Next Article in Journal
Acid Sphingomyelinase Promotes Cellular Internalization of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin
Next Article in Special Issue
Monocentric Prospective Study into the Sustained Effect of Incobotulinumtoxin A (XEOMIN®) Botulinum Toxin in Chronic Refractory Migraine
Previous Article in Journal
Transcriptomic Analysis of Pseudoscorpion Venom Reveals a Unique Cocktail Dominated by Enzymes and Protease Inhibitors
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exploiting Botulinum Neurotoxins for the Study of Brain Physiology and Pathology

The Expanding Therapeutic Utility of Botulinum Neurotoxins

Ipsen Bioinnovation, 102 Park Drive, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4RY, UK
Ipsen Innovation, 5 Avenue du Canada, 91940 Les Ulis, France
Ipsen Biopharm Ltd., Wrexham Industrial Estate, 9 Ash Road, Wrexham LL13 9UF, UK
Ipsen Bioscience, 650 Kendall Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major therapeutic agent that is licensed in neurological indications, such as dystonia and spasticity. The BoNT family, which is produced in nature by clostridial bacteria, comprises several pharmacologically distinct proteins with distinct properties. In this review, we present an overview of the current therapeutic landscape and explore the diversity of BoNT proteins as future therapeutics. In recent years, novel indications have emerged in the fields of pain, migraine, overactive bladder, osteoarthritis, and wound healing. The study of biological effects distal to the injection site could provide future opportunities for disease-tailored BoNT therapies. However, there are some challenges in the pharmaceutical development of BoNTs, such as liquid and slow-release BoNT formulations; and, transdermal, transurothelial, and transepithelial delivery. Innovative approaches in the areas of formulation and delivery, together with highly sensitive analytical tools, will be key for the success of next generation BoNT clinical products. View Full-Text
Keywords: new indications; formulation; delivery new indications; formulation; delivery
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Fonfria, E.; Maignel, J.; Lezmi, S.; Martin, V.; Splevins, A.; Shubber, S.; Kalinichev, M.; Foster, K.; Picaut, P.; Krupp, J. The Expanding Therapeutic Utility of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins 2018, 10, 208.

AMA Style

Fonfria E, Maignel J, Lezmi S, Martin V, Splevins A, Shubber S, Kalinichev M, Foster K, Picaut P, Krupp J. The Expanding Therapeutic Utility of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins. 2018; 10(5):208.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fonfria, Elena; Maignel, Jacquie; Lezmi, Stephane; Martin, Vincent; Splevins, Andrew; Shubber, Saif; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Foster, Keith; Picaut, Philippe; Krupp, Johannes. 2018. "The Expanding Therapeutic Utility of Botulinum Neurotoxins" Toxins 10, no. 5: 208.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop