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Review

Bowman-Birk Inhibitors: Insights into Family of Multifunctional Proteins and Peptides with Potential Therapeutical Applications

Department of Molecular Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(12), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120421
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Enzyme Inhibitors as Potential Drugs 2020)
Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) are found primarily in seeds of legumes and in cereal grains. These canonical inhibitors share a highly conserved nine-amino acids binding loop motif CTP1SXPPXC (where P1 is the inhibitory active site, while X stands for various amino acids). They are natural controllers of plants’ endogenous proteases, but they are also inhibitors of exogenous proteases present in microbials and insects. They are considered as plants’ protective agents, as their elevated levels are observed during injury, presence of pathogens, or abiotic stress, i.a. Similar properties are observed for peptides isolated from amphibians’ skin containing 11-amino acids disulfide-bridged loop CWTP1SXPPXPC. They are classified as Bowman-Birk like trypsin inhibitors (BBLTIs). These inhibitors are resistant to proteolysis and not toxic, and they are reported to be beneficial in the treatment of various pathological states. In this review, we summarize up-to-date research results regarding BBIs’ and BBLTIs’ inhibitory activity, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial and insecticidal strength, as well as chemopreventive properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bowman-Birk inhibitors; protease inhibitors; plant-derived inhibitors; amphibian-derived inhibitors; legumes; chemopreventive; anti-inflammatory; antimicrobial Bowman-Birk inhibitors; protease inhibitors; plant-derived inhibitors; amphibian-derived inhibitors; legumes; chemopreventive; anti-inflammatory; antimicrobial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gitlin-Domagalska, A.; Maciejewska, A.; Dębowski, D. Bowman-Birk Inhibitors: Insights into Family of Multifunctional Proteins and Peptides with Potential Therapeutical Applications. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 421. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120421

AMA Style

Gitlin-Domagalska A, Maciejewska A, Dębowski D. Bowman-Birk Inhibitors: Insights into Family of Multifunctional Proteins and Peptides with Potential Therapeutical Applications. Pharmaceuticals. 2020; 13(12):421. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gitlin-Domagalska, Agata, Aleksandra Maciejewska, and Dawid Dębowski. 2020. "Bowman-Birk Inhibitors: Insights into Family of Multifunctional Proteins and Peptides with Potential Therapeutical Applications" Pharmaceuticals 13, no. 12: 421. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ph13120421

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