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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2021) – 39 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Child maltreatment is a serious and global problem. In battling this problem, child welfare professionals make decisions on children’s safety on a daily basis. One of the most important decisions to be made is whether or not a child needs to be safeguarded immediately. Many child welfare agencies have implemented safety assessment instruments to support professionals in these safety decisions. However, the quality of these instruments is understudied. Therefore, this study examined the concurrent validity of a child safety assessment instrument by comparing its outcomes to decisions of expert panels. The findings show how the instrument can be improved and give insight into how professionals make decisions in relation to children’s immediate safety. View this paper.
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Article
Becoming White in a White Supremacist State: The Public and Psychological Wages of Whiteness for Undocumented 1.5-Generation Brazilians
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050184 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
This study draws on in-depth and longitudinal interviews with twenty-nine 1.5-generation Brazilian immigrants, all of whom can pass as white and experienced illegality in young adulthood. I argue that they benefit from what W.E.B. Du Bois calls “the public and psychological wages of [...] Read more.
This study draws on in-depth and longitudinal interviews with twenty-nine 1.5-generation Brazilian immigrants, all of whom can pass as white and experienced illegality in young adulthood. I argue that they benefit from what W.E.B. Du Bois calls “the public and psychological wages of whiteness”. That is, white and white-passing, undocumented 1.5-generation Brazilian men and women can largely navigate public space without being stopped, questioned, arrested, detained and/or deported. Additionally, they benefit psychologically—as they gain confidence due to perceived whiteness, even as their immigration status would render them vulnerable to exploitation in the labor market and deportation. These public and psychological wages of whiteness can facilitate social and material gains. I argue that there are three mechanisms by which they experience the wages of whiteness. First, whiteness brings assumed innocence. Second, white racial solidarity with other whites facilitates opportunities and protection. Third, some 1.5-generation Brazilians actively construct whiteness to accrue the public and psychological wages. These findings challenge the master status perspective of illegality and underscore the importance of an intersectional framework for understanding immigrants’ varied experiences with illegality, bringing to light the quotidian, gendered practices and identities that sustain the structures of white supremacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
Article
What Do Those Cohabiting Believe about Relationship Social Support and Premarital Counseling? A Comparative Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050183 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Relationship researchers have long studied factors that boost or detract from relationship success. Social support and premarital counseling are factors that have been shown to boost relationship satisfaction and relationship success. However, little is known about how relationship status may influence attitudes toward [...] Read more.
Relationship researchers have long studied factors that boost or detract from relationship success. Social support and premarital counseling are factors that have been shown to boost relationship satisfaction and relationship success. However, little is known about how relationship status may influence attitudes toward social support and premarital counseling. Using a human ecology lens, this study explores the relationship between relationship status and attitudes toward social support and premarital counseling from a sample of 385 individuals. Implications for family practitioners and future researchers are provided based on study results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
Article
Mother’s Partnership Status and Allomothering Networks in the United Kingdom and United States
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050182 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
In high-income, low-fertility (HILF) settings, the mother’s partner is a key provider of childcare. However, it is not clear how mothers without partners draw on other sources of support to raise children. This paper reports the findings from a survey of 1532 women [...] Read more.
In high-income, low-fertility (HILF) settings, the mother’s partner is a key provider of childcare. However, it is not clear how mothers without partners draw on other sources of support to raise children. This paper reports the findings from a survey of 1532 women in the United Kingdom and the United States, in which women described who provided childcare for a focal child and how frequently they did so. We use multivariate Bayesian regression models to explore the drivers of support from partners, maternal kin, and other allomothers, as well as the potential impact of allomothering on women’s fertility. Relative to mothers who are in a stable first marriage or cohabitation, mothers who are unpartnered rely more heavily on fewer maternal kin, use more paid help, and have networks which include more non-kin helpers. Repartnered mothers received less help from their partners in the UK and less help from maternal kin in both countries, which US mothers compensated for by relying on other helpers. While repartnered mothers had higher age-adjusted fertility than women in a first partnership, allomaternal support was not clearly related to the mother’s fertility. These findings demonstrate the importance of partners but also of allomothering more broadly in HILF settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
Opening the “Black Box” of University Entrepreneurial Intention in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050181 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
This research aims to study the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in academia and compare the outcomes from two different moments, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology was used, whereby a questionnaire was given to higher education students [...] Read more.
