiB  
Article
Correction Factor for Mitigating the ‘One-Size-Fits-All’ Phenomenon in Assessing Low-Carbon City Performance
by Shiju Liao, Liyin Shen, Xi Chen, Xiangrui Xu, Qingqing Wang, Ziwei Chen and Haijun Bao
Land 2024, 13(4), 433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land13040433 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Performance assessment of low carbon cities (LCCs) attracts great interest and attention from academia, industry, and government as an effective measure to promote urban low-carbon development. However, the efforts of LCCs could be misinterpreted without consideration of the fact that cities with different [...] Read more.
Performance assessment of low carbon cities (LCCs) attracts great interest and attention from academia, industry, and government as an effective measure to promote urban low-carbon development. However, the efforts of LCCs could be misinterpreted without consideration of the fact that cities with different endowments face different challenges and assume different responsibilities, thus it is important that this fact is considered in assessing LCCs’ performance. This study develops the previous study by the research team, “dual perspective diagnosis method for assessing LCC performance”, by introducing a correction factor to take into account the impacts of local endowments and mitigate the ‘one-size-fits-all’ phenomenon when comparing LCC assessments between cities. The empirical case study presented in the paper indicates that the adoption of a correction factor has improved the accuracy of the assessment results by demonstrating actual management efforts in developing LCC performance. It is proposed that applying the correction factor can help to achieve more accurate assessments of the status of low-carbon city practice, based on which more effective low-carbon policies can be designed and implemented towards achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Heterogeneities in the Impact of Chinese Digital Economy Development on Carbon Emissions
by Qiguang An, Lin Zheng and Mu Yang
Sustainability 2024, 16(7), 2810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su16072810 - 28 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
The digital economy plays an important role in reducing the global warming process. This paper explores the spatiotemporal heterogeneity impacts of the digital economy on provincial carbon emissions and its underlying mechanisms. Initially, this paper examines the inhibitory impact of the digital economy [...] Read more.
The digital economy plays an important role in reducing the global warming process. This paper explores the spatiotemporal heterogeneity impacts of the digital economy on provincial carbon emissions and its underlying mechanisms. Initially, this paper examines the inhibitory impact of the digital economy on carbon emissions, alongside the mediating role of economic agglomeration, at a theoretical level. Subsequently, it empirically explores the quantitative associations among the digital economy, economic agglomeration, and carbon emissions by utilizing Chinese provincial panel data spanning from 2000 to 2021. This investigation employed static and dynamic spatial Durbin models as well as mediation models to analyze the interrelationships. The results firstly revealed that the digital economy notably diminishes carbon emissions, with economic agglomeration playing a significant mediating role. This conclusion remained consistent even after substituting the explanatory variables and weight matrix, modifying the sample period, and conducting other robustness tests. Secondly, the impact of the digital economy on carbon emissions exhibited spatial spillovers. Compared with the impact on the local area, the impact on neighboring provinces was found to be weaker. Thirdly, carbon emissions showed a significant “snowball” effect in the time dimension. This paper emphasizes the important role of digital technology in curbing carbon emissions, and it provides some policy insights for studying the digital economy, economic agglomeration, and carbon emissions. Furthermore, it offers valuable insight and suggestions to reduce carbon emissions and realize the goal of the “dual-carbon” strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
20 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
Investigation into the Performance Characteristics of the Organic Dry Farming Transition and the Corresponding Impact on Carbon Emissions Reduction
by Guofeng Wang, Baohui Zhao and Mengqi Zhao
Agriculture 2024, 14(3), 459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture14030459 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Global warming affects food security and ecological security, and it threatens economic stability and sustainable agricultural development. The transformation and development of agriculture have significant implications for the achievement of the “dual-carbon” goals and the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. Based on panel [...] Read more.
