Topic Editors

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43017, USA
Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Dr. Yingning Wang
Institute for Health and Aging, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA

Economics of Public Health: Assessment of Health Interventions

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
24064

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health interventions such as health policies and educational programs are powerful tools to improve public health by reducing health-compromising behaviors such as smoking (vaping among populations who would otherwise not use any nicotine or tobacco products), binge drinking, recreational cannabis use, and physical inactivity. However, there are evidence gaps on how best to design and implement health interventions. For emerging products that could benefit certain populations but pose threats to others, such as electronic cigarettes and cannabis, there is not sufficient evidence on how best to design interventions that balance the intended and unintended behavioral consequences. For policies that are known to effectively reduce health-compromising behaviors (e.g., tobacco and alcohol taxes, cessation services), implementation barriers remain, and innovative approaches are needed for different contexts. We believe that interdisciplinary research that connects or integrates intervention assessment, economic analysis, implementation sciences, and public health could address some of the important gaps, advance the field, and design interventions that are effective and cost-effective. Therefore, this Topic encourages submissions in the following key areas: 

  • Studies on interventions targeting emerging substances;
  • Studies on implementing interventions in low-resource settings (e.g., low- and middle- income countries);
  • Studies on assessing the costs and benefits of implementing an intervention (e.g., welfare analysis);
  • Studies on evaluating intended and unintended behavioral changes due to an intervention.

Dr. Ce Shang
Dr. Amanda J. Quisenberry
Dr. Yingning Wang
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • intervention
  • policy
  • program evaluation
  • health behaviors
  • economics of public health
  • health economics
  • substance use
  • physical inactivity
  • obesity
  • healthy lifestyle
  • cost–benefit analysis
  • population health
  • implementation science
  • behavioral experiments
  • conjoint analysis

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Behavioral Sciences
behavsci
2.6 2.6 2011 21.5 Days CHF 2200 Submit
Children
children
2.4 2.7 2014 13.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 3.5 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 7.3 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500 Submit
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.2 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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21 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
Does School Health Promotion Have Additional Value for Educational Performance? A Repeated Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study
by Lisanne Vonk, Iris Eekhout, Tim Huijts, Mark Levels and Maria Jansen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2024, 21(6), 767; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph21060767 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Little information is available regarding the influence of the interplay between the school context and school health promotion on educational performance. Therefore, we examined whether the variation between primary and secondary schools regarding the educational performance of students could be explained by general [...] Read more.
Little information is available regarding the influence of the interplay between the school context and school health promotion on educational performance. Therefore, we examined whether the variation between primary and secondary schools regarding the educational performance of students could be explained by general school characteristics, school population characteristics, and school health promotion and to what extent these factors interact. We performed multilevel analyses using existing data on 7021 primary schools and 1315 secondary schools in the Netherlands from the school years 2010–2011 till 2018–2019. Our outcomes were the final test score from primary education and the average grade of standardized final exams from secondary education. School health promotion was operationalized as having obtained Healthy School (HS) certification. For the test score, 7.17% of the total variation was accounted for by differences at the school level and 4.02% for the average grade. For both outcomes, the percentage of disadvantaged students in a school explained most variation. HS certification did not explain variation, but moderated some associations. We found small to moderate differences between schools regarding educational performance. Compositional differences of school populations, especially socioeconomic status, seemed more important in explaining variation in educational performance than general school characteristics and HS certification. Some associations were moderated by HS certification, but differences remained small in most cases. Full article
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16 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Overcoming Barriers in Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment (HB-HTA): International Expert Panel Consensus
by Iga Lipska, Rossella Di Bidino, Maciej Niewada, Bertalan Nemeth, Tomasz Bochenek, Monika Kukla, Barbara Więckowska, Alicja Sobczak, Katarzyna Iłowiecka, Antal Zemplenyi, Nicolas Martelli, Tess Martin, Olena Filiniuk, Kostyantyn Kosyachenko, Rabia Sucu, Oresta Piniazhko, Olha Zaliska, Andrey Avdeyev, Nasrulla Shanazarov, Marina von Pinoci and Rok Hrenadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Healthcare 2024, 12(9), 889; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12090889 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to investigate the common facilitators and barriers associated with the implementation of hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) across diverse hospital settings in seven countries. Through a two-round Delphi study, insights were gathered from a panel of 15 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the common facilitators and barriers associated with the implementation of hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) across diverse hospital settings in seven countries. Through a two-round Delphi study, insights were gathered from a panel of 15 HTA specialists from France, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Experts initially conducted a comprehensive review of the HB-HTA implementation in their respective countries, identifying the barriers and facilitators through descriptive analysis. Subsequently, panel experts ranked these identified barriers and facilitators on a seven-point Likert scale. A median agreement score ≥ 6 and interquartile range (IQR) ≤ 1 was accepted as reaching a consensus. Out of the 12 statements categorized as external and internal barriers and facilitators, the expert panel reached consensus on six statements (two barriers and four facilitators). The external barrier, which achieved consensus, was the lack of the formal recognition of the role of HB-HTA in national or regional legislations. The internal barrier reaching consensus was the limited availability of human resources dedicated to HB-HTA. This qualitative study indicates that HB-HTA still has progress to make before being formally accepted and integrated across most countries, although by building on the facilitating factors we identified there may be an opportunity for the implementation of internationally developed strategies to strengthen HB-HTA practices. Full article
13 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
Economic Evaluation of the Thai Diagnostic Autism Scale for Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in Children Aged 1–5 Years Old
by Duangkamol Tangviriyapaiboon, Unchalee Permsuwan, Chosita Pavasuthipaisit, Athithan Sriminipun and Piyameth Dilokthornsakul
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12070782 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
The Thai Diagnostic Autism Scale (TDAS) was developed for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years. Previous studies have indicated its good performance; however, additional health resources and healthcare providers are necessary for evaluation. Therefore, this study aimed to [...] Read more.
The Thai Diagnostic Autism Scale (TDAS) was developed for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years. Previous studies have indicated its good performance; however, additional health resources and healthcare providers are necessary for evaluation. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of TDAS compared to clinical diagnosis (ClinDx) for ASD diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years from a societal perspective. The analysis employed a hybrid model consisting of a decision tree model for a diagnostic phase with a state transition model for a follow-up phase. A literature review was conducted to determine TDAS performance and the relative risk of death in patients with ASD. Direct medical costs were assessed through a retrospective medical records review, and a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine direct nonmedical costs, ASD severities, and utility values. The cost of TDAS was derived from a healthcare provider interview (n = 10). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) compared the total lifetime cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between TDAS and ClinDx. We found that TDAS could improve QALY by 1.96 but increased total lifetime cost by 5577 USD, resulting in an ICER of 2852 USD/QALY. Sensitivity analysis indicated an 81.16% chance that TDAS is cost-effective. The probabilities of different ASD severities were key influencing factors of the findings. In conclusion, TDAS is the cost-effective option for ASD diagnosis in Thai children aged 1–5 years compared to ClinDx, despite some uncertainties around inputs. Further monitoring and evaluation are warranted if TDAS is to be implemented nationwide. Full article
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14 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Health Economic Evaluation of a Controlled Lifestyle Intervention: The Healthy Lifestyle Community Program (Cohort 2; HLCP-2)
by Ragna-Marie Kranz, Carmen Kettler, Christian Koeder, Sarah Husain, Corinna Anand, Nora Schoch and Heike Englert
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5045; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu15245045 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are associated with high costs for healthcare systems. We evaluated changes in total costs, comprising direct and indirect costs, due to a 24-month non-randomized, controlled lifestyle intervention trial with six measurement time points aiming to improve the risk profile for [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are associated with high costs for healthcare systems. We evaluated changes in total costs, comprising direct and indirect costs, due to a 24-month non-randomized, controlled lifestyle intervention trial with six measurement time points aiming to improve the risk profile for NCDs. Overall, 187 individuals from the general population aged ≥18 years were assigned to either the intervention group (IG; n = 112), receiving a 10-week intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on a healthy, plant-based diet; physical activity; stress management; and community support, followed by a 22-month follow-up phase including monthly seminars, or a control group (CG; n = 75) without intervention. The complete data sets of 118 participants (IG: n = 79; CG: n = 39) were analyzed. At baseline, total costs per person amounted to 67.80 ± 69.17 EUR in the IG and 48.73 ± 54.41 EUR in the CG per week. The reduction in total costs was significantly greater in the IG compared to the CG after 10 weeks (p = 0.012) and 6 months (p = 0.004), whereas direct costs differed significantly after 10 weeks (p = 0.017), 6 months (p = 0.041) and 12 months (p = 0.012) between the groups. The HLCP-2 was able to reduce health-related economic costs, primarily due to the reduction in direct costs. Full article
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10 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
A Sense of Scarcity Enhances the Above-Average Effect in Social Comparison
by Xiaoyan Wang and Lan Jiao
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 826; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs13100826 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Scarcity refers to a state in which an individual’s resources do not satisfy his/her needs. A sense of scarcity evokes negative emotions. A fundamental strategy for coping with this negative threat is for people to emphasize the desirability of their personal traits. In [...] Read more.
Scarcity refers to a state in which an individual’s resources do not satisfy his/her needs. A sense of scarcity evokes negative emotions. A fundamental strategy for coping with this negative threat is for people to emphasize the desirability of their personal traits. In this study, a 2 (sense of scarcity: high or low) × 2 (valence: positive or negative) mixed-design experiment was conducted to examine whether and how a sense of scarcity affected one’s self-evaluation. Participants were assigned randomly to a high- or low-scarcity group. The chances of assistance rendered to an individual during a word puzzle task were manipulated to induce a high or low sense of scarcity. Then, participants were asked to make positive and negative trait judgments of themselves compared with their average peers. The results showed that people judged their personalities to be more desirable (i.e., more positive and less negative traits) than their average peers, manifesting the above-average effect. More importantly, people with a high sense of scarcity manifested a greater above-average effect than those with a low sense of scarcity. This study suggests that people could highlight their positive aspects to cope with predicaments in social life. Full article
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14 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Study of the Benefits and Utility of Brief Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men
by Matshidiso A. Malefo, Olalekan A. Ayo-Yusuf and Mathildah Mpata Mokgatle
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs13080654 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in reducing sexual risk behaviors. However, limited information is available on the acceptability of brief MI among men who have sex with men (MSM) in poor resource settings like sub-Saharan Africa. The objective [...] Read more.
Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in reducing sexual risk behaviors. However, limited information is available on the acceptability of brief MI among men who have sex with men (MSM) in poor resource settings like sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the views of MSM about the benefits and utility of brief MI (bMI) in changing their risky behavior. A qualitative study among men who have sex with men (MSM) who were enrolled in a longitudinal observational study between December 2021 and May 2023. The setting was in Tshwane North and participants were scheduled for baseline, 6-month, and 12-month visits. All participants received 20 min one-on-one face-to-face brief motivational interview (bMI) sessions during their follow-up visits. At month 12, an exit interview was conducted with consenting conveniently sampled participants (n = 23) who had completed all scheduled visits and received three bMI sessions. The findings indicated that the most recalled conversation was related to multiple sexual partners, having sex under the influence of alcohol, and MSM learned more about sexually transmitted diseases. Many expressed being comfortable with the sessions because the counselor was respectful and non-judgmental. Most found the bMI sessions to have a positive impact on changing and reducing risky sexual behaviors, particularly it reportedly increased their use of condoms and reduced the number of multiple partners. MSM found the bMI to be useful and acceptable in reducing sexual risk behaviors among MSM. Full article
13 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Economic Evaluation of Anesthesiology-Led Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Service
by Ahmed Zaky, Ryan L. Melvin, David Benz, James Davies, Vardas Panayotis, William Maddox, Ruchit Shah, Tom Lynch, Adam Beck, Kristine Hearld, Tom McElderry and Miriam Treggiari
Healthcare 2023, 11(13), 1864; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11131864 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Background: Implementation of an anesthesiology-led cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) service can be viewed to have economic and efficiency challenges. This study evaluates the cost savings of an anesthesiology-led CIED service. Methods: A total of 830 patients presented in the pre-implementation period from [...] Read more.
