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The Pathogenic Role of Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Wnt5a in a Murine Model of Lung Fibrosis

Lung Fibrosis after COVID-19: Treatment Prospects

Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, 6, Sosnoviy Blvd., 650002 Kemerovo, Russia
PHARMENTERPRISES LLC, Skolkovo Innovation Center, Bolshoi Blvd., 42(1), 143026 Moscow, Russia
Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 47 Leninsky Avenue, 119991 Moscow, Russia
Rancho BioSciences, 16955 Via Del Campo Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92127, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nektarios Barabutis
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(8), 807;
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 9 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Injury and Repair)
At the end of 2019, a highly contagious infection began its ominous conquest of the world. It was soon discovered that the disease was caused by a novel coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2, and the disease was thus abbreviated to COVID-19 (COVID). The global medical community has directed its efforts not only to find effective therapies against the deadly pathogen but also to combat the concomitant complications. Two of the most common respiratory manifestations of COVID are a significant reduction in the diffusing capacity of the lungs (DLCO) and the associated pulmonary interstitial damage. One year after moderate COVID, the incidence rate of impaired DLCO and persistent lung damage still exceeds 30%, and one-third of the patients have severe DLCO impairment and fibrotic lung damage. The persistent respiratory complications may cause substantial population morbidity, long-term disability, and even death due to the lung fibrosis progression. The incidence of COVID-induced pulmonary fibrosis caused by COVID can be estimated based on a 15-year observational study of lung pathology after SARS. Most SARS patients with fibrotic lung damage recovered within the first year and then remained healthy; however, in 20% of the cases, significant fibrosis progression was found in 5–10 years. Based on these data, the incidence rate of post-COVID lung fibrosis can be estimated at 2–6% after moderate illness. What is worse, there are reasons to believe that fibrosis may become one of the major long-term complications of COVID, even in asymptomatic individuals. Currently, despite the best efforts of the global medical community, there are no treatments for COVID-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we analyze the latest data from ongoing clinical trials aimed at treating post-COVID lung fibrosis and analyze the rationale for the current drug candidates. We discuss the use of antifibrotic therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the IN01 vaccine, glucocorticosteroids as well as the stromal vascular fraction for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with COVID-associated pulmonary damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; pulmonary fibrosis; rehabilitation; nintedanib; pirfenidone; treamid; deupirfenidone COVID-19; pulmonary fibrosis; rehabilitation; nintedanib; pirfenidone; treamid; deupirfenidone
MDPI and ACS Style

Bazdyrev, E.; Rusina, P.; Panova, M.; Novikov, F.; Grishagin, I.; Nebolsin, V. Lung Fibrosis after COVID-19: Treatment Prospects. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 807.

AMA Style

Bazdyrev E, Rusina P, Panova M, Novikov F, Grishagin I, Nebolsin V. Lung Fibrosis after COVID-19: Treatment Prospects. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(8):807.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bazdyrev, Evgeny, Polina Rusina, Maria Panova, Fedor Novikov, Ivan Grishagin, and Vladimir Nebolsin. 2021. "Lung Fibrosis after COVID-19: Treatment Prospects" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 8: 807.

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