Global warming affects food security and ecological security, and it threatens economic stability and sustainable agricultural development. The transformation and development of agriculture have significant implications for the achievement of the “dual-carbon” goals and the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. Based on panel data on organic dry farming in China from 2005 to 2020, this study aimed to comprehensively assess the transformation performance of organic dry farming (TRODF) in 15 provinces. It explored the impact of the transformation of organic dry farming on carbon emissions by utilizing a spatial Markov chain and spatial measurement models. Our findings are as follows: (1) The performance of the organic dryland agriculture transformation has gradually improved and is accompanied by a corresponding trend of fluctuating regional disparities, which are on the rise. Moreover, the disparities between the five major regions mainly stem from intra-regional differences. (2) TRODF agriculture presents the possibility of state transfer during different periods, featuring four convergent zones: a lagging zone, a starting zone, a crossing zone, and an advanced zone. The spatial Markov chain indicates that state transitions typically occur between adjacent levels, with fewer instances of “jump”-type transitions. Moreover, there is a clear trend of differentiation in the state transitions between non-adjacent areas. (3) The organic dry farming transformation exhibits a significant carbon reduction effect, which is characterized by heterogeneity across different stages of agricultural development, provinces, and time periods. This study emphasizes that economic and industrial transformation, along with the transformation of the ecological environment, represents a crucial direction for conserving resources and achieving a further reduction in carbon emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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25 pages, 3136 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Development Strategies and Evaluation of Low-Carbon Development Level in Jiangsu Province under Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality Goals
by Fanglin Li and Yingjie Zhang
Sustainability 2024, 16(4), 1597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su16041597 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Studies on regional low-carbon development are essential for reducing air pollution, protecting human life and health, and environmental sustainability. In this article, after sorting the connotations of low-carbon development, the low-carbon development evaluation indicators system was constructed, and the entropy weighting method and [...] Read more.
Studies on regional low-carbon development are essential for reducing air pollution, protecting human life and health, and environmental sustainability. In this article, after sorting the connotations of low-carbon development, the low-carbon development evaluation indicators system was constructed, and the entropy weighting method and improved analytic hierarchy process were applied to evaluate the low-carbon development level between 2007 and 2021 about Jiangsu Province, China. Also, the system dynamics model was constructed to simulate the low-carbon development process. The research findings show the following: (1) Low-carbon development in Jiangsu Province obtained some achievement; (2) “Coordination force” played the most crucial role in low-carbon development, while “growth force” and “transformation force” performed better; (3) The simulation results showed that the economic development type would be the most beneficial in the long run; the energy conservation type would be steadily developing and improving every year; and the green transformation type had a clear drive for low-carbon development at an early stage and the impact was rapid. The novelty of this paper includes the following: (1) The dimension division of the index system is novel; (2) The measurement method is novel. The weights of indicators are determined by a combination of the entropy weighting method and improved analytic hierarchy process; (3) The low-carbon development pathways of Jiangsu Province are studied by the system dynamics model. Different strategy conditions are innovatively designed, and simulations of the scenarios are carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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22 pages, 14139 KiB  
Article
Study on the Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Regional Green Space Morphology Outside Built-Up Areas based on the Google Earth Engine and Biophysical Component Modeling
by Yiwen Ji, Lang Zhang, Xinchen Gu and Lei Zhang
Land 2023, 12(12), 2184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land12122184 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
The spatial pattern of regional green space is an important dimension to describe and quantitatively express the characteristics of regional green spaces outside the built-up area of a city. With the expansion of urban and rural construction land, regional green space has been [...] Read more.
The spatial pattern of regional green space is an important dimension to describe and quantitatively express the characteristics of regional green spaces outside the built-up area of a city. With the expansion of urban and rural construction land, regional green space has been continuously encroached upon. This leads to a decline in regional ecological well-being and the loss of biodiversity. Based on the remote sensing data of Shanghai city from 2000 to 2020, we quantitatively studied the spatial morphological change characteristics of regional green space outside the built-up area of Shanghai city. Firstly, with the help of the GEE platform, the optimal decoding accuracy classification method was selected through machine learning (random forest, support vector machine, classification regression tree); then, based on the biophysical component (BCI) and CA binarization, the built-up area ranges for up to five time nodes were obtained; finally, through GIS spatial data analysis and processing technology, the regional green space dynamic data of Shanghai for five time nodes were extracted. Based on the above data, an analysis index system was constructed to quantitatively analyze the spatial morphology characteristics of the regional green space outside the built-up area of Shanghai. The results show that (1) the area of regional green space outside the built-up area of Shanghai had a fluctuating growth pattern of “decreasing and then increasing”. The arable land and water areas in Shanghai decreased, and the woodland area increased steadily, while the wetland and grassland areas showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. (2) The regional green patch fragmentation shows a fluctuating development trend of increasing, decreasing, and increasing. (3) The change in the spatial center of gravity of the regional green space in Shanghai had a high degree of consistency with the overall green space change. The center of gravity of the grasslands in the regional green space moved substantially to the northwest, while the center of gravity of the other types remained basically unchanged. This study reveals the spatial morphology characteristics of regional green spaces and provides a research method to study the dynamic changes in regional ecological resources. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the identification, protection, and development of regional ecological resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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25 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
How Does Network Infrastructure Construction Affect Livestock Carbon Emissions?
by Menglei Yin, Peng Song and Weifeng Yan
Agriculture 2023, 13(12), 2244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture13122244 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Against the backdrop of new carbon peak and carbon neutrality targets, China must address livestock carbon emissions (LCEs), which account for the largest proportion of agricultural carbon emissions in China. China has been promoting network infrastructure construction (NIC) for digital transformation. This study [...] Read more.
