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Review

Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction

1
Division of Nephrology and Kidney Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
2
Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremia and Cardiovascular Disease)
With decreasing kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral bone disorders frequently emerge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For these patients, in addition to the traditional risk factors, non-traditional CKD-specific risk factors are also associated with such diseases and conditions. One of these non-traditional risk factors is the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTs). In addition, the accumulation of UTs further deteriorates kidney function. Recently, a huge number of UTs have been identified. Although many experimental and clinical studies have reported associations between UTs and the progression of CKD, CVD, and bone disease, these relationships are very complex and have not been fully elucidated. Among the UTs, indoxyl sulfate, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and p-cresylsulfate have been of particular focus, up until now. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological influences of these UTs on the kidney, cardiovascular system, and bone, and discuss the clinical data regarding the harmful effects of these UTs on diseases and conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disease; bone disease; indoxyl sulfate; asymmetric dimethylarginine; p-cresylsulfate uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disease; bone disease; indoxyl sulfate; asymmetric dimethylarginine; p-cresylsulfate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujii, H.; Goto, S.; Fukagawa, M. Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction. Toxins 2018, 10, 202. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins10050202

AMA Style

Fujii H, Goto S, Fukagawa M. Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction. Toxins. 2018; 10(5):202. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins10050202

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fujii, Hideki, Shunsuke Goto, and Masafumi Fukagawa. 2018. "Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction" Toxins 10, no. 5: 202. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins10050202

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