Background: Implementation of an anesthesiology-led cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) service can be viewed to have economic and efficiency challenges. This study evaluates the cost savings of an anesthesiology-led CIED service. Methods: A total of 830 patients presented in the pre-implementation period from 1 March 2016 to 31 December 2017, and 1981 patients presented in the post-implementation period from 1 January 2018 to 31 October 2021. Interrupted time-series analysis for single-group comparisons was used to evaluate the cost savings resulting from reduction in operating room (OR) start delays for patients with CIEDs. Results: OR start-time delay was reduced by 10.6 min (95%CI: −20.5 to −0.83), comparing pre- to post-implementation. For an OR cost of USD 45/min, we estimated the direct cost to the department to be USD 1.68/min. The intervention translated into a total cost reduction during the intervention period of USD 250,000 (USD 18,000 to USD 470,000) per year for the institution and USD 9800 (USD 730 to USD 17,000) per year for the department. The yearly cost of employing a full-time team of CIED specialists would have been USD 135,456. The service triggered electrophysiology consultation on 13 device malfunctions. Conclusions: An anesthesiology-led CIED service resulted in substantial cost savings, increased OR efficiency and patient safety. Full article
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26 pages, 848 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Health Education, Health Behaviors, and Health Status among Migrants in China: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on the China Migrant Dynamic Survey
by Minji Kim and Hai Gu
Healthcare 2023, 11(12), 1768; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11121768 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Managing the health of migrants has become a crucial aspect of promoting social harmony and cohesion in China. This study investigates the impact of public health education on the health status of migrants in China using cross-sectional data from the China Migrants Dynamic [...] Read more.
Managing the health of migrants has become a crucial aspect of promoting social harmony and cohesion in China. This study investigates the impact of public health education on the health status of migrants in China using cross-sectional data from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey 2017. A total of 169,989 migrants in China were selected as samples for empirical test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and the structural equation model. The findings show that health education significantly influences the health status of migrants in China. Specifically, health education related to occupational diseases, venereal diseases/AIDS, and self-rescue in public emergencies had a significant positive impact on migrants’ health, while health education regarding chronic diseases had a significant negative impact. Health education delivered through lectures and bulletin boards had a significant positive impact on migrants’ health, but online education had a significant negative effect on the health status of migrants. The effects of health education differ by gender and age, with a stronger positive impact on female migrants and elderly migrants aged 60 and above. The mediating effect of health behaviors was significant only in the total effect. In conclusion, health education can effectively enhance the health status of migrants in China by modifying their health behaviors. Full article
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13 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Repeated Attachment Security Priming on Social Anxiety and Attention Bias: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Shuang Zhang, Yanqiang Tao, Yunxiang Chen, Peng Zhang and Xiangping Liu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs13050420 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Background: Although the clinical utility of attachment security priming has been suggested in recent years, the effect of attachment security priming on social anxiety and its core symptoms (i.e., attention bias) remains unspecified. Therefore, the present study explored the potential effectiveness of repeated [...] Read more.
