Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Giorgio Anfuso
Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
Prof. Dr. Celene B. Milanes
GeMarc and GESSA Research Groups.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla 080001, Colombia

From Coastal Engineering to Integrated Coastal Zone Management

Abstract submission deadline
closed (28 February 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleague,

We invite all researchers who wish to share research regarding models and infrastructures inside coastal engineering, as well as reflections on integrated coastal zone management, coastal uses, and conflicts due to different activities, to submit manuscripts by 30 November 2022. The Editors welcome manuscripts with confirmed data series and hypotheses. This is an opportunity for the scientific community, Ph.D. students, and young magister researchers to demonstrate the ability to act in a timely way to challenging scientific research, providing relevant contributions according to environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainable development in coastal and marine zones. This special edition is supported by the Cathedra Stephen Olsen and the Iberoamerican Network for Beach Management and Certification (www.proplayas.org).

We encourage authors to submit articles in the following main concern areas:

  • Infrastructures and models inside coastal engineering (study cases including good practices on coastal urbanism, building waterfront, typologies of the physical environment built on the beach front, hard infrastructures to stop coastal erosion, among others).
  • New methodologies for improving integrated coastal zone management.
  • Research on beach users’ typologies.
  • Beach users’ preferences and the most relevant factors to choose a beach destination, i.e., the "Big Five" (beach facilities, no litter, safety, scenery, and water quality).
  • Beach-carrying capacity.
  • Coastal water pollution and bathing characteristics.
  • Coastal landscape characterization and management.
  • Integrated river basin and coastal zone management.
  • Coastal sensitivity/vulnerability.
  • Coastal characterization and adaptation strategies.
  • Coastal migration index or coastal vulnerability index to face sea-level rise (indexes used by decision makers to face the current climate change scenario).
  • Research on coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, coastal lagoons and dunes.
  • Environmental sensitivity maps to limit the impacts of beach oiling. 

Prof. Dr. Giorgio Anfuso
Prof. Dr. Celene B. Milanes
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Environments
environments
- 5.2 2014 20.1 Days 1500 CHF
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
jmse
2.744 2.8 2013 17.8 Days 2000 CHF
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF
Water
water
3.530 4.8 2009 17.8 Days 2200 CHF

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Article
Large Wood Debris Contributes to Beach Ecosystems but Colombian Beachgoer’s Do Not Recognize It
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su14138140 - 04 Jul 2022
Abstract
Large Woody Debris (LWD) accumulation serves essential ecological functions and benefits society’s coastal ecosystems (e.g., beaches). Thus far, the ecosystem services perspective has paid little attention to LWD. Therefore, we aim to contrast social perceptions on LWD and its ecological significance in Puerto [...] Read more.
Large Woody Debris (LWD) accumulation serves essential ecological functions and benefits society’s coastal ecosystems (e.g., beaches). Thus far, the ecosystem services perspective has paid little attention to LWD. Therefore, we aim to contrast social perceptions on LWD and its ecological significance in Puerto Velero beach, Caribbean, Colombia. In consequence, the contribution of LWD to the conformation and creation of Puerto Velero beach was analyzed, as well as how beachgoers perceive the importance of LWD and if they were willing to pay to remove LWD in this beach. To achieve this, a quantitative convergent approach was then proposed using GIS analysis and remote sensing to understand the contributions of LWD to the Puerto Velero beach ecosystem; and in addition, a survey was performed to determine how beachgoers perceived LWD and how they valued the phenomenon. Results indicate that LWD contributed to beach maintenance; nevertheless, most people neglected LWD values because of its lack of visual attractiveness. As such, ecosystem services targets become conflicted because people positively perceived ecosystem services provided by beaches, but they did not assign importance to the beach dynamics they deemed unattractive, regardless of their vast importance. Full article
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Article
An Evaluation of the Coordinated Development of Coastal Zone Systems: A Case Study of China’s Yellow Sea Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 919; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10070919 (registering DOI) - 02 Jul 2022
Abstract
The coastal zone is an area of transition between land and sea, containing rich resources, and it is an important spatial unit where humans engage in production and livelihood. However, in the process of benefiting from the coastal zone, people have neglected the [...] Read more.
The coastal zone is an area of transition between land and sea, containing rich resources, and it is an important spatial unit where humans engage in production and livelihood. However, in the process of benefiting from the coastal zone, people have neglected the coordinated development of the ecological environment, the economy, and society. To investigate the coordinated development mechanisms of coastal zone systems influenced by human activities, the DEMATEL (Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory) model was applied to identify the key factors influencing a complex coastal zone system. The results were used to construct an indicator system to evaluate the developmental stages of three coastal zone subsystems (ecological environment (EE), society (SOC), and economy (ECO)). The developmental levels of these subsystems over the past ten years were evaluated in five cities along the Yellow Sea coast of China, and the degrees of coupling and coordination among the subsystems were calculated using the coupling coordination degree model. The results showed that during the past decade, the developmental levels of the EE, SOC, and ECO subsystems increased in all five coastal regions, except for Yancheng, where there was a small decrease in the EE level; the coupling degrees of all five regions were high, and the interactions between the EE, SOC, and ECO were very close; the coordination degree was relatively poor. The mean values of Qingdao and Nantong were at an ‘Intermediate coordination level’, and the other three cities were at the ‘Primary coordination’ or ‘Barely coordination level’. Three types of interactions between the subsystems emerged: (1) three subsystems have benign interactions and collaboration with each other; (2) the EE, SOC, and ECO compete with each other and have fluctuating upward development; (3) there is a focus on development in the SOC and ECO, and there is a neglect of environmental protection. Based on the development trends of the subsystems and the coupling and coordination laws, some suggestions were proposed. Full article
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Article
Water Exchanges in Mediterranean Microtidal Harbours
Water 2022, 14(13), 2012; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w14132012 - 23 Jun 2022
Abstract
Mediterranean ports feature complex layouts and exert important environmental pressures in squeezed coastal zones. They experience mild meteo-oceanographic conditions during part of the year, leading to water velocities that are close to the resolution limits of observation equipment. The paper addresses the challenge [...] Read more.
Mediterranean ports feature complex layouts and exert important environmental pressures in squeezed coastal zones. They experience mild meteo-oceanographic conditions during part of the year, leading to water velocities that are close to the resolution limits of observation equipment. The paper addresses the challenge of characterising summer port hydrodynamics by designing intensive field campaigns, focused on hydrodynamic variables, such as harbour entrance fluxes. The approach was developed for three Spanish microtidal harbours with different domain sizes and one or two entrances. These elements play a key role in harbour exchanges through the entrance and the subsequent water renovation. The paper will present and discuss the meteocean data and inferred variables, such as renovation times, which is a key indicator of water quality. From this basis, the paper will discuss the changing estuarine circulation patterns and the role of upwelling and downwelling on observed water temperature peaks. The conclusions will address the role of harbour hydrodynamics in integrated coastal water quality and port engineering, particularly for ports’ environmental impacts on adjacent beaches. To assess the full hydrodynamic domain, forecasting models are helpful. The continuous observations presented in this work would also help in the implementation and validation of these models. Full article
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Article
A Risk-Based Model Using Communication Distance Reduction for the Assessment of Underwater Continuous Noise: An Application to the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Inhabiting the Spanish North Atlantic Marine Demarcation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10050605 - 29 Apr 2022
Abstract
Over the last decade, national authorities and European administrations have made great efforts to establish methodological standards for the assessment of underwater continuous noise, especially under the requirements set by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Through the MSFD implementation across EU Member [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, national authorities and European administrations have made great efforts to establish methodological standards for the assessment of underwater continuous noise, especially under the requirements set by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Through the MSFD implementation across EU Member States Marine Reporting Units (MRUs), it is intended to establish the Good Environmental Status (GES) whether it is achieved or not. The evaluation of the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at the local or regional scale for 1/3 octave band of 63 Hz and 125 Hz and the identification of long temporary trends were considered to be a priority due to the valuable information they can offer in relation to continuous low-frequency noise. Nevertheless, the methodology to determine threshold values from which to evaluate the GES has become difficult to define, and new approaches and considerations are currently being discussed by groups of experts, such as the technical subgroup on underwater acoustics (TGnoise) and regional commissions (e.g., OSPAR). This work presents a methodology to perform the assessment of a given area, providing a risk index that is related to potential appearance of masking effect due to the underwater noise produced by marine traffic. The risk index is hinged on the calculation of area under curves defined by the density of animals and a variable related to underwater noise SPL, defined as percentage of communication distance reduction. At this stage, the methodology presented does not consider physiological or behavioral mechanisms to overcome the masking by animals. The methodology presented has been applied to the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the ABIES—NOR marine demarcation to illustrate the possible use of risk-based models to manage marine areas related to human pressures, such as marine traffic, with the potential adverse impact on a given species (e.g., masking effect). Full article
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Article
Characterization of the Morphological Behavior of a Sand Spit Using UAVs
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10050600 - 29 Apr 2022
Abstract
Sand spits are common in wave-dominated environments; with enough sand supply, they can evolve to affect circulation and navigation in channels or inlets. The focus of this paper is on the navigation channel of the Sisal Port, located on the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula [...] Read more.
