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Determination of Selected Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Mahonia aquifolia; Meconopsis cambrica; Corydalis lutea; Dicentra spectabilis; Fumaria officinalis; Macleaya cordata Extracts by HPLC-DAD and Comparison of Their Cytotoxic Activity
Review

The Biological Activity of Natural Alkaloids against Herbivores, Cancerous Cells and Pathogens

1
Samih Darwazah Institute for Pharmaceutical Industries, Faculty of Pharmacy Nursing and Health Professions, Birzeit University, Bir Zeit 71939, Palestine
2
Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine
3
Department of Science, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
4
Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, 75100 Matera, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Alkaloids: From Toxicology to Pharmacology)
The growing incidence of microorganisms that resist antimicrobials is a constant concern for the scientific community, while the development of new antimicrobials from new chemical entities has become more and more expensive, time-consuming, and exacerbated by emerging drug-resistant strains. In this regard, many scientists are conducting research on plants aiming to discover possible antimicrobial compounds. The secondary metabolites contained in plants are a source of chemical entities having pharmacological activities and intended to be used for the treatment of different diseases. These chemical entities have the potential to be used as an effective antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents. Among these pharmacologically active entities are the alkaloids which are classified into a number of classes, including pyrrolizidines, pyrrolidines, quinolizidines, indoles, tropanes, piperidines, purines, imidazoles, and isoquinolines. Alkaloids that have antioxidant properties are capable of preventing a variety of degenerative diseases through capturing free radicals, or through binding to catalysts involved indifferent oxidation processes occurring within the human body. Furthermore, these entities are capable of inhibiting the activity of bacteria, fungi, protozoan and etc. The unique properties of these secondary metabolites are the main reason for their utilization by the pharmaceutical companies for the treatment of different diseases. Generally, these alkaloids are extracted from plants, animals and fungi. Penicillin is the most famous natural drug discovery deriving from fungus. Similarly, marines have been used as a source for thousands of bioactive marine natural products. In this review, we cover the medical use of natural alkaloids isolated from a variety of plants and utilized by humans as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anticancer agents. An example for such alkaloids is berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, found in roots and stem-bark of Berberis asculin P. Renault plant and used to kill a variety of microorganisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaloids; natural sources; anticancer; antibacterial; antiviral; antifungal alkaloids; natural sources; anticancer; antibacterial; antiviral; antifungal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thawabteh, A.; Juma, S.; Bader, M.; Karaman, D.; Scrano, L.; Bufo, S.A.; Karaman, R. The Biological Activity of Natural Alkaloids against Herbivores, Cancerous Cells and Pathogens. Toxins 2019, 11, 656. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11110656

AMA Style

Thawabteh A, Juma S, Bader M, Karaman D, Scrano L, Bufo SA, Karaman R. The Biological Activity of Natural Alkaloids against Herbivores, Cancerous Cells and Pathogens. Toxins. 2019; 11(11):656. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11110656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thawabteh, Amin; Juma, Salma; Bader, Mariam; Karaman, Donia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A.; Karaman, Rafik. 2019. "The Biological Activity of Natural Alkaloids against Herbivores, Cancerous Cells and Pathogens" Toxins 11, no. 11: 656. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11110656

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