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Erratum published on 27 September 2018, see Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3440.
Article

Conflict over Mining in Rural China: A Comprehensive Survey of Intentions and Strategies for Environmental Activism

by 1 and 2,3,*
1
Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
2
School of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3
Department of International Development, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1669; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su10051669
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Mining causes severe adverse effects such as pollution and forced resettlement. Accordingly, it has prompted conflicts that are also evident in China. Our study assesses whether and how rural residents’ engage in environmental activism (EA) against mining. This is achieved by constructing a model of EA strategies, coupled to variables that examine respondents’ intentions. The model uses data from a survey (n = 352) covering 37 villages spread over 5 provinces and 1 provincial-level municipality. The model is based on a refinement of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Various findings are reported: (1) a majority of respondents (77%) believes that pollution in the mining areas is serious; (2) there is pessimism about the effects of EA with 41% believing it does not improve the environment, and less than one-fifth feeling the government supports EA, contradictorily; (3) well over half has engaged in one or more forms of EA, while (4) dominant EA strategies consist of complaining to local government or village authorities (both over 40%), or open protest (opted for by over 17%); (5) economic dependency and gender affect the intention for EA, as those employed in mining and women are less inclined to participate. Whereas studies pointed to “inclined abstainers” or the “silent majority”, this study ascertains that—with regard to mining—rural residents are not silent. We posit that a threshold of environmental endurance might have been reached. In this context, policymakers need to tackle the adverse effects of mining, as it is likely to generate more violent confrontations that ultimately pose risks to political credibility and social stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: mining; environmentalism; farmers’ resistance; social conflict and protest mining; environmentalism; farmers’ resistance; social conflict and protest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, X.; Ho, P. Conflict over Mining in Rural China: A Comprehensive Survey of Intentions and Strategies for Environmental Activism. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1669. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su10051669

AMA Style

Yang X, Ho P. Conflict over Mining in Rural China: A Comprehensive Survey of Intentions and Strategies for Environmental Activism. Sustainability. 2018; 10(5):1669. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su10051669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Xiuyun, and Peter Ho. 2018. "Conflict over Mining in Rural China: A Comprehensive Survey of Intentions and Strategies for Environmental Activism" Sustainability 10, no. 5: 1669. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su10051669

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