Sand spits are common in wave-dominated environments; with enough sand supply, they can evolve to affect circulation and navigation in channels or inlets. The focus of this paper is on the navigation channel of the Sisal Port, located on the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula (YP) coast, where a sand spit grew and was monitored from its formation (June 2018) until navigation was practically blocked (November 2018). The YP coast is characterized as being microtidal, with significant wave heights ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 m (April to September), and in the presence of high energy events (cold fronts and storms), waves can reach heights of up to 2.5 m offshore at 10 m depth (October to February). Prior to the beginning of UAV surveys, we used photos (June–July 2018) from a stationary field camera and hydrodynamic data from models (WaveWatch III for waves and MARV software for tidal levels) to generate a qualitative description of the sand spit in the channel. Combining products from UAVs flights (DEMs) and hydrodynamic measurements (wave energy flux), we characterized the behavior and response of the sand spit, from its formation near the jetty head, through its consolidation in October 2018, to when a cold front with HS ∼2.5 m breached it in mid-November. The results show that spit formation takes place during calm conditions (e.g., periods dominated by sea breezes), and depending on the energy threshold of high energetic events, this new spit will consolidate or be breached. Migration of the spit is related to overwash events and changes in wave direction. The presented methodology provides a well-rounded tool for characterizing the morphological behavior of spits on a shallow coast, which can be useful for improving coastal management. Full article
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Article
Latin America and the Search for a Coastal Law: Lessons from the Legislative Procedure in Colombia
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su14095168 - 25 Apr 2022
Abstract
In 2009, a network of scholars identified the legal framework associated with coastal management in eleven Latin American countries. They found an important lag in several countries, including Colombia. According to many scholars, a clear regulatory framework is of the utmost importance for [...] Read more.
In 2009, a network of scholars identified the legal framework associated with coastal management in eleven Latin American countries. They found an important lag in several countries, including Colombia. According to many scholars, a clear regulatory framework is of the utmost importance for integrated coastal management; however, the hurdles to reaching this goal have been poorly analyzed. This article aims to illustrate the challenges and barriers to legislate on coastal and marine issues in Colombia. The methodology and analysis used in this study can serve as an example to other Latin American countries. We combined comparative, documentary, and analytical research techniques to describe the current Latin American state-of-the-art legal framework. Additionally, from 16,224 gazettes (official records of the Congress of Colombia) we identified 80 bills concerning coastal and marine activities for a period of 17 years. However, only 2.1% of those bills addressed marine or coastal issues from the perspective of planning and management procedures. Instead the majority focused on social uses and economic activities. This research identified the difficulties that could be faced by a country in regulating its coast from an integrated perspective. These findings could support future procedures to approve coastal laws in Latin America and other countries on the world. Full article
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Article
Research on Marine Ecological Carrying Capacity of Ningbo City in China Based on System Dynamics
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su14084568 - 11 Apr 2022
Abstract
In order to quantitatively analyze the comprehensive impact of population growth, economic development, and environmental pollution on marine ecology, a system dynamics (SD) model was constructed to evaluate and predict the marine ecological carrying capacity (MECC) of Ningbo city, China. Population, gross domestic [...] Read more.
In order to quantitatively analyze the comprehensive impact of population growth, economic development, and environmental pollution on marine ecology, a system dynamics (SD) model was constructed to evaluate and predict the marine ecological carrying capacity (MECC) of Ningbo city, China. Population, gross domestic product, chemical oxygen demand, and marine economic development were selected as the influencing factors of Ningbo MECC. Using the established SD model, the current situation and development forecast of Ningbo MECC from 2012 to 2023 were simulated and analyzed. A consistency test showed that the difference between the simulated value and historical data was within 5%, and the data were consistent in reflecting the evolution of the actual system with high credibility and effective simulation. The results indicated that the model could objectively reflect the relationship between marine ecology, economic development, and population growth. According to the prediction by the SD model, the MECC index would slightly rise year by year under the current development mode, while it would be still below 1.0 by 2023. By reducing the economic growth rate and increasing the pollutant treatment rate, the goal of improving MECC could be effectively achieved. Full article
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Review
Recent Developments in Sea-Level Rise and Its Related Geological Disasters Mitigation: A Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10030355 - 02 Mar 2022
Abstract
With the rapid development of urbanization around the world, the sea-level-rise problem is gaining more and more attention in the 21st century. Sea-level rise is the result of a combination of climate-related factors, structural factors and human activities. Recent studies related to the [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of urbanization around the world, the sea-level-rise problem is gaining more and more attention in the 21st century. Sea-level rise is the result of a combination of climate-related factors, structural factors and human activities. Recent studies related to the contributions of these factors to sea-level rise are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. The results suggest that the melting of glaciers and ice sheets have contributed the most to sea-level rise and will continue to be the dominant factor in sea-level rise for the following decades. As sea-level rise becomes an increasingly serious problem, geological disasters related to sea-level rise are also gaining more attention. To better understand the effect of sea-level rise on geological disasters, relevant issues including storm surges, seawater intrusion, the loss of coastal wetland, seismicity, seismic liquefaction and submarine mass failure are further reviewed and highlighted. In response to the risks of those disasters caused by sea-level rise, some disaster mitigation measures are proposed, and in the end, the quantitative disaster assessment concept based on resilience is introduced to the coastal urban system, to assess its ability to resist and recover from geological disasters due to the sea-level rise. Full article
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Article
Morphology Recovery and Convergence of Topographic Evolution in the Natori River Mouth after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami
Water 2022, 14(5), 715; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w14050715 - 24 Feb 2022
Abstract
The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused significant damage along the coastal region in Miyagi Prefecture. In the Natori River of Miyagi Prefecture, the recovery process of the estuarine morphology has been observed since the tsunami arrived. In this study, detailed [...] Read more.