Against the backdrop of new carbon peak and carbon neutrality targets, China must address livestock carbon emissions (LCEs), which account for the largest proportion of agricultural carbon emissions in China. China has been promoting network infrastructure construction (NIC) for digital transformation. This study explores whether NIC can affect LCEs. To capture the potential effects of NIC, a conceptual framework is constructed originally and its impacts on LCEs are tested empirically through a two-way fixed effect model. The results show that NIC can significantly reduce LCEs. The results hold steady in various robustness checks, and the impacts express heterogeneities across provinces with different LCE levels, NIC levels, and regions. Mechanism analysis reveals that NIC can increase LCEs through the livestock industry scale effect, which is nevertheless outweighed by technological innovation and factor allocation’s reduction effects triggered by NIC. Additionally, transportation infrastructure construction serves a moderating role by reinforcing the reduction effect of NIC on LCEs. The conclusions are crucial for advancing the understanding of NIC’s potential benefits and policymaking for carbon emissions reduction in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Impacts of ESG Disclosure on Corporate Carbon Performance: Empirical Evidence from Listed Companies in Heavy Pollution Industries
by Fengxue Yin, Yanling Xiao, Rui Cao and Jianhua Zhang
Sustainability 2023, 15(21), 15296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su152115296 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2896
Abstract
With the increasing severity of global climate change, environmental issues have become a key factor constraining sustainable economic development. Environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) is in line with the concept of enterprises’ sustainable development, and it is significant to study the mechanism [...] Read more.
With the increasing severity of global climate change, environmental issues have become a key factor constraining sustainable economic development. Environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) is in line with the concept of enterprises’ sustainable development, and it is significant to study the mechanism of ESG disclosure on corporate carbon performance for the low-carbon transformation of enterprises. Based on the panel data of Chinese heavily polluting companies, a two-way fixed-effects model is used to analyze the relationship theoretically and validate the empirical data. It is found that ESG disclosure significantly contributes to corporate carbon performance, and corporate carbon performance will increase by 1.2% for each level of ESG disclosure. A series of robustness tools, such as endogeneity tests, replacement of critical variables, and control variable treatment, further verify that the main findings are robust and reliable. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the growth and ownership attributes of heavily polluting firms can lead to a heterogeneous characterization of the impact of ESG disclosure on firms’ carbon performance. In addition, the institutional environment and media attention moderate the relationship between ESG disclosure and corporate carbon performance. The results of this study provide empirical support for promoting carbon performance in China’s heavy-polluting industries and achieving the “double carbon” goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
22 pages, 16713 KiB  
Article
Study on the Suitable Ecological Groundwater Depth and the Suitable Well–Canal Combined Irrigation Ratio in the Weigan River Irrigation District
by Wenjia Zhang, Xiaoya Deng, Yi Xiao, Ji Zhang, Cai Ren, Wen Lu and Aihua Long
Sustainability 2023, 15(20), 15097; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su152015097 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 819
Abstract
It is important to clarify the suitable ratio of well–canal combined irrigation and the suitable range for ecological groundwater depth for the ecological stability of the arid zone. The MODFLOW model was used to reconstruct long-term groundwater depth by analyzing the response relationship [...] Read more.