This research aims to study the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in academia and compare the outcomes from two different moments, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology was used, whereby a questionnaire was given to higher education students in these two chronological moments. From the obtained results, it was possible to ascertain that, given the motivational dimension, the attitude towards behavior and perceived behavioral control are having a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions during the pandemic and that subjective norms have a negative impact on entrepreneurial intentions. This relationship of influences is unchanged, either before or during the pandemic. Regarding the environmental dimension, both of the variables under analysis are having a negative impact on entrepreneurial intention during the pandemic period, which corresponds to an aggravation or loss of positive influences when compared to the context before the pandemic, and the next assessment had a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions. On the theoretical contributions, the findings are very important, as they strengthen the literature on entrepreneurial intentions, and in specific contexts of social and economic instability. As for practical contributions, this research suggests actions to agents with an important intervention role in the community, one of these agents is Higher Education Institutions, which play a determining role by creating a positive environment to support their students’ entrepreneurial intent. This research is original, as far as we are informed, and it is the first to study entrepreneurial intention in academia during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Portuguese context. Moreover, we suggest that the obtained results should be succeeded by further studies to confirm the evolutionary trends now identified on the subject under analysis. Full article
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Article
Writing Educational Success. The Strategies of Immigrant-Origin Students in Italian Secondary Schools
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050180 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
This article provides an insight into ethnic inequalities in education, from the point of view of successful students with an immigrant background. Since the 1990s, educational and migration studies have examined the unexpected pathways of disadvantaged students: researchers tested different hypotheses concerning drivers [...] Read more.
This article provides an insight into ethnic inequalities in education, from the point of view of successful students with an immigrant background. Since the 1990s, educational and migration studies have examined the unexpected pathways of disadvantaged students: researchers tested different hypotheses concerning drivers of success, highlighting social, family, and institutional mechanisms that have reproduced inequalities but also generated new opportunities. The educational success of students with a migrant background, however, is under-investigated in Italy, which represents a relevant context in which to explore the coexistence of persisting educational drawbacks and successful schooling for the children of migrants, born in Italy or abroad. Using data from a qualitative study carried out in northern Italy, the analysis is based on autobiographies written by an heterogenous group of 65 students of immigrant origin attending different types of upper secondary schools. The analysis reveals the presence of different meanings, attitudes, and narratives of success among these students, which vary according to the different cohorts of immigrant-origin students. Each group implements different successful strategies—standing out, working hard, waiting—inspired by individualistic and collective logics, which can imply specific risks for students and different types of impact on equal opportunities and social cohesion. These findings could open new avenues of research and intervention, helping policymakers and practitioners to think and act, given that success is indeed possible for immigrant-origin students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Article
Unfinished Decriminalization: The Impact of Section 19 of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 on Migrant Sex Workers’ Rights and Lives in Aotearoa New Zealand
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050179 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
In 2003, Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) passed the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (PRA), which decriminalized sex work for NZ citizens and holders of permanent residency (PR) while excluding migrant sex workers (MSWs) from its protection. This is due to Section 19 (s19) of [...] Read more.