The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused significant damage along the coastal region in Miyagi Prefecture. In the Natori River of Miyagi Prefecture, the recovery process of the estuarine morphology has been observed since the tsunami arrived. In this study, detailed analyses of collected aerial photographs and beach topography in front of the river mouth were conducted to evaluate whether the river mouth has reached a new equilibrium. The shoreline analysis suggests that the river mouth has obtained an equilibrium state after 2014 in which the sediment volume can be preserved within the littoral system. In addition, the convergence process to the stable topography was detected by the first spatial and temporal eigenfunctions obtained from the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the beach profiles. From the results, it can be concluded that the river mouth has obtained a new equilibrium of morphology after the tsunami. As the recurrence of the tsunami can be expected in the next several centuries, the findings of this study can be useful for long-term coastal and riverine management against future disasters in this river mouth, and other coastal regions that are prone to large-scale disasters in the near future. Full article
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Article
Assessing the State of ICZM in an Island Tourist Destination—Applying SESs and Ostrom’s Collective Action Principles: A View from Coastal Communities
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1066; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su14031066 - 18 Jan 2022
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the state of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), which is justified as a strategy for managing coastal resources with respect to increasing pressures from tourism, farming, climate change, urbanization, population growth, etc. In the case of island states, [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate the state of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), which is justified as a strategy for managing coastal resources with respect to increasing pressures from tourism, farming, climate change, urbanization, population growth, etc. In the case of island states, the impact of tourism and second-home development is paramount. The use of coastal areas as commons and ICZM as a governance strategy have been established for a long time; however, the implementation of ICZM has remained a challenge due to the forces of global mass tourism and unsustainable resource use in island states. This study focused on views of the coastal communities in North Cyprus, who are in constant interaction with coastal ecosystems for their livelihood. For the analytical purpose of the study, 251 survey questionnaires were administered to eight communities along the coastal areas. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistical analysis with a post hoc test. Socio-ecological systems (SES) and Ostrom’s collective action principles guided the study as the main theoretical frameworks. The study revealed that the ICZM strategy has been neglected and coastal communities are not invited to be involved in any form of ICZM. Furthermore, the study revealed the tourism development has been the major activity of the Anthropocene in coastal areas without a proactive coastal development strategy that is supposed to consider the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems. Practical and theoretical implications are also discussed. Full article
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Article
Qualitative and Quantitative Beach Cleanliness Assessment to Support Marine Litter Management in Tropical Destinations
Water 2021, 13(23), 3455; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13233455 - 06 Dec 2021
Abstract
In addition to its ecological and recreational relevance, beach cleanliness is also one of the five most important aspects (i.e., the “Big Five”) for beach visitors around the world. Nonetheless, few efforts have been carried out to guide the sound management of this [...] Read more.
In addition to its ecological and recreational relevance, beach cleanliness is also one of the five most important aspects (i.e., the “Big Five”) for beach visitors around the world. Nonetheless, few efforts have been carried out to guide the sound management of this rising issue. This paper presents a quantitative and qualitative method to assess the level of beach cleanliness, in order to allow managers to focus their attention on the environmental management of the most frequent and relevant types of litter in tropical areas. In a first step, a survey on users’ perception was applied to 361 beachgoers in eight beaches in Colombia to identify the most relevant types of beach litter and the weighting factors to obtain quantitative calculations. In a second step, the thirteen categories of litter identified were analyzed in relation to beach cleanliness, origin of litter, and environmental impact, to define its individual weighting importance. Some categories were also selected according to particularities of tropical countries, such as the presence of abundant natural vegetation debris and gross polystyrene items, largely transported by rivers in great quantities. In a third step, the method was then tested at eight beaches in the Caribbean coast of Colombia through a period of four months, during which 192 transect samplings were carried out. The qualitative module of the proposed technique, named Beach Litter Assessment Technique—Qualitative and Quantitative (BLAT-QQ), identified the main types of beach litter and the quantitative module gave an overview on the state of beach cleanliness. The method is demonstrated to be quick and effective in diagnosing beach cleanliness, providing a simple instrument to carry out sound environmental management actions in coastal destinations. Full article
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Review
Occurrence and Effects of Antimicrobials Drugs in Aquatic Ecosystems
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su132313428 - 04 Dec 2021
Abstract
Currently, thanks to the development of sensitive analytical techniques, the presence of different emerging pollutants in aquatic ecosystems has been evidenced; however, most of them have not been submitted to any regulation so far. Among emerging contaminants, antimicrobials have received particular attention in [...] Read more.
