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Lubricants, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An ultrasonic method was developed to detect lubricant on rolling bearing raceways. It has been implemented both in the lab and an operating wind turbine. Sensors were mounted outside the raceway and sound waves reflected from the inner face. The ratio of reflected ultrasound to transmitted (reflection coefficient, R) was used to infer the raceway interface condition. Recurring reflection coefficient patterns between roller passes were used to identify the bearing lubrication condition. For the field measurements, three bearing lubrication conditions (partial, insufficient, and fully lubricated) were observed. The former two were found to occur mostly during transient operation. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Grease Degradation through Contact Angle Approach
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010011 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Grease is highly susceptible to degradation due to regular usage and the severity of the operating conditions. Degradation can negatively impact the performance of grease-lubricated machinery, demanding frequent maintenance to avoid premature failure of machine elements. Quantification of grease degradation has proven to [...] Read more.
Grease is highly susceptible to degradation due to regular usage and the severity of the operating conditions. Degradation can negatively impact the performance of grease-lubricated machinery, demanding frequent maintenance to avoid premature failure of machine elements. Quantification of grease degradation has proven to be a formidable task, for which no accepted standards are currently available. In this paper, we extend the results of a novel approach developed recently for the evaluation of the water-resistant property in grease to quantify degradation. The methodology is based on measurements of the contact angle of a water droplet on the surface of a sample of grease. We report the results of extensive tests performed on different grades of lithium complex greases to evaluate the variation of contact angle values with the composition of grease. The measurements were compared with penetrometer readings to quantify a relationship between the grease consistency and contact angle. Detailed study results are also presented on three types of greases sheared in a grease worker for a different number of strokes: contact angle and the yield stress values were measured and compared. Finally, the tribological characteristics were determined for two greases that exhibited a low or high change in their contact angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grease)
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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review of Approaches to the Design of Floating-Liner Apparatus for Instantaneous Piston Assembly Friction Measurement
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010010 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Several approaches have been developed to measure instantaneous friction between the piston assembly and cylinder in internal combustion (IC) engines, such as floating-liner, reciprocating liner, instantaneous mean effective pressure (IMEP), fixed sleeve, and (P-ω) method and tribological bench tests. However, the “floating-liner method” [...] Read more.
Several approaches have been developed to measure instantaneous friction between the piston assembly and cylinder in internal combustion (IC) engines, such as floating-liner, reciprocating liner, instantaneous mean effective pressure (IMEP), fixed sleeve, and (P-ω) method and tribological bench tests. However, the “floating-liner method” and the “(IMEP) method” are the most common methods used to measure instantaneous friction between the piston assembly and IC engines. This paper critically evaluates different approaches to the design of the “floating-liner”. The paper begins by discussing piston assembly frictional losses and their significance and then discuss the development of instantaneous piston-friction measurements. After that, it reviews the main design challenges in the floating-liner approach. “Methods of cylinder sealing” and “force balancing methods” are also reviewed. Design challenges associated with firing operation were presented. Floating-liner designs were classified into different categories with a detailed presentation of the features of each. The paper ends by presenting a range of broad recommendations for further work which would benefit future designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of Al2O3 Nanoparticles as Lithium Grease Additives
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010009 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 329
Abstract
The tribological properties of Lithium grease specimens with different concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using a pin on disc apparatus under different sliding speeds and normal loads. Results showed that Al2O3 nanoparticles enhanced the tribological properties [...] Read more.
The tribological properties of Lithium grease specimens with different concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using a pin on disc apparatus under different sliding speeds and normal loads. Results showed that Al2O3 nanoparticles enhanced the tribological properties of lithium grease and reduced the COF and wear scar width by approximately 57.9% and 47.5% respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Nanoclay Concentration and Oil Viscosity on the Rheological and Tribological Properties of Nanoclay-Based Ecolubricants
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010008 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
This manuscript describes a rheological and tribological study carried out on eco-friendly lubricants. These ecolubricants were made up of nanoclays as dispersed phase (a layered nanosilicate (montmorillonite Cloisite 15A) and a fiber-like nanoclay (sepiolite Pangel B20)) and vegetable-based oil as continuous phase (castor [...] Read more.
