New Frontiers and Boundaries in the Use of Biomaterials in Dentistry

Dear Colleagues,

It is a pleasure to invite you to submit manuscripts to the forthcoming Topic “New Frontiers and Boundaries in the Use of Biomaterials in Dentistry”.

Biomaterials play an important role in modern dentistry and, among them, implantology has led to a paradigm shift that has decisively influenced dental therapy and broadened the fields of dental research. However, the placement of implants requires the presence of a sufficient amount of alveolar bone. When the bone volume is not adequate, regenerative procedures are needed, which are performed using different techniques and mostly include the use of biomaterials. Among them, autogenous or heterologous bone and a large variety of synthetic or animal-derived biomaterials have been used. These biomaterials have been proposed in different conformations, such as granules, gel, blocks, membrane, novel structures, and 3D printing devices.

Unfortunately, the clinical results are not always optimal, and the research behind them is often inadequate for guiding the clinician in the correct use of the biomaterial.

This Topic aims to serve as a platform for the publication of papers detailing strong evidence in reporting on the characteristics of various biomaterials and their clinical use in dentistry.

In vitro, experimental, and clinical studies on the use of biomaterials of any type, including oral implants, may be suitable.

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Dr. Daniele Botticelli
Prof. Dr. Adriano Piattelli
Prof. Dr. Gabi Chaushu
Topic Editors

Deadline for abstract submissions: 10 April 2022.
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2022.

Topic Board

Dr. Daniele Botticelli
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Topic Editor-in-Chief
ARDEC Academy, Viale Giovanni Pascoli 67, 47923 Rimini, Italy
Interests: dentistry; implantology; prosthodontics; bone volume augmentation
Prof. Dr. Gabi Chaushu
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor-in-Chief
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva 49100, Israel
Interests: oral surgery; minimally invasive surgery; postoperative morbidity; dental implants; bone substitutes; block graft; bone graft
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Keywords

  • allograft
  • biomaterial
  • bone regeneration
  • bone substitute
  • tissue engineering
  • xenograft

Relevant Journals List

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Materials
materials
3.623 4.2 2008 16.47 Days 2300 CHF Submit
Dentistry Journal
dentistry
- 2.2 2013 21.81 Days 1600 CHF Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
4.242 - 2012 20.36 Days 2400 CHF Submit
Journal of Functional Biomaterials
jfb
- 7.3 2010 18.04 Days 1600 CHF Submit