It is important to clarify the suitable ratio of well–canal combined irrigation and the suitable range for ecological groundwater depth for the ecological stability of the arid zone. The MODFLOW model was used to reconstruct long-term groundwater depth by analyzing the response relationship between vegetation cover and groundwater depth in the Weigan River irrigation district. The suitable range for ecological groundwater depth was obtained, and based on this range, the suitable well–canal combined irrigation ratio in the research area was further simulated. The results show the following: (1) The average annual depth of groundwater in 82.9% of the study area increased from 2012 to 2021, and the average annual depth of groundwater increased by 1.03 m in 2021 compared to 2012. The average depth of the groundwater in the upstream area increased the most, with an increase of 1.96 m. (2) The vegetation cover in the study area from 2012 to 2021 increased in general, with an increase of 0.0461 over the 10-year period, but it fluctuated between years. (3) The depth of the groundwater in the study area suitable for the growth of vegetation in the irrigation area ranged from 3 to 5 m, and the value of NDVI within this range concentrated near 0.564–0.731, which represents a good state of vegetation growth. (4) The ratio of combined well and canal irrigation in the study area from 2012 to 2014 surged from 0.13 in 2012 to 0.48 in 2014, and the irrational harvesting and replenishment relationship led to a rapid increase in the depth of buried groundwater. A suitable well–canal combined irrigation ratio of 0.396 in the study area was obtained. This study is beneficial for maintaining the sustainable development and utilization of water resources and ecological stability in the Weigan River irrigation district. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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24 pages, 794 KiB  
Article
Are Firms More Willing to Seek Green Technology Innovation in the Context of Economic Policy Uncertainty? —Evidence from China
by Mo Chen, Xuhua Hu, Jijian Zhang, Zhe Xu, Guang Yang and Zenan Sun
Sustainability 2023, 15(19), 14188; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su151914188 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Frequent shifts in economic policies not only inject uncertainty into the economic landscape but also pose significant challenges to corporate endeavors in green technological innovation. Drawing on a dataset of Chinese A-share listed companies spanning 2008 to 2020, this research delves into the [...] Read more.
Frequent shifts in economic policies not only inject uncertainty into the economic landscape but also pose significant challenges to corporate endeavors in green technological innovation. Drawing on a dataset of Chinese A-share listed companies spanning 2008 to 2020, this research delves into the repercussions of economic policy uncertainty on the green technological pursuits of manufacturing firms and elucidates the underlying dynamics at play. The empirical evidence underscores a marked reluctance among companies to champion green technological innovation in the face of economic policy ambiguity, a stance that holds water even after rigorous robustness checks. Delving into the mechanisms, the study pinpoints heightened financial constraints and a diminishing risk appetite within the managerial ranks as pivotal deterrents steering firms away from green innovation projects amidst such uncertainty. Intriguingly, the adverse interplay between economic policy uncertainty and green innovation is especially accentuated in firms marked by tenuous government–business affiliations, pronounced monopolistic inclinations, lax intellectual property safeguards, minimal pollution footprints, and a skewed labor-to-capital composition. This investigation augments the scholarly discourse on the nexus between economic policy volatility and corporate green innovation, shedding light on strategic imperatives for emerging economies as they chart out future environmental blueprints and cultivate a conducive milieu for green innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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25 pages, 2077 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Economic Growth and Urbanisation on Environmental Degradation in the Baltic States: An Extended Kaya Identity
by Daiva Makutėnienė, Algirdas Justinas Staugaitis, Valdemaras Makutėnas and Gunta Grīnberga-Zālīte
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1844; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture13091844 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
The main aim of this article is to empirically examine the impact of economic growth and urbanisation on environmental degradation, as well as the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in three Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) from 2000 to 2020. [...] Read more.
The main aim of this article is to empirically examine the impact of economic growth and urbanisation on environmental degradation, as well as the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in three Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) from 2000 to 2020. The main Kaya identity and the extended urban Kaya identity models are applied within the analysis. The multiple regression analysis made it possible to assess the influence of urbanisation and other factors on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the studied countries, as well as test the hypothesis of the inverted U-shaped EKC. The main finding reveals that GDP per capita growth has the largest and increasing effect on GHG emissions in all three countries. It was also found that changes in population in urban areas in Lithuania and Latvia reduced the amount of GHG until 2020, while in Estonia, the growing urban population greatly contributed to increasing GHG emissions. As a result, processes related to urbanisation have not yet had a significant impact on environmental quality in Lithuania and Latvia. Meanwhile, in Estonia, this is a significant factor that policymakers need to focus on when solving environmental pollution reduction problems. The hypothesis of the EKC was mostly supported when analysing GHG emissions in Lithuania and Estonia and using GDP per capita as an indicator for economic growth. On the other hand, it was found that the impact of the urbanisation rate on GHG emissions is not curved, yet there is some evidence that in Estonia, a growing urbanisation rate is related to diminishing GHG emissions, according to the multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that policymakers should consider economic growth and, especially in Estonia, urbanisation when solving problems related to environmental degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 504 KiB  
Article
Can the Integration of Rural Industries Help Strengthen China’s Agricultural Economic Resilience?
by Jie Zhou, Haipeng Chen, Qingyun Bai, Linxin Liu, Guohong Li and Qianling Shen
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1813; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture13091813 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Rural industrial integration is the key to promoting the development of rural industrial restructuring and modernization, and plays a vital role in improving agricultural economic resilience. Based on the evaluation index system of agricultural economic resilience and the level of rural industrial integration [...] Read more.