In 2003, Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) passed the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 (PRA), which decriminalized sex work for NZ citizens and holders of permanent residency (PR) while excluding migrant sex workers (MSWs) from its protection. This is due to Section 19 (s19) of the PRA, added at the last minute against advice by the Aotearoa New Zealand Sex Workers’ Collective (NZPC) as an anti-trafficking clause. Because of s19, migrants on temporary visas found to be working as sex workers are liable to deportation by Immigration New Zealand (INZ). Drawing on original ethnographic and interview data gathered over 24 months of fieldwork, our study finds that migrant sex workers in New Zealand are vulnerable to violence and exploitation, and are too afraid to report these to the police for fear of deportation, corroborating earlier studies and studies completed while we were collecting data. Full article
Article
Protective Factors against Emergency Stress and Burnout in Healthcare and Emergency Workers during Second Wave of COVID-19
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050178 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Working as healthcare workers (HCWs) and emergency workers (EWs) during the first wave of COVID-19 has been associated with high levels of stress and burnout, while hardiness, coping strategies and resilience have emerged as protective factors. No studies have so far investigated these [...] Read more.
Working as healthcare workers (HCWs) and emergency workers (EWs) during the first wave of COVID-19 has been associated with high levels of stress and burnout, while hardiness, coping strategies and resilience have emerged as protective factors. No studies have so far investigated these psychological factors during the second wave. We aimed to verify the trend of stress levels, burnout, coping strategies and resilience during the pandemic in Italian healthcare and emergency workers by comparing a first sample recruited from the first COVID-19 wave (N = 240) with a second sample relating to the second wave (N = 260). Through an online platform we administered questionnaires to measure stress, burnout, resilience, hardiness and coping strategies. The results showed that in the two waves the total stress levels of HCWs and EWs did not differ, while the physical stress and hardiness scores in the second wave were greater. No differences were found in the coping strategies used. An analysis of burnout levels in the second wave sample found that stress showed a high predictive power in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scales. Hardiness and resilience emerged as protective factors in reducing stress. The implications for the need to provide support and to improve hardiness for HCWs and EWs are discussed. Full article
Article
Do Data from Large Personal Networks Support Cultural Evolutionary Ideas about Kin and Fertility?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050177 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
The fertility decline associated with economic development has been attributed to a host of interrelated causes including the rising costs of children with industrialization, and shifts in family structure. One hypothesis is that kin may impart more pro-natal information within their networks than [...] Read more.
The fertility decline associated with economic development has been attributed to a host of interrelated causes including the rising costs of children with industrialization, and shifts in family structure. One hypothesis is that kin may impart more pro-natal information within their networks than non-kin, and that this effect may be exacerbated in networks with high kin-density where greater social conformity would be expected. In this study, we tested these ideas using large personal networks (25 associates of the respondent) collected from a sample of Dutch women (N = 706). Kin (parents) were perceived to exert slightly more social pressure to have children than non-kin, although dense networks were not associated with greater pressure. In contrast, women reported talking to friends about having children to a greater extent than kin, although greater kin-density in the network increased the likelihood of women reporting that they could talk to kin about having children. Both consanguineal and affinal kin could be asked to help with child-care to a greater extent than friends and other non-kin. Overall, there was mixed evidence that kin were more likely to offer pro-natal information than non-kin, and better evidence to suggest that kin were considered to be a better source of child-care support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
From Conventional to Alternative Tourism: Rebalancing Tourism towards a Community-Based Tourism Approach in Hanoi, Vietnam
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050176 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
This article proposes an alternative tourism development approach that we have termed ‘rebalancing’, which is based on tourism development adopting Community-based Tourism (CBT) principles and characteristics whose hallmark is to give local control of the tourism sector to disadvantaged members of society. The [...] Read more.