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Systematic Review
Physico-Chemical Properties of Calcium-Silicate vs. Resin Based Sealers—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Laboratory-Based Studies
Materials 2022, 15(1), 229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15010229 - 29 Dec 2021
Abstract
Introduction: The aim of this systematic review is to analyse the effect of physico-chemical properties of calcium silicate-based sealers in comparison to epoxy resin sealers in permanent teeth using a single-cone obturation technique. Methods: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of [...] Read more.
Introduction: The aim of this systematic review is to analyse the effect of physico-chemical properties of calcium silicate-based sealers in comparison to epoxy resin sealers in permanent teeth using a single-cone obturation technique. Methods: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Literature search was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, DOAJ, Open Gray with no language restrictions until October 2020. Two reviewers assessed the studies for eligibility. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) was carried out to assess the evidence. Meta-analysis of the pooled data with subgroups was performed using the RevMan software (p < 0.05). Results: Results from the 28 included studies showed that the mean difference in adaptation to root canal walls (marginal adaptation, interfacial gaps and void volume) for both sealers were non-significant. However, void volume values showed a significant mean difference (p < 0.00001) favouring the calcium silicate-based sealers. The pooled meta-analysis reported statistically significant differences for apical microleakage (p = 0.0007) whilst there were non-significant mean differences for fracture resistance (p = 0.09) and push-out bond strength (p = 0.63). The heterogeneity among the included studies was 97% (I2). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this review, calcium silicate-based sealers demonstrated a similar or superior performance in comparison to resin-based sealers in terms of the physico-chemical properties. Full article
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Article
Effect of Topical PTH 1-34 Functionalized to Biogran® in the Process of Alveolar Repair in Rats Submitted to Orchiectomy
Materials 2022, 15(1), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15010207 - 28 Dec 2021
Abstract
(1) Background: There are many therapies for osteoporosis control and bone maintenance; anabolic drugs such as teriparatide and bone grafts help in the repair process and stimulate bone formation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavior of repaired [...] Read more.
(1) Background: There are many therapies for osteoporosis control and bone maintenance; anabolic drugs such as teriparatide and bone grafts help in the repair process and stimulate bone formation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavior of repaired bone in the presence of PTH (teriparatide) associated with Biogran® (biomaterial) through a sonochemical procedure after extraction in rats. (2) Methods: The insertion of Biogran® with PTH in the alveolus was performed 30 days after incisor extraction. Euthanasia occurred after 60 days. (3) Results: The use of local treatment of PTH loaded with Biogran® in healthy rats promoted good results for micro-CT, with an increase in percentage and bone volume, number and trabecular separation and less total porosity. Greater immunostaining for Wnt, β-Catenin and osteocalcin proteins and lower expression for Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein (TRAP), which shows an increase in the number of osteoblasts and inhibition of osteoclast action. However, the treated orchiectomized groups did not obtain such expressive results. (4) Conclusion: The use of Biogran® with PTH improved alveolar repair in rats. However, new researches with more efficient doses must be studied to collaborate effectively with the formation of a quality bone after the orchiectomy. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Silane Heat Treatment by Laser and Various Surface Treatments on Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Resin/Lithium Disilicate
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7808; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14247808 - 16 Dec 2021
Abstract
In the current study, we evaluated the effects of heat treatment (by Er:YAG or furnace) and various surface treatments on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of silanized lithium disilicate ceramic. Seventy lithium disilicate (IPS e. max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) and composite resin (Tetric [...] Read more.
In the current study, we evaluated the effects of heat treatment (by Er:YAG or furnace) and various surface treatments on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of silanized lithium disilicate ceramic. Seventy lithium disilicate (IPS e. max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) and composite resin (Tetric N-Ceram; Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were made and distributed into seven groups (n = 10) at random: S: silanization alone; ALS: airborne particle abrasion (APA) and silanization; SC: APA modified with silica and silanization; SHT1: silanization and heat treatment by Er:YAG; SHT2: silanization and heat treatment performed in the furnace (100 °C, 1 min); HF: etching with HF; and HFS: etching with HF and silanization. Every ceramic specimen was cemented to a composite resin block after surface treatment. Cemented specimens were embedded into acrylic resin and were tested with the μTBS test. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane T2 tests (α = 0.05). The SHT1 group had the highest bond of strength compared to the other groups (27.46 MPa). The ALS group had the lowest strength of the groups (15.56 MPa). Between SHT2 and HFS (p = 1), the comparison of the mean µTBS values showed no significant differences. It was concluded that silane heat treatment increased the resin composite–ceramic bond strength; however, within the terms of μTBS, the Er:YAG laser treatment was more successful than other surface treatment applications. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Newly Introduced Bioactive Materials in Terms of Cavity Floor Adaptation: OCT Study