Currently, thanks to the development of sensitive analytical techniques, the presence of different emerging pollutants in aquatic ecosystems has been evidenced; however, most of them have not been submitted to any regulation so far. Among emerging contaminants, antimicrobials have received particular attention in recent decades, mainly due to the concerning development of antibiotic resistance observed in bacteria, but little is known about the toxicological and ecological impact that antimicrobials can have on aquatic ecosystems. Their high consumption in human and veterinary medicine, food-producing animals and aquaculture, as well as persistence and poor absorption have caused antimicrobials to be discharged into receiving waters, with or without prior treatment, where they have been detected at ng-mg L−1 levels with the potential to cause effects on the various organisms living within aquatic systems. This review presents the current knowledge on the occurrence of antimicrobials in aquatic ecosystems, emphasizing their occurrence in different environmental matrixes and the effects on aquatic organisms (cyanobacteria, microalgae, invertebrates and vertebrates). Full article
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Article
The Rapidly Evolving Fudu Estuary Sandbar Lagoon Landform on the East Coast of the Bohai Sea: Recent Changes and Mechanism
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9121350 - 30 Nov 2021
Abstract
The Fudu Estuary Sandbar Lagoon is one of the most representative sandbar-lagoon landforms in China, and has undergone drastic evolution in recent years, accompanied by increased coastal engineering activities. The evolution process and its control factors are studied through remote sensing interpretation and [...] Read more.
The Fudu Estuary Sandbar Lagoon is one of the most representative sandbar-lagoon landforms in China, and has undergone drastic evolution in recent years, accompanied by increased coastal engineering activities. The evolution process and its control factors are studied through remote sensing interpretation and coastal sediment transport calculations. During 2010–2021, the sandbar quickly extended at an average speed of 49.5 m/a, but the annual growth has shown a decreasing trend in both area and width, and the shoreline has retreated by 25–45 m. The recent changes are the result of the combined action of natural conditions and human activities. Coastal sediment transport from west to east under the action of W-oriented waves is the natural cause of extension. An estuary dam and artificial island block the sediment transport path, and the material for the new growth of the sandbar comes from the erosion of its west side, which has directly caused the retreat and narrowing of the sandbar. The reduction in sediments from the river further aggravates the shrinkage. It is predicted that the sandbar will continue its eastward extension to connect with the coast in about 2–3 years. The erosion status is unlikely to change before the sediment supply is restored. Measures such as dismantling the estuary dam are recommended. Full article
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Article
Vertical Configuration of a Side Scan Sonar for the Monitoring of Posidonia oceanica Meadows
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9121332 - 26 Nov 2021
Abstract
Posidonia oceanica meadows are ecosystem engineers that play several roles in marine environment maintenance. In this sense, monitoring of the spatial distribution and health status of their meadows is key to make decisions about protecting them against their degradation. With the aim of [...] Read more.
Posidonia oceanica meadows are ecosystem engineers that play several roles in marine environment maintenance. In this sense, monitoring of the spatial distribution and health status of their meadows is key to make decisions about protecting them against their degradation. With the aim of checking the ability of a simple low-cost acoustic method to acquire information about the state of P. oceanica meadows as ecosystem indicators, ground-truthing and acoustic data were acquired over several of these meadows on the Levantine coast of Spain. A 200 kHz side scan sonar in a vertical configuration was used to automatically estimate shoot density, canopy height and cover of the meadows. The wide athwartship angle of the transducer together with its low cost and user friendliness entail the main advantages of this system and configuration: both improved beam path and detection invariance against boat rolling. The results show that canopy height can be measured acoustically. Furthermore, the accumulated intensity of the echoes from P. oceanica in the first 30 centimeters above the bottom is indirectly related to shoot density and cover, showing a relation that should be studied deeply. Full article
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Article
Coastal Migration Index for Coastal Flooding Events Increased by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change: Mexico and Cuba Case Studies
Water 2021, 13(21), 3090; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13213090 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a coastal migration index (CMI) useful for decision-making in the current scenario of sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change. The CMI includes coastal human population density, degree of urbanization, and coastal-flooding penetration. Quantitative and qualitative statistical techniques and the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a coastal migration index (CMI) useful for decision-making in the current scenario of sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change. The CMI includes coastal human population density, degree of urbanization, and coastal-flooding penetration. Quantitative and qualitative statistical techniques and the geographic information system ArcGIS View 9.0 were used. Further, a panel of fifteen international experts in coastal management issues was consulted to establish and validate the CMI. Results led to three index components based on 22 indicators. CMI was applied in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico and in Santiago de Cuba province, Cuba. According to CMI estimates, the risk levels associated with SLR for human settlements analyzed in Mexico and Cuba were 5.3% and 11.0%, respectively. The most severely affected communities will require resettlement. Meanwhile, the CMI determined that 15.8% of the Mexican territory studied will be able to withstand the effects of SLR through the management of engineering works that will protect human settlements. The CMI determined that 79.0%, in the case of Tamaulipas, as well as 89.0% of the Cuban territory, will not require new policies or guidelines to promote conservation and protection of coastal natural resources. Lastly, the method used allowed for creation of a CMI stoplight map useful to coastal decision-makers to adopt sound management actions. Full article
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Article
A Model-Derived Empirical Formulation for Wave Run-Up on Naturally Sloping Beaches
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9111185 - 27 Oct 2021
Abstract
A new set of empirical formulations has been derived to predict wave run-up at naturally sloping sandy beaches. They are obtained by fitting the results of hundreds of XBeach-NH+ model simulations. The simulations are carried out over a wide range of offshore wave [...] Read more.