Background: Although the clinical utility of attachment security priming has been suggested in recent years, the effect of attachment security priming on social anxiety and its core symptoms (i.e., attention bias) remains unspecified. Therefore, the present study explored the potential effectiveness of repeated attachment security priming in alleviating social anxiety and attention bias among Chinese college students. Methods: Fifty-six college students with high social anxiety were randomly assigned to the attachment security priming group (n = 30) or control group (n = 26). The priming group completed seven attachment security priming sessions over 2 weeks (every 2 days), and the control group was assigned to a waitlist for 2 weeks. Results: The results revealed that individuals in the priming group reported less social anxiety after 2 weeks of security attachment priming, and those in the control group did not change significantly. The results also showed that there was no significant change in the attention bias of individuals with social anxiety before and after the intervention. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that attachment security priming is a promising alternative intervention option for social anxiety. The potential clinical implications of security attachment priming are discussed. Full article
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14 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Fangcang Shelter Hospitals under Resource Constraints on the Spread of Epidemics
by Guangyu Li, Haifeng Du, Jiarui Fan, Xiaochen He and Wenhua Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(10), 5802; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph20105802 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Fangcang shelter hospitals have been built and operated in several cities, and have played a huge role in epidemic prevention and control. How to use medical resources effectively in order to maximize epidemic prevention and control [...] Read more.
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Fangcang shelter hospitals have been built and operated in several cities, and have played a huge role in epidemic prevention and control. How to use medical resources effectively in order to maximize epidemic prevention and control is a big challenge that the government should address. In this paper, a two-stage infectious disease model was developed to analyze the role of Fangcang shelter hospitals in epidemic prevention and control, and examine the impact of medical resources allocation on epidemic prevention and control. Our model suggested that the Fangcang shelter hospital could effectively control the rapid spread of the epidemic, and for a very large city with a population of about 10 million and a relative shortage of medical resources, the model predicted that the final number of confirmed cases could be only 3.4% of the total population in the best case scenario. The paper further discusses the optimal solutions regarding medical resource allocation when medical resources are either limited or abundant. The results show that the optimal allocation ratio of resources between designated hospitals and Fangcang shelter hospitals varies with the amount of additional resources. When resources are relatively sufficient, the upper limit of the proportion of makeshift hospitals is about 91%, while the lower limit decreases with the increase in resources. Meanwhile, there is a negative correlation between the intensity of medical work and the proportion of distribution. Our work deepens our understanding of the role of Fangcang shelter hospitals in the pandemic and provides a reference for feasible strategies by which to contain the pandemic. Full article
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21 pages, 3870 KiB  
Article
Environmental Governance, Public Health Expenditure, and Economic Growth: Analysis in an OLG Model
by Zhao Zhang, Caoyuan Ma and Aiping Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3033; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph20043033 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
This article studies the relationship between environmental governance, public health expenditure, and economic growth by introducing human health status into a three-period overlapping generation dynamic general equilibrium (OLG-DGE) model and conducting a policy simulation analysis in a Chinese scenario. The main findings are [...] Read more.
This article studies the relationship between environmental governance, public health expenditure, and economic growth by introducing human health status into a three-period overlapping generation dynamic general equilibrium (OLG-DGE) model and conducting a policy simulation analysis in a Chinese scenario. The main findings are generalized as follows: (i) The increase in pollution emissions per unit of output will not only lead to the deterioration of public health but also hinder long-term economic growth, while the efficiency of pollution control will improve health and output per labor unit; (ii) Although levying environmental tax will improve health status and life expectancy, it has a non-linear impact on pollution emissions and output per labor unit, which means that there are trade-offs among environmental governance, public health improvement, and economic output; and (iii) Although the increase in the proportion of public health expenditure will improve health status, its impact on life expectancy and economic output is affected by the level of environmental tax. Only when the environmental tax rate is relatively low, will increasing the proportion of public health expenditure extend life expectancy and output per labor unit. Full article
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19 pages, 3188 KiB  
Article
Healthcare Systems across Europe and the US: The Managed Entry Agreements Experience
by Michele Ciulla, Lisa Marinelli, Giuseppe Di Biase, Ivana Cacciatore, Fiorenzo Santoleri, Alberto Costantini, Marilisa Pia Dimmito and Antonio Di Stefano
Healthcare 2023, 11(3), 447; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11030447 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3897
Abstract
This systematic study aims at analyzing the differences between the approach of the European healthcare systems to the pharmaceutical market and the American one. This paper highlights the opportunities and the limitations given by the application of managed entry agreements (MEAs) in European [...] Read more.