This manuscript describes a rheological and tribological study carried out on eco-friendly lubricants. These ecolubricants were made up of nanoclays as dispersed phase (a layered nanosilicate (montmorillonite Cloisite 15A) and a fiber-like nanoclay (sepiolite Pangel B20)) and vegetable-based oil as continuous phase (castor oil (CO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and their mixtures). A series of nanoclay-based ecolubricants were prepared by varying both nanoclay concentration and base oil, and thus, its viscosity. Friction and wear behaviors were assessed by using a ball-on-three plates tribometer cell. The results showed that the fiber-like sepiolite Pangel B20 yielded an important reduction in the wear scar diameter, thus revealing its potential as anti-wear and load-carrying additive in ecolubricant formulations, while Cloisite 15A proved to have friction improving properties. These anti-wear and friction reducing properties were found to be influenced by both nanoclay concentration and oil viscosity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Roughness-Induced Adhesive Hysteresis in Self-Affine Fractal Surfaces
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010007 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
It is known that in the presence of surface roughness, adhesion can lead to distinct paths of loading and unloading for the area–load and penetration–load relationships, thus causing hysteretic loss. Here, we investigate the effects that the surface roughness parameters have on such [...] Read more.
It is known that in the presence of surface roughness, adhesion can lead to distinct paths of loading and unloading for the area–load and penetration–load relationships, thus causing hysteretic loss. Here, we investigate the effects that the surface roughness parameters have on such adhesive hysteresis loss. We focus on the frictionless normal contact between soft elastic bodies and, for this reason, we model adhesion according to Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR) theory. Hysteretic energy loss is found to increase linearly with the true area of contact, while the detachment force is negligibly influenced by the maximum applied load reached at the end of the loading phase. Moreover, for the micrometric roughness amplitude hrms considered in the present work, adhesion hysteresis is found to be affected by the shorter wavelengths of roughness. Specifically, hysteresis losses decrease with increasing fractal dimension and cut-off frequency of the roughness spectrum. However, we stress that a different behavior could occur in other ranges of roughness amplitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interfacial Dissipative Phenomena in Tribomechanical Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Lubrication State in a Field Operational Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearing Using Ultrasonic Reflectometry
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010006 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Fully flooded lubrication is the ideal state for a rolling bearing; this is especially true in the aggressive environment of a wind turbine transmission where bearings are subject to intermittent operation and highly variable loading. In this paper, a novel ultrasonic reflection method [...] Read more.
Fully flooded lubrication is the ideal state for a rolling bearing; this is especially true in the aggressive environment of a wind turbine transmission where bearings are subject to intermittent operation and highly variable loading. In this paper, a novel ultrasonic reflection method is used to detect the presence of oil between rollers in the bearing. Ultrasonic sensors were instrumented on the static inner (lab) and outer (field) bearing raceways and reflections were captured as the rollers travelled past the sensor. The proportion of the sound wave reflected (known as the reflection coefficient, R) is dependent on the acoustic mismatch of the materials either side of the interface. Changes in R indicate either a steel–air or steel–oil interface as R values transitioned from 1 to 0.95, respectively, and even lower for a steel–roller interface. Consequently, it was possible to detect the presence of lubricant on the raceway between roller passes. From the laboratory measurements, the recurring reflection coefficient patterns between roller passes were used to identify the lubrication condition of the raceway. An absence of these patterns between roller passes indicated the absence of lubricant on the bearing surface. For the field measurements, three bearing lubrication conditions (partial, insufficient, and fully lubricated) were observed. Partially and insufficiently lubricated datasets were found to occur mostly during transient operation. As transient operation is often accompanied by overloading and torque reversals, coupled with the lubrication issues, these all act to increase the risk of premature bearing failure. Full article
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Open AccessReview
High Temperature Tribology under Linear Oscillation Motion
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010005 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 408
Abstract
High temperature tribology is considered to begin from a minimum temperature of 300–350 °C, where organic base oils and polymers begin to decompose, until a temperature of 1000 °C. In this field of tribology, tests are typically run under dry or solid-state friction, [...] Read more.