Rural industrial integration is the key to promoting the development of rural industrial restructuring and modernization, and plays a vital role in improving agricultural economic resilience. Based on the evaluation index system of agricultural economic resilience and the level of rural industrial integration development, respectively, this paper uses panel data from 30 provincial administrative regions in China from 2000 to 2020 to empirically test the impact of rural industrial integration development on agricultural economic resilience by using an individual fixed-effects model and a mediating-effects model. The results show that rural industrial integration significantly contributes to enhancing agricultural economic resilience, and the conclusion still holds after a series of robustness tests. There is dimensional and regional heterogeneity in the impact of rural industrial integration on agricultural economic resilience, and the strength of the promotion effect by dimension is in the order of adaptive adjustment capacity, transformation and innovation capacity, and resilience to recovery capacity. In the eastern and central regions, the promotion effect of rural industrial integration on agricultural economic resilience is more significant. In the main food-producing areas, the promotion effect of rural industrial integration on resilience to recovery is significantly slighter than that of non-food-producing regions. Mechanism analysis indicates that regional industrial structure optimization is an essential channel for rural industrial integration to enhance the resilience of the agricultural economy. On this basis, in order to strengthen agricultural economic resilience, provinces should actively explore differentiated industrial integration policies to enhance industrial structure optimization and upgrading, stimulate agricultural economic vitality, and foster the development of China’s agricultural modernization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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15 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Relationships between Species Diversity and Productivity of Different Grassland Types in the Burqin Forest Region of the Altai Mountains
by Xiaoting Pan, Mao Ye, Xingbin Xu, Qingzhi He, Xinchen Gu, Guoyan Zeng, Weilong Chen and Miaomiao Li
Forests 2023, 14(9), 1829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f14091829 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
The Altai Mountain is located at the intersection of cold and arid regions. Climate change and overgrazing directly affect the growth of the grassland ecosystem in this region. This study took the grassland community in the Burqin forest area of the Altai Mountains [...] Read more.
The Altai Mountain is located at the intersection of cold and arid regions. Climate change and overgrazing directly affect the growth of the grassland ecosystem in this region. This study took the grassland community in the Burqin forest area of the Altai Mountains as an example to analyze the species diversity and productivity of different grassland types based on 50 sampling plots. The relationship between species diversity and the productivity of grassland types at different altitudes was also discussed. The results showed that: (1) In the Burqin forest area, the desert steppe was dominated by Gramineae, Compositae, and Leguminosae. Montane steppe and mountain meadows were dominated by Umbelliferae, Gramineae, and Liliaceae. Gramineae, Ranunculaceae, and Liliaceae were the dominant families in both montane meadows steppe and alpine steppe but occurred in varying proportions. (2) The variation in plant numbers at the family–species level was characterized as montane steppe > alpine meadow > montane meadow steppe > desert steppe > mountain meadows. (3) The similarity in species composition among communities of different grassland types was low. In DS and MM, the number of grasslands and species played a decisive role in determining the biomass. The biomass of MS and AM was determined using the Simpson and Shannon–Wiener indices, and the number of dominant species determined the biomass. The number of grasslands and species did not have a significant impact on the biomass of MMS, which may be due to human factors such as grazing. (4) The dominant species in the grassland at an altitude of 1200–1400 m is prominent. The number of individuals in the dominant species was large and evenly distributed. Margalef peaked at an altitude of 1600–1800 m, but the number of individuals was small, resulting in low biomass and diversity in this range. Most plants survive at an altitude of 2000–2200 m; therefore, in grassland protection and planning management, it is important to consider the specific situation of plant growth under different habitats at different altitudes and make reasonable protection decisions based on local conditions to maintain species diversity and sustainable development of grassland ecosystems. This study provides basic data to support the theoretical basis for the protection and sustainable utilization of grassland resources and the restoration of degraded grasslands in the study region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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29 pages, 9520 KiB  
Article
Classification of Urban Agricultural Functional Regions and Their Carbon Effects at the County Level in the Pearl River Delta, China
by Zuxuan Song, Fangmei Liu, Wenbo Lv and Jianwu Yan
Agriculture 2023, 13(9), 1734; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture13091734 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Exploring the transformation process of urban agricultural functions and its interaction with carbon effects based on regional differences is of great positive significance for achieving a low-carbon sustainable development of agriculture in metropolitan areas. By using the index system method, self-organizing feature maps [...] Read more.