A new set of empirical formulations has been derived to predict wave run-up at naturally sloping sandy beaches. They are obtained by fitting the results of hundreds of XBeach-NH+ model simulations. The simulations are carried out over a wide range of offshore wave conditions (wave heights ranging from 1 to 12 m and periods from 6 to 16 s), and surf zone (Dean parameters aD ranging from 0.05 to 0.30) and beach geometries (slopes ranging from 1:100 to 1:5). The empirical formulations provide estimates of wave set-up, incident and infragravity wave run-up, and total run-up R2%. Reduction coefficients are included to account for the effects of incident wave angle and directional spreading. The formulations have been validated against the Stockdon dataset and show better skill at predicting R2% run-up than the widely used Stockdon relationships. Unlike most existing run-up predictors, the relations presented here include the effect of the surf zone slope, which is shown to be an important parameter for predicting wave run-up. Additionally, this study shows a clear relationship between infragravity run-up and beach slope, unlike most existing predictors. Full article
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Article
Unsteady Linearisation of Bed Shear Stress for Idealised Storm Surge Modelling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9111160 - 21 Oct 2021
Abstract
The modelling of time-varying shallow flows, such as tides and storm surges, is complicated by the nonlinear dependency of bed shear stress on flow speed. For tidal flows, Lorentz’s linearisation circumvents nonlinearity by specifying a (steady) friction coefficient r based on a tide-averaged [...] Read more.
The modelling of time-varying shallow flows, such as tides and storm surges, is complicated by the nonlinear dependency of bed shear stress on flow speed. For tidal flows, Lorentz’s linearisation circumvents nonlinearity by specifying a (steady) friction coefficient r based on a tide-averaged criterion of energy equivalence. However, this approach is not suitable for phenomena with episodic and irregular forcings such as storm surges. Here, we studied the implications of applying Lorentz’s energy criterion in an instantaneous sense, so that an unsteady friction coefficient r(t) adjusts to the temporal development of natural wind-driven flows. This new bed-stress parametrisation was implemented in an idealised model of a single channel, forced by time-varying signals of wind stress (acting over the entire domain) and surface elevation (at the channel mouth). The solution method combines analytical solutions of the cross-sectionally averaged linearised shallow-water equations, obtained in the frequency domain, with an iterative procedure to determine r(t). Model results, compared with a reference finite-difference solution retaining the quadratic bed shear stress, show that this new approach accurately captures the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the surge dynamics (height and timing of surge peaks, sloshing, friction-induced tide-surge interaction) for both synthetic and realistic wind forcings. Full article
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Article
Design of Diamond Bits Water Passage System and Simulation of Bottom Hole Fluid Are Applied to Seafloor Drill
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9101100 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The performance of the diamond bit directly affects the drilling efficiency of the seafloor drill. The drill bits used in land drilling are prone to abnormal wear, low coring efficiency, and large sample disturbance in marine exploration. At first, in this paper, the [...] Read more.
The performance of the diamond bit directly affects the drilling efficiency of the seafloor drill. The drill bits used in land drilling are prone to abnormal wear, low coring efficiency, and large sample disturbance in marine exploration. At first, in this paper, the operation and formation characteristics of a seafloor drill are utilized to design a water passage system for bottom-jetting diamond bits based on the multi-objective optimization theory. Additionally, then, fluid dynamics theory and the effects of bit rotation on the flow field at the hole bottom were used to analyze the impact of structural and drilling parameters of the HQ-size bit on the flow field of the waterway system. The linear regression equation of the influence of drilling parameters on the bottom hole velocity field and pressure field is obtained. Finally, a field drilling test of the drill bit was carried out. Considering the effect of the grinding length ratio of the bit on the lopsided wear of the inner and outer diameters, the water passage system parameter design and maximum projection area of the cutting tooth are effective optimization goals to improve the normal service life of the bit. The flow field of the drilling fluid at the hole bottom becomes more turbulent and the efficiency of the carrying cuttings return decreases as the waterway height of the bit increases. The optimal bit rotation speed is 250–400 rpm. When drilling into conventional formations, the pump displacement should be controlled within the range of 50–80 L/min. When drilling into sediment formations, the pump displacement should be controlled within the range of 50–65 L/min. An on-site drilling test verified the rationality of the bit water passage system. This work may enrich the existing theories and designs of the water passage system. Full article
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Article
Abundance and Temporal Distribution of Beach Litter on the Coast of Ceuta (North Africa, Gibraltar Strait)
Water 2021, 13(19), 2739; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192739 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 5
Abstract
Twelve beaches located in Ceuta (Spain) were studied from February to April 2019 to assess litter amounts (expressed as number of items), categories and temporal distribution. At each beach, three surveys were conducted, i.e., one per month (i.e., 36 in total). Selected beaches [...] Read more.