This systematic study aims at analyzing the differences between the approach of the European healthcare systems to the pharmaceutical market and the American one. This paper highlights the opportunities and the limitations given by the application of managed entry agreements (MEAs) in European countries as opposed to the American market, which does not regulate pharmaceutical prices. Data were collected from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the European Medicines Agency, and the national healthcare agencies of US and European countries. A literature review was undertaken in PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Google for a period ten years (2010–2019). The period 2020–2021 was considered to compare health expenditure before and after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Scarce information from national agencies has been given in terms of MEAs related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The comparison between the United States approach and the European one shows the importance of a market access regulation to reduce the cost of therapies, increasing the efficiency of national healthcare systems and the advantages in terms of quality and accessibility to the final users: patients. Nevertheless, it seems that the golden age of MEAs for Europe was during the examined period. Except for Italy, countries will move to other forms of reimbursements to obtain higher benefits, reducing the costs of an inefficient implementation and outcomes in the medium term. Full article
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20 pages, 1570 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Mental Health Interventions Delivered by Frontline Health Care Workers in Emergency Health Services: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Min Peng, Tao Xiao, Ben Carter, Pan Chen and James Shearer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15847; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph192315847 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
This systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mental health interventions delivered by frontline health care workers in disasters and public health emergencies. Six databases and trial registries were searched, and manual searches were conducted. Of the 221 studies identified, [...] Read more.
This systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mental health interventions delivered by frontline health care workers in disasters and public health emergencies. Six databases and trial registries were searched, and manual searches were conducted. Of the 221 studies identified, 21 were included. Meta-analyses assessed differences between the intervention and control in terms of PTSD outcomes. Eleven studies of 1802 participants were incorporated in the meta-analysis. Interventions delivered or prompted by specialist health care workers showed significant and large effects in improving PTSD-related symptoms with a SMD = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.42–1.57, p = 0.0007). Interventions delivered or prompted by frontline non-specialist health care workers showed significant but small effects in improving PTSD-related symptoms with SMD of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11–0.39; p = 0.0007). The results showed that most mental health interventions delivered by frontline health care workers effectively supported affected people. Mental health interventions delivered by mental health care professionals are effective in reducing PTSD-related disorders in natural disasters. Future adequately powered RCTs are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of mental health interventions delivered by trained non-specialists. Economic modelling may be useful to estimate cost effectiveness in low- and middle-income countries given the difficulties of conducting studies in disaster and emergency settings. Full article
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13 pages, 4426 KiB  
Article
Exploring Dental Health and Its Economic Determinants in Romanian Regions
by Andor Toni Cigu and Elena Cigu
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 2030; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare10102030 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Sustainable dental health is reflected in the high quality of the medical act and the high quality of the medical service, which cannot be achieved without considering the existing social context, especially the economic development of a state, where certain economic variables can [...] Read more.
Sustainable dental health is reflected in the high quality of the medical act and the high quality of the medical service, which cannot be achieved without considering the existing social context, especially the economic development of a state, where certain economic variables can become real levers of influence. The goal of this paper is twofold—theoretical and empirical. Firstly, at the theoretical level, we provide the context and the development of the health legal framework and the state of the Oral Health System and the provision of dental medical services in the eight Romanian Regions of Development. The second aim is to evaluate the relationship between dental health and well-being for the case of regions of Romania over the period 2001–2015. To review the dental health care in Romania, we will use descriptive analysis as the methodology, and to explore the relationship between dental health and economic determinants, we will use an econometric model, the OLS model. Our working hypothesis is that dental health care is influenced by the economic variables in a country. The results show a positive and significant relationship between dental health care and the most important indicator of well-being, the level of income. Of course, an important role is played by the complexity of education, expressed by research and development, which determines a significant positive relationship with dental health in the development regions of Romania. Full article
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