Exploring the transformation process of urban agricultural functions and its interaction with carbon effects based on regional differences is of great positive significance for achieving a low-carbon sustainable development of agriculture in metropolitan areas. By using the index system method, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) network modeling, and Granger causality analysis, we divided the agricultural regional types of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) based on the spatio-temporal changes in urban agricultural functions and carbon effects at the county level in the PRD from 2002 to 2020, and analyzed the carbon effects generated by the agricultural functions according to the differences between the three agricultural regional types. The results show the following: (1) The changes in the basic functions of agriculture, the intermediate functions of agriculture, and the advanced functions of agriculture were different from the perspectives of both time and space. (2) The carbon effects produced by the areas with weak agricultural functions, the areas with medium agricultural functions, and the areas with strong agricultural functions were different. (3) The evolution of agricultural production types aggravated the grain risk in the PRD, and urban agriculture has potential in improving food security. (4) Based on the regional types of agricultural functions and considering the constraints of land and water, strategic suggestions such as integrating natural resources, improving utilization efficiency, upgrading technical facilities, and avoiding production pollution are put forward. (5) The green and low-carbon transformation of urban agriculture has its boundaries. The positive effects of the factors, namely the innovation of agricultural production methods, the change in agricultural organization modes, the impact of market orientation, and the transfer of the agricultural labor force, is limited. The findings of this paper provide valuable and meaningful insights for academia, policy makers, producers, and ultimately for the local population in general, driving the development of urban agriculture in a low-carbon and sustainable direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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15 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution Pattern and Influencing Factors of Above-Ground Biomass and Species Diversity of Grassland in the Altay Forest Area
by Xiaoting Pan, Mao Ye, Qingzhi He and Kaili Zhang
Land 2023, 12(7), 1370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land12071370 - 8 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Grasslands in the Altay Mountains are the main part of the grassland ecosystem in Xinjiang, and the spatial distribution patterns of grassland species diversity and biomass have changed significantly due to the combined effects of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. To clarify the [...] Read more.
Grasslands in the Altay Mountains are the main part of the grassland ecosystem in Xinjiang, and the spatial distribution patterns of grassland species diversity and biomass have changed significantly due to the combined effects of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. To clarify the effects of point factors on species diversity and biomass, this study investigated the vegetation status of 41 sample plots in the grasslands of the Altay forest area. The Margalef richness index, Simpson dominance index, Shannon–Wiener diversity index, and Alatalo evenness index in the α-diversity measure were used to analyze the changing characteristics of species diversity and to explore the changing patterns of the spatial distribution of species diversity and above-ground biomass. The results show the following: (1) The above-ground biomass of grasslands in the Altay forest area shows a clear spatial pattern, with the above-ground biomass gradually decreasing from northeast to southwest; the altitude gradient shows a “single-peak” pattern of decrease followed by an increase, with the largest biomass at an altitude of 1400–1800 m. (2) There was a significant “bimodal” pattern of variation between above-ground biomass and grassland cover, which was significantly correlated with elevation (p < 0.05) but not with latitude and longitude. (3) Except for the Alatalo evenness index, the trend of the species diversity indexes showed a high trend in the northeast and a low trend in the southwest, with the highest overall species diversity index on average in the Qiaoati sample site. (4) Except for the Alatalo evenness index, all species diversity indexes were significantly correlated with latitude, altitude, longitude, and cover (p < 0.05); the species diversity indexes showed an upward spiral trend with altitude, and with increasing longitude and cover, the species diversity indexes showed an “S” pattern. Elevation, cover, latitude, and longitude were the main environmental factors affecting the spatial patterns of above-ground biomass and species diversity in the grasslands of Altay. The results of the study provide data support for grassland management and maintenance in the Altay forest area, as well as for grassland ecological security in the northwest arid zone of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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19 pages, 783 KiB  
Article
Can Forest Resource Endowment Drive Green Economic Growth in the Context of the Low-Carbon Economy in China?
by Junlan Tan and Rong Wang
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f14071380 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Continuous climate change has become one of the challenges faced by the world, drawing much attention from governments. The forest industry is the main focus of strategic initiatives to realize a circular and green economy and achieve low emissions. In order to explore [...] Read more.