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14247668 - 12 Dec 2021
Abstract
Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adaptation of newly introduced bioactive restorative materials to the cavity floor using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and Methods. Round class V cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of sixty [...] Read more.
Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adaptation of newly introduced bioactive restorative materials to the cavity floor using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT). Materials and Methods. Round class V cavities were prepared on the proximal surfaces of sixty non-carious human anterior teeth (0.5 mm depth × 4 mm diameter), which were divided into groups according to the restorative material (n = 15). In the VF group, Vertise flow composite (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) was used, in the BF group, Beautifil II composite (Shofu, Koyoto, Japan) was used, and in the AB group, ACTIVA BioACTIVE composite (Pulpdent, Watertown, NY, USA) was used. Cavities were restored using the bulk filling technique and cured according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Then, the specimens were immersed in a contrasting agent, and image acquisitions were taken by CP-OCT to calculate the adaptation percentage by using an image analysis software. Results. B-scans showed a diffuse bright band of white pixels at the tooth-resin interface that was interpreted as a micro-gap present between the cavity floor and restorative material. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a statistically significant difference between all tested groups with the AB group representing the least gap formation, followed by the BF group, and then the VF group, which demonstrated the highest gap formation. Conclusions. In class V cavities, better adaptation to the cavity floor can be obtained when using ACTIVA BioACTIVE more than Vertise flow and Beautifil II composites. In addition, CP-OCT is considered a non-destructive imaging tool that helps in evaluating the quality of the tooth-restoration interface when bioactive composites are used. Full article
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Article
Effect of Two Brands of Glaze Material on the Flexural Strength and Probability of Failure of High Translucent Monolithic Zirconia
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7022; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14227022 - 19 Nov 2021
Abstract
(1) Background: The effect of glazing on the mechanical properties of monolithic high translucent zirconia is not well reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glazing on the flexural strength of high translucent zirconia; (2) Methods: Ninety [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The effect of glazing on the mechanical properties of monolithic high translucent zirconia is not well reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glazing on the flexural strength of high translucent zirconia; (2) Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared from second-generation 3Y-TZP high translucent blocks and divided into three groups. Glaze materials were applied on one surface of the specimen and subjected to a four-point bending test and flexural stress and flexural displacement values were derived. Descriptive fractographic analysis of surfaces was conducted to observe the point of failure and fracture pattern.; (3) Results: Control-nonglazed (647.17, 1σ = 74.71 MPa) presented higher flexural strength values compared to glaze I (541.20, 1σ = 82.91 MPa) and glaze II (581.10, 1σ = 59.41 MPa). Characteristic strength (σƟ) from Weibull analysis also observed higher (660.67 MPa) values for the control specimens. Confocal microscopy revealed that glazed surfaces were much rougher than control surfaces. Descriptive fractographic analysis revealed that there was no correlation between the point of failure initiation and flexural strength; (4) Conclusions: The test results demonstrated that glazing significantly decreased the flexural strength and flexural displacement of the zirconia specimens. Full article
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Article
Siloranes–Suitability of a Novel Adhesive for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding
Dent. J. 2021, 9(11), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9110135 - 17 Nov 2021
Abstract
Recently, an epoxy-based resin-Filtek Silorane-has been proposed for restorative fillings. It was the aim of the investigation to evaluate the suitability of this novel resin for orthodontic bracket bonding on unground enamel. Shear bond strength was measured for two adhesives-Filtek Silorane, Transbond XT-in [...] Read more.