This article proposes an alternative tourism development approach that we have termed ‘rebalancing’, which is based on tourism development adopting Community-based Tourism (CBT) principles and characteristics whose hallmark is to give local control of the tourism sector to disadvantaged members of society. The article is based on extant literature and uses Hanoi as a case study to articulate the role of CBT against a backdrop of the growth and presence of large international hotel chains in Hanoi following the adoption of the Doi Moi policy. The increase in international hotel chains poses a high risk of an increase in leakages. The accommodation sub-sector and food sector are essential in tourism in Hanoi, as they are elsewhere. These provide small businesses the opportunity to participate in the name of inclusivity, empowerment, and poverty alleviation. For the authenticity of Hanoi and respecting its traditions and values, we propose a model of growth for Hanoi that includes food street vendors alongside large international hotel chains, large national (privately owned) hotels (nationally/locally owned), small independent national hotels (locally owned), bed and breakfast/guesthouse (locally owned), backpackers (locally owned), homestay (locally owned), ‘Albergo Diffuso’ (locally owned), LCBT accommodation (locally owned), CBT (Independently owned structures under an umbrella organization), and CBT (community-owned structures). It also suggests the retention of traditional architecture for the diversity and uniqueness of Hanoi. It recommends that the government should not promulgate legislation and policies that attempt to limit the scope of food street vending but rather empower food street vendors to grow and prosper. This should be done alongside specific legislation that sets minimum standards related to hygiene on the streets for inclusive growth and poverty alleviation. Full article
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Article
‘I Think It Will Be Like This Forever’: How Family Narratives Affect Participation in a Childhood Weight Management Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050175 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The family represents the cause of as well as the solution to childhood overweight in many family-based childhood weight management interventions. Involving the family also entails involving the individual family members’ experiences with, attitudes towards, and understandings of obesity. This study explores how [...] Read more.
The family represents the cause of as well as the solution to childhood overweight in many family-based childhood weight management interventions. Involving the family also entails involving the individual family members’ experiences with, attitudes towards, and understandings of obesity. This study explores how families with life-long experiences of overweight manage and experience a family-based childhood weight management intervention in Northern Zealand in Denmark. The analysis is focused on family narratives and their temporal character. The families’ narratives about overweight and past weight management interventions are crucial to how they understand and manage the present intervention. Additionally, the families expect the focus on weight management to continue to be a constant part of their everyday life. The paper concludes that the understanding of weight management in interventions should take its point of departure in the life-world, which the individual family creates through members’ narratives about overweight. Full article
Article
The Role of Spousal Separation on Norms Related to Gender and Sexuality among Himba Pastoralists
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050174 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The gender-specific labor demands of arid pastoralism often lead to spousal separation. Men typically respond in one of two ways: engage in mate guarding tactics, or loosen restrictions on female sexuality. Among Himba pastoralists in northwest Namibia, the latter strategy is dominant. Rooted [...] Read more.
The gender-specific labor demands of arid pastoralism often lead to spousal separation. Men typically respond in one of two ways: engage in mate guarding tactics, or loosen restrictions on female sexuality. Among Himba pastoralists in northwest Namibia, the latter strategy is dominant. Rooted in a history of matriliny, Himba have strong norms promoting female sexual autonomy. We propose that these conditions, combined with a stochastic resource base, have led to women utilizing a combination of formal and informal partnerships to meet their needs and the needs of their children. Aspects of Himba socioecology also increase the costs of mate guarding for men and lower the costs of extra-pair paternity, further bolstering a concurrency strategy. Using a mix of quantitative and qualitative data, we show how spousal separation, female autonomy, and concurrency are linked, and suggest that in this harsh environment having a mix of formal and informal romantic partners may be less costly and more beneficial than a system of monogamous marriage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
Access to Higher Education in French Africa South of the Sahara
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050173 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 844
Abstract
This article examines the evolution of the educational situation in French West Africa (FWA) and French Equatorial Africa (FEA) from the onset of colonization until independence. Our central theme is the tragic deprivation endured by the public school system, especially in FEA, which [...] Read more.