Continuous climate change has become one of the challenges faced by the world, drawing much attention from governments. The forest industry is the main focus of strategic initiatives to realize a circular and green economy and achieve low emissions. In order to explore the relationship between forest resource endowment and green economic growth, this study represents the first attempt to verify how forest resource endowment affects green economic growth (GEG), with a theoretical analysis and an explanation of the effects of both. The following results were obtained: (1) The GEG of the lagging period can improve the GEG of the current period in all regions, which verifies the sustainability of GEG in China. (2) The regression coefficient of forest resource endowment is a negative primary term (except for the eastern region) and a positive quadratic term, indicating that there is a U-shaped nonlinear relationship between forest resource endowment and GEG in the national, central, and western regions. (3) Forest resource endowments inhibit green economic growth by crowding out human capital from high-tech industries and through such effects as “Dutch disease”. The elasticity coefficient of the eastern region is positive but insignificant, while the forest resource inhibition effect is larger in the central and western regions, but the elasticity coefficient is significantly lower for the central region than the western region. (4) Human capital significantly contributes to GEG in the east and has a negative effect on GEG in the nation and the central and western regions. A possible reason for this is that there are more highly qualified people in the east than in the central and western regions; environmental regulation inhibits GEG in the nation and the east and has a negative but insignificant effect on GEG in the central and western regions, whereas green finance can promote GEG in all regions, and its promotion effect is highest in the east and lowest in the west, where it does not pass the significance test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
27 pages, 10723 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Cultivated Land Use Eco-Efficiency and Its Dynamic Relationship with Landscape Pattern Change from the Perspective of Carbon Effect: A Case Study of Henan, China
by Qi Liu, Jiajun Qiao, Dong Han, Mengjuan Li and Liangxiao Shi
Agriculture 2023, 13(7), 1350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture13071350 - 4 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Cultivated land is a vital factor in agricultural production but faces multiple challenges, including declining total area, spatial transformation, and ecological degradation. It is imperative to enhance cultivated land use eco-efficiency (CLUE). This study aimed to evaluate the CLUE that considers both carbon [...] Read more.
Cultivated land is a vital factor in agricultural production but faces multiple challenges, including declining total area, spatial transformation, and ecological degradation. It is imperative to enhance cultivated land use eco-efficiency (CLUE). This study aimed to evaluate the CLUE that considers both carbon sequestration and emissions using the SBM model at the county level. Next, spatial autocorrelation was employed to measure CLUE’s spatial correlation. The spatial agglomeration pattern of CLUE was determined, then time-series cluster analysis was used to identify the temporal evolution patterns of CLUE in various districts and counties. Furthermore, we explored the spatiotemporal dynamic relationship between CLUE and landscape pattern changes using landscape pattern index and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR), considering spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and using interaction detectors to identify the interaction between landscape pattern factors on CLUE. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, CLUE in Henan Province varied between 0.50 and 0.70 in most years, indicating potential for improvement. There are four primary temporal evolution patterns: 26 Late-development, 22 Wave-rising, 27 Fluctuation-rising, and 29 Continuous-rising types of CLUE. (2) CLUE exhibits low values in the middle and eastern regions, i.e., areas with high values are concentrated in the southern districts, counties, and western and northern regions. CLUE has a significant positive spatial correlation with HH agglomeration areas mainly concentrated in Xinyang City, and LL agglomeration areas mainly located in the eastern and central regions. (3) Overall, different landscape factors exhibit varying degrees of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in their impact on CLUE. The total area and aggregation of cultivated land have a positive effect on CLUE, with the area of the positive influence of the total area gradually expanding over time and the aggregation gradually decreasing. The complexity of cultivated land shape has a negative effect. The impact of cultivated land patch density is two-sided, with the area of negative influence gradually expanding over time. (4) The interaction between the total area, shape, and aggregation of cultivated land is enhanced. Additionally, the interaction between cultivated land patch density and other factors has changed from a weakening to a strengthening one, and the “double-edged sword” effect has gradually shifted into a one-way effect. Therefore, in the process of land consolidation, it is recommended to prioritize regularized, larger, and more concentrated cropland patches whenever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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20 pages, 2592 KiB  
Article
Nuclear Power Plant to Support Indonesia’s Net Zero Emissions: A Case Study of Small Modular Reactor Technology Selection Using Technology Readiness Level and Levelized Cost of Electricity Comparing Method
by Mujammil Asdhiyoga Rahmanta, Andang Widi Harto, Alexander Agung and Mohammad Kholid Ridwan
Energies 2023, 16(9), 3752; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16093752 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2837
Abstract
Most power plants, particularly those that burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, create CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. By 2060, the Indonesian government has committed to reach net zero emissions. With the lowest CO [...] Read more.