Recently, an epoxy-based resin-Filtek Silorane-has been proposed for restorative fillings. It was the aim of the investigation to evaluate the suitability of this novel resin for orthodontic bracket bonding on unground enamel. Shear bond strength was measured for two adhesives-Filtek Silorane, Transbond XT-in combination with steel, ceramic and polymer brackets. For Filtek Silorane etching was performed with the Silorane self-etching primer, as well as phosphoric acid. The Transbond XT samples were etched with phosphoric acid only and served as the control group. All samples were thermo-cycled (1000×, 5–55 °C). Shear testing was carried out with an Instron 3344. In addition, ARI scores were evaluated. The Shear bond strength showed a weak adhesion of Filtek Silorane to unprepared enamel, either with the self-etching primer or the conventional etching (0.87–4.28 MPa). The Shear bond strength of the control group was significantly higher (7.6–16.5 MPa). The ARI scores showed a clear failure at the enamel-adhesive interface for all Filtek Silorane samples. For the combination of Transbond XT and different brackets the failure was found at the adhesive–bracket interface. The novel epoxy-based resin Filtek Silorane is not appropriate for bracket bonding to unprepared enamel. Full article
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Article
Push-Out Bond Strength of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement and Flowable Composite Luting Systems on Glass Fiber Post of Root Canal
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6908; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14226908 - 16 Nov 2021
Abstract
Background: Posts that have been properly fitted can withstand torsion forces and so provide better retention. The push-out bonding strength of glass fiber posts to the root canal was evaluated using resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and flowable composite (FC). Method: Forty single-rooted [...] Read more.
Background: Posts that have been properly fitted can withstand torsion forces and so provide better retention. The push-out bonding strength of glass fiber posts to the root canal was evaluated using resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and flowable composite (FC). Method: Forty single-rooted maxillary central incisors were used in the study. The samples were randomly divided into two groups of 20 teeth each. The crown-down procedure was used to clean and shape the pulp area. A Tenax fiber trans Coltene whaletene post was used by both groups. The first group utilized FC (Filtek Z 350 3M ESPE) to coat the post, whereas the second group used RMGIC (Rely X 3M ESPE). The specimens were cross-sectioned after 24 h. Specimens were cross-sectioned four millimeters thick into coronal and middle parts using a sectioning machine, yielding 40 specimens per group. The strength of the bond between the luting cement and the posts was measured using push-out bond strength testing. We loaded the components at a cross speed of 0.5 mm/min on a universal testing machine until the bond failed. Results: The FC group had a 4.80 N push-out bond strength, whereas the RMGIC group had a 7.11 N push-out bond strength. Conclusion: FC’s mean push-out bond strength score is lower than RMGIC’s. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Marginal/Internal Fit and Fracture Load of Monolithic Zirconia and Zirconia Lithium Silicate (ZLS) CAD/CAM Crown Systems
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14216346 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fit accuracy and fracture strength of milled monolithic zirconia (Zi) and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) crowns are important parameters determining the success of these restorations. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit of monolithic Zi and ZLS crowns, [...] Read more.
Fit accuracy and fracture strength of milled monolithic zirconia (Zi) and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) crowns are important parameters determining the success of these restorations. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit of monolithic Zi and ZLS crowns, along with the fracture load, with and without mechanical aging. Thirty-two stone dies acquired from a customized master metal molar die were scanned, and ceramic crowns (16 Zi Ceramill Zolid HT+ and 16 ZLS Vita Suprinity) were designed and milled. Absolute marginal discrepancies (AMD), marginal gaps (MG), and internal gaps (IG) of the crowns, in relation to the master metal die, were evaluated using x-ray nanotomography (n = 16). Next, thirty-two metal dies were fabricated based on the master metal die, and crowns (16 Zi; 16 ZLS) cemented and divided into four groups of eight each; eight Zi with mechanical aging (MA), eight Zi without mechanical aging (WMA), eight ZLS (MA), and eight ZLS (WMA). Two groups of crowns (Zi-MA; ZLS-MA) were subjected to 500,000 mechanical cycles (200 ± 50 N, 10 Hz) followed by axial compressive strength testing of all crowns, until failure, and the values were recorded. Independent sample t tests (α = 0.05) revealed no significant differences between Zi and ZLS crowns (p > 0.05); for both internal and marginal gaps, however, there were significant differences in AMD (p < 0.005). Independent samples Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests revealed significant differences between the two materials, Zi and ZLS, regardless of fatigue loading, and for the individual material groups based on aging (α = 0.05). Multiple comparisons using Bonferroni post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between Zi and ZLS material groups, with or without aging. Within the limitations of this study, the ZLS crown fit was found to be on par with Zi, except for the AMD parameter. As regards fracture resistance, both materials survived the normal range of masticatory forces, but the Zi crowns demonstrated greater resistance to fracture. The monolithic Zi and ZLS crowns seem suitable for clinical application, based on the fit and fracture strength values obtained. Full article
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