Twelve beaches located in Ceuta (Spain) were studied from February to April 2019 to assess litter amounts (expressed as number of items), categories and temporal distribution. At each beach, three surveys were conducted, i.e., one per month (i.e., 36 in total). Selected beaches covered urban (7), rural (2) and remote (3) bathing areas. Plastic represented the dominant material, i.e., 35.2% of all debris, followed by glass (18.2%), pottery/ceramics (14.6%), wood (11.4%), metal (11.4%), paper/cardboard (4.8%), cloth (3.5%), rubber (0.7%), organic (0.3%) and other materials (0.1%). The Clean Coast Index was calculated to classify beaches in five categories for evaluating the cleanliness level of the coast observed at each survey: “Very Clean” (7 surveys), “Clean” (10), “Moderately Dirty” (8), “Dirty” (2) and “Extremely Dirty” (9). Litter occurrence was assessed by the Litter Grade methodology, which allowed to classify beaches in four grades: “A”: very good (0); “B”: good (4); “C”: fair (7); and “D”: poor (25). In a few surveys, some beaches were considered “good”, but their management should not be ignored because in other surveys those beaches reached fair and poor scores. Several potentially harmful litter items were related to beach users. Severe eastern storms removed litter at many of the beaches investigated and favored accumulation at others. Data analysis shows significant differences in litter abundance with respect to site, beach typology and the presence of cleaning operations but no important differences between the studied months. Rural beaches recorded the most litter, followed by urban and remote beaches. All beaches require immediate and more appropriate management actions to improve their environmental status. Full article
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Article
Fuzzy Scheduling Problem of Vessels in One-Way Waterway
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1064; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9101064 - 28 Sep 2021
Abstract
Effective use of port waterways is conducive to enhancing port competitiveness. To minimize the waiting time of ships, improve traffic efficiency, and enhance the applicability of the model to the presence of uncertain factors, a fuzzy scheduling optimization method for ships suitable for [...] Read more.
Effective use of port waterways is conducive to enhancing port competitiveness. To minimize the waiting time of ships, improve traffic efficiency, and enhance the applicability of the model to the presence of uncertain factors, a fuzzy scheduling optimization method for ships suitable for one-way waterways is proposed based on fuzzy theory. Considering the ambiguity of the speed of ships entering and exiting the port or the time it takes to cross the channel, the previous research on vessel scheduling on one-way waterways has been extended by introducing a triangular fuzzy number and a method for determining the feasible navigable time window of a ship subject to the tide height constraint was proposed. In this study, the genetic algorithm is used to construct the mathematical model for solving fuzzy vessel scheduling problems based on time optimization, and the minimum delay strategy is used to determine the service sequence. Then, the parameters setting are discussed in detail to find the optimal settings. Finally, an experimental comparative analysis of the randomly generated cases was conducted based on the simulated data. The results show that the designed fuzzy vessel scheduling algorithm reduces the dependence on the port environment, is versatile, and can effectively improve the efficiency of ship schedules and traffic safety compared to other methods. Moreover, it can avoid the problem of the illegal solution occurring in the manual scheduling method. Full article
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Article
Auxiliary Equipment Detection in Marine Engine Rooms Based on Deep Learning Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 1006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9091006 - 14 Sep 2021
Abstract
In the intelligent perception of the marine engine room, visual identification of auxiliary equipment is the prerequisite for defect recognition and anomaly detection. To improve the detection accuracy, this study presents an auxiliary equipment detector in the cabin based on a deep learning [...] Read more.