Most power plants, particularly those that burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, create CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. By 2060, the Indonesian government has committed to reach net zero emissions. With the lowest CO2 emissions, nuclear power plants are dependable sources of energy. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a particular kind of nuclear power plant that has the potential to be Indonesia’s first commercial nuclear power plant because of their small size, low capacity, uncomplicated design, and modular characteristics. The purpose of this study is to examine the economics and technological feasibility of SMRs. In this analysis, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) comparative method and the technology readiness level (TRL) approach are both applied. The SMRs with a minimum TRL value of 7 were CAREM-25 (TRL7), KLT-40S (TRL8), and HTR-PM (TRL 8), according to the results of this research. Although CAREM-25 and KLT-40S are still in the demonstration stage and have not yet entered the market, their LCOE estimates are greater than 0.07 USD/kWh with a 5% discount rate. Whereas CAREM 100 MW is an economy scale from CAREM-25 and VBER 300 MW is a commercial size from KLT-40S, HTR-PM is already an economy scale. With discount rates between 5% and 10%, the LCOE values of HTR-PM, CAREM 100 MW, and VBER 300 MW range from 0.06 USD to 0.12 USD per kWh. Other than hydropower and coal-fired power plants, these LCOE figures can compete with the local LCOE in Indonesia and the LCOE of a variety of other types of power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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28 pages, 3572 KiB  
Review
Recovering, Stabilizing, and Reusing Nitrogen and Carbon from Nutrient-Containing Liquid Waste as Ammonium Carbonate Fertilizer
by Mariana Brondi, Mohamed Eisa, Ricardo Bortoletto-Santos, Donata Drapanauskaite, Tara Reddington, Clinton Williams, Caue Ribeiro and Jonas Baltrusaitis
Agriculture 2023, 13(4), 909; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture13040909 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5355
Abstract
Ammonium carbonates are a group of fertilizer materials that include ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate hydrate, and ammonium carbamate. They can be synthesized from diverse nutrient-bearing liquid waste streams but are unstable in a moist environment. While extensively utilized several decades ago, their use [...] Read more.
Ammonium carbonates are a group of fertilizer materials that include ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate hydrate, and ammonium carbamate. They can be synthesized from diverse nutrient-bearing liquid waste streams but are unstable in a moist environment. While extensively utilized several decades ago, their use gradually decreased in favor of large-scale, facility-synthesized urea fertilizers. The emergence of sustainable agriculture, however, necessitates the recovery and reuse of nutrients using conventional feedstocks, such as natural gas and air-derived nitrogen, and nutrient-containing biogenic waste streams. To this extent, anaerobic digestion liquid presents a convenient source of solid nitrogen and carbon to produce solid fertilizers, since no significant chemical transformations are needed as nitrogen is already present as an ammonium ion. This review describes detailed examples of such feedstocks and the methods required to concentrate and crystallize solid ammonium carbonates. The technologies currently proposed or utilized to stabilize ammonium carbonate materials in the environment are described in detail. Finally, the agricultural efficiency of these materials as nitrogen and carbon source is also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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21 pages, 15746 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Features and Time-Lagged Effects of Drought on Terrestrial Ecosystem in Southwest China
by Pan Jiang, Yuxi Wang, Yang Yang, Xinchen Gu, Yi Huang, Lei Liu and Liang Liu
Forests 2023, 14(4), 781; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f14040781 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
With global warming, the increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts have severely affected the balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Although the immediate effects of drought on vegetation growth have been widely studied, the time-lagged effects have been neglected, particularly in ecologically fragile [...] Read more.
With global warming, the increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts have severely affected the balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Although the immediate effects of drought on vegetation growth have been widely studied, the time-lagged effects have been neglected, particularly in ecologically fragile karst areas. We examined the vegetation growth trends and abrupt changes in southwest China from 1990 to 2018 by reconstructing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); we then used the standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI) to explore the drought evolution characteristics and the time-lagged effect of drought on vegetation growth. The results showed that 97% of the study area exhibited a greening trend, which accelerated after 1995. Spring drought increased noticeably. We demonstrated that drought had a time-lagged effect on vegetation growth; 27.28% of the vegetation lands had a lag time of less than 3 months, and the mean lagged time in karst areas was shorter than that in non-karst areas. Compared to other vegetation types, the cultivated vegetation had weaker drought resistance, while the mixed-forest had stronger tolerance to drought. This study contributes to a further understanding of the drought–vegetation relationship and has important implications for optimizing vegetation conservation strategies in southwest China while coping with climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Low Carbon Economy and Sustainable Development)
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