High temperature tribology is considered to begin from a minimum temperature of 300–350 °C, where organic base oils and polymers begin to decompose, until a temperature of 1000 °C. In this field of tribology, tests are typically run under dry or solid-state friction, unless a solid lubricant is used, since most lubricants will oxidize or break down when exposed to these extreme temperatures. Therefore, this form of tribotesting is useful to determine the friction, wear, and other tribological characteristics of coatings, ceramics, alloys, cermets, and similar materials. Additionally, high temperature tribology is important to further understand the frictional interactions and adhesive behavior of contacts that operate at these high temperatures. When considering measurements of the tribological parameters in a high temperature application, the standard Schwingung, Reibung, Verschleiž (SRV) (Oscillating, friction, wear, in English) reciprocating, linear-oscillatory tribometer can be modified for testing temperatures of up to 1000 °C by using a high temperature heating block. With this configuration, the instrument can accurately monitor many parameters of the tribosystem, such as coefficient of friction, electrical resistance, zero stroke point, sliding speed, and others. As a result, the SRV instrument is shown to be a powerful tool for high temperature tribotesting. This paper will provide an overview of this high temperature tribology test rig and will discuss its versatility and efficacy, and will show how it can effectively be implemented in both research and practical applications for the development of various coatings and other high temperature tribological contacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Measurement of the Time-Based Development of Oil Film Thickness, Lubricating Film Extent and Lubricant Transport in Crosshead Engines
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010004 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 433
Abstract
This paper describes the design of a test apparatus which simulates the lubrication of large, slow, two-stroke marine engines in which the ring pack is lubricated by means of injectors supplying lubricant above the piston. The equipment is able to control lubricant injection [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design of a test apparatus which simulates the lubrication of large, slow, two-stroke marine engines in which the ring pack is lubricated by means of injectors supplying lubricant above the piston. The equipment is able to control lubricant injection parameters (volume, frequency, etc.) and employs capacitance based lubricant film thickness transducers to allow instantaneous oil film thickness and film extent around the compression ring to be investigated on a stroke-by-stroke basis. It is demonstrated that the equipment can be used to study the development of lubricating films on successive strokes under differing injection strategies. Time varying changes in lubricating film thickness and film extent have been measured and the rate at which the lubricant spreads across the cylinder wall has also been investigated. It has been observed that increases in oil-film thickness are strongly linked to the transition from starved to fully-flooded inlet conditions and that net lubricant transport rates along different parts of the cylinder can be evaluated from measured data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Effect of the Slip-Pocket in Single and Double Parallel Bearing Considering Cavitation: A Theoretical Approach
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010003 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 341
Abstract
In this paper, based on an analytical approach, the effect of pockets and boundary slip on the hydrodynamic performance of parallel sliding surfaces considering cavitation is investigated. A modified Reynolds theory is developed for solving two kinds of bearings: a single and a [...] Read more.
In this paper, based on an analytical approach, the effect of pockets and boundary slip on the hydrodynamic performance of parallel sliding surfaces considering cavitation is investigated. A modified Reynolds theory is developed for solving two kinds of bearings: a single and a double pocket bearing. The performance is compared with respect to the variation of the pocket depth, pocket length, slip, and no-slip situation. The results show that the maximum pressure and load support increases with the reduction in pocket length. The main finding is that the pocket depth reduces the cavitation area. However, in the case of a single pocket, the role of pocket depth is more significant in reducing the cavitation effect than that in the case of a double pocket bearing. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Tribology—A Perspective
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010002 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Artificial intelligence and, in particular, machine learning methods have gained notable attention in the tribological community due to their ability to predict tribologically relevant parameters such as, for instance, the coefficient of friction or the oil film thickness. This perspective aims at highlighting [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence and, in particular, machine learning methods have gained notable attention in the tribological community due to their ability to predict tribologically relevant parameters such as, for instance, the coefficient of friction or the oil film thickness. This perspective aims at highlighting some of the recent advances achieved by implementing artificial intelligence, specifically artificial neutral networks, towards tribological research. The presentation and discussion of successful case studies using these approaches in a tribological context clearly demonstrates their ability to accurately and efficiently predict these tribological characteristics. Regarding future research directions and trends, we emphasis on the extended use of artificial intelligence and machine learning concepts in the field of tribology including the characterization of the resulting surface topography and the design of lubricated systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Tribology)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Static Seal Contact Mechanics Including Hydrostatic Load at the Contacting Interface
Lubricants 2021, 9(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/lubricants9010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
A finite element model of a static seal assembled in its housing has been built and is utilized to study how the seal deforms under varying loading conditions. The total contact load on the sealing surface is balanced by the sealed fluid pressure [...] Read more.
A finite element model of a static seal assembled in its housing has been built and is utilized to study how the seal deforms under varying loading conditions. The total contact load on the sealing surface is balanced by the sealed fluid pressure and the friction between the seal and the housing sidewall perpendicular to the sealing surface. The effect of the sealed fluid pressure between the sealing surfaces was investigated and the simulation showed that the surface profile is distorted due to the hydrostatic pressure. We study the distorted contact profile with varying sealed fluid pressure and propose five parameters to describe the corresponding contact pressure profile. One of these parameters, overshoot pressure, a measure of the difference between maximum contact pressure and the sealed fluid pressure, is an indicator of sealing performance. The simulations performed show different behaviors of the overshoot pressure with sealed fluid pressure for cosinusoidal and parabolic surfaces with the same peak to valley (PV) value. Full article
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