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Article

Environmental and Economic Water Management in Shale Gas Extraction

1
Institute of Chemical Process Engineering, University of Alicante, PO 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12041686
Received: 29 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 21 February 2020 / Published: 24 February 2020
This paper introduces a comprehensive study of the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of water management in shale gas exploitation. First, we present a comprehensive study of wastewater treatment in the shale gas extraction, including the most common technologies for the pretreatment and three different desalination technologies of recent interest: Single and Multiple-Effect Evaporation with Mechanical Vapor Recompression and Membrane Distillation. The analysis has been carried out through a generic Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the ReCiPe metric (at midpoint and endpoint levels), considering a wide range of environmental impacts. The results show that among these technologies Multiple-Effect Evaporation with Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MEE-MVR) is the most suitable technology for the wastewater treatment in shale gas extraction, taking into account its reduced environmental impact, the high water recovery compared to other alternatives as well as the lower cost of this technology. We also use a comprehensive water management model that includes previous results that takes the form of a new Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) bi-criterion optimization model to address the profit maximization and the minimization Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), based on its results we discuss the main tradeoffs between optimal operation from the economic and environmental points of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA); shale gas; wastewater treatment; thermal-based technology; membrane distillation life cycle assessment (LCA); shale gas; wastewater treatment; thermal-based technology; membrane distillation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caballero, J.A.; Labarta, J.A.; Quirante, N.; Carrero-Parreño, A.; Grossmann, I.E. Environmental and Economic Water Management in Shale Gas Extraction. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1686. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12041686

AMA Style

Caballero JA, Labarta JA, Quirante N, Carrero-Parreño A, Grossmann IE. Environmental and Economic Water Management in Shale Gas Extraction. Sustainability. 2020; 12(4):1686. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12041686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caballero, José A., Juan A. Labarta, Natalia Quirante, Alba Carrero-Parreño, and Ignacio E. Grossmann 2020. "Environmental and Economic Water Management in Shale Gas Extraction" Sustainability 12, no. 4: 1686. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su12041686

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