In the intelligent perception of the marine engine room, visual identification of auxiliary equipment is the prerequisite for defect recognition and anomaly detection. To improve the detection accuracy, this study presents an auxiliary equipment detector in the cabin based on a deep learning model. Owing to the compact layout of pipeline networks and the large disparity in the equipment scales, we initially adopted RetinaNet as the basic framework, and introduced the single channel plain architecture RepVGG as the feature extraction network to simplify the complexity and improve realtime detection. Secondly, the Neighbor Erasing and Transferring Mechanism (NETM) was applied in the feature pyramid to deal with more complicated scale variations. Then, the complete IoU (CIoU) regression loss function was used instead of smooth L1, and the DIoU Soft-NMS mechanism was proposed to alleviate the misdetection in congested cabins. Further, comparison experiments and ablation experiments were performed on the auxiliary equipment in a marine engine room (AEMER) dataset to validate the efficacy of these strategies on the model performance boost. Specifically, our model can correctly detect 93.44% of coolers, 100.00% of diesel engines, 60.26% of meters, 95.30% of pumps, 55.01% of reservoirs, 97.68% of oil separators, and 74.37% of valves in a practical cabin. Full article
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Review
In Situ Aerobic Bioremediation of Sediments Polluted with Petroleum Hydrocarbons: A Critical Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 1003; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9091003 - 14 Sep 2021
Abstract
Oil pollution has been a worldwide concern especially in environments where treatment is quite difficult to apply. Marine polluted sediments, in particular, constitute one of the most recalcitrant environments for bioremediation and are often the final repository of petroleum contaminants, as a result [...] Read more.
Oil pollution has been a worldwide concern especially in environments where treatment is quite difficult to apply. Marine polluted sediments, in particular, constitute one of the most recalcitrant environments for bioremediation and are often the final repository of petroleum contaminants, as a result of runoff and deposition. Aerobic hydrocarbon degraders present in the sediments are tackling the pollution under oxygen-limited or oxygen-depleted conditions. Research has focused on new ways to enhance bioremediation under anoxic conditions, however aerobic bioremediation is faster, and hence more effort should be made to sustain oxygen concentration levels. In this review, the different bioremediation techniques used for the decontamination of marine sediments are briefly discussed, and focus is primarily given to the different oxygenation methods used for enhancing aerobic bioremediation and the aeration methods that are suitable for in situ application, as well as state of the art technologies that make in situ aeration an appealing approach. Based on the technologies analyzed, suggestions are made for sediment bioremediation techniques in different marine environments. Full article
Article
Combined Longshore and Cross-Shore Modeling for Low-Energy Embayed Sandy Beaches
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 979; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9090979 - 07 Sep 2021
Abstract
The present study focuses on the long-term multi-year evolution of the shoreline position of the Nha Trang sandy beach. To this end an empirical model which is a combination of longshore and cross-shore models, is used. The Nha Trang beach morphology is driven [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the long-term multi-year evolution of the shoreline position of the Nha Trang sandy beach. To this end an empirical model which is a combination of longshore and cross-shore models, is used. The Nha Trang beach morphology is driven by a tropical wave climate dominated by seasonal variations and winter monsoon intra-seasonal pulses. The combined model accounts for seasonal shoreline evolution, which is primarily attributed to cross-shore dynamics but fails to represent accretion that occurs during the height of summer under low energy conditions. The reason is in the single equilibrium Dean number Ωeq of the ShoreFor model, one of the components of the combined model. This equilibrium Dean number cannot simultaneously account for the evolution of strong intra-seasonal events (i.e., winter monsoon pulses) and the annual recovery mechanisms associated with swash transport. By assigning a constant value to Ωeq, when the surf similarity parameter is higher than 3.3 (occurrence of small surging breakers in summer), we strongly improve the shoreline position prediction. This clearly points to the relevance of a multi-scale approach, although our modified Ωeq retains the advantage of simplicity. Full article
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Article
Autonomous Vessels in the Yangtze River: A Study on the Maritime Accidents Using Data-Driven Bayesian Networks
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9985; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13179985 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The prototypes of autonomous vessels are expected to come into service within the coming years, but safety concerns remain due to complex traffic and natural conditions (e.g., Yangtze River). However, the response of autonomous vessels to potential accidents is still uncertain. The accident [...] Read more.
The prototypes of autonomous vessels are expected to come into service within the coming years, but safety concerns remain due to complex traffic and natural conditions (e.g., Yangtze River). However, the response of autonomous vessels to potential accidents is still uncertain. The accident prevention for autonomous vessels is unconvincing due to the lack of objective studies on the causation analysis for maritime accidents. This paper constitutes an attempt to cover the aforementioned gap by studying the potential causations for maritime accidents in the Yangtze River by using a Bayesian-based network training approach. More than two hundred accidents reported between 2013 and 2019 in the Yangtze River are collected. As a result, a Bayesian network (BN) is successfully established to describe the causations among different risk influencing factors. By analysing the BN, this study reveals that the occurrence of maritime accidents (e.g., collision, grounding) can be expected to reduce with the development of autonomous vessels as the crews are removed. However, the extent of the consequences from some accidents (e.g., fire, critical weathers) could be more serious than conventional ones. Therefore, more attention and thoughts are needed to ensure the safe navigation of autonomous vessels in the Yangtze River. Full article
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