This article examines the evolution of the educational situation in French West Africa (FWA) and French Equatorial Africa (FEA) from the onset of colonization until independence. Our central theme is the tragic deprivation endured by the public school system, especially in FEA, which handed over primary education to Catholic missions and slowed down secondary education; in FWA, only one university was belatedly created in Senegal (1958). The education of girls remained non-existent. The article is based upon a large number of mostly unpublished doctoral works, a handful of published studies, and half a century of personal inquiries, conducted mainly in Gabon, Congo and Senegal. This paper establishes a connection between the lack of political skills based upon Western standards of the colonized peoples on the eve of independence to the training of their civil servants which was drastically limited to secondary school education and the major hurdles involved in obtaining French nationality except for the residents of the Four Communes of Senegal. At the time of independence, only a few thousand colonized people had reached the level of university that was being established in the early 1950s; even fewer received scholarships to study in France. This shortage of trained personnel in administration and education required massive recourse to French “coopérants”, whose presence would only gradually diminish from the 1970s. Full article
Article
The Influence of Government Effectiveness and Corruption on the High Levels of Homicide in Latin America
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050172 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Most research that has examined the international variation in homicide levels has focused on structural variables, with the suggestion that socio-economic development operates as a cure for violence. In Latin America, development has occurred, but high homicide levels remain, suggesting the involvement of [...] Read more.
Most research that has examined the international variation in homicide levels has focused on structural variables, with the suggestion that socio-economic development operates as a cure for violence. In Latin America, development has occurred, but high homicide levels remain, suggesting the involvement of other influencing factors. We posit that government effectiveness and corruption control may contribute to explaining the variation in homicide levels, and in particular in the Latin America region. Our results show that social and economic structural variables are useful but are not conclusive in explaining the variation in homicide levels and that the relationship between homicide, government effectiveness, and corruption control was significant and highly pronounced for countries in the Latin American region. The findings highlight the importance of supporting institutions in improving their effectiveness in Latin America so that reductions in homicide (and improvements in citizen security in general) can be achieved. Full article
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Article
It’s a Hard-Knock Life: Child Labor Practices and Compliance with IMF Agreements
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050171 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 970
Abstract
How does IMF lending impact child labor? We argue that, as compliance with IMF reforms increases, child labor increases. IMF loans can help governments avoid bankruptcy, prevent debt defaults, and credibly signal a commitment to pro-market reforms which should generate trade and investment. [...] Read more.
How does IMF lending impact child labor? We argue that, as compliance with IMF reforms increases, child labor increases. IMF loans can help governments avoid bankruptcy, prevent debt defaults, and credibly signal a commitment to pro-market reforms which should generate trade and investment. However, IMF policies associated with revenue and social policies can have negative impacts on child labor. Education reforms undermine the quality of schooling, making child labor more likely. Healthcare reforms undermine the quality of healthcare; when parents are ill or injured, their children are more likely to enter the workforce to make up for lost income. Similarly, social safety net reforms reduce the ability of families to access a safety net during times of hardship and make it more likely that children are pushed into the labor market to keep families afloat. To test our argument, we use a control function selection model on a sample of 70 IMF borrowers between 2002 and 2016. Using new datasets on IMF compliance and child labor, we find that increased compliance with IMF reforms worsens child labor practices. Revenue and social policy compliance in particular are associated with an increase in child labor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trade and Human Rights)
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Article
Credibility of Digital Political News in Spain: Comparison between Traditional Media and Social Media
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050170 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
In the context of the dissemination of fake news and the traditional media outlets’ loss of centrality, the credibility of digital news emerges as a key factor for today’s democracies. The main goal of this paper was to identify the levels of credibility [...] Read more.
In the context of the dissemination of fake news and the traditional media outlets’ loss of centrality, the credibility of digital news emerges as a key factor for today’s democracies. The main goal of this paper was to identify the levels of credibility that Spanish citizens assign to political news in the online environment. A national survey (n = 1669) was designed to assess how the news format affected credibility and likelihood of sharing. Four different news formats were assessed, two of them linked to traditional media (digital newspapers and digital television) and two to social media (Facebook and WhatsApp). Four experimental groups assigned a credibility score and a likelihood of sharing score to four different political news items presented in the aforementioned digital formats. The comparison between the mean credibility scores assigned to the same news item presented in different formats showed significant differences among groups, as did the likelihood of sharing the news. News items shown in a traditional media format, especially digital television, were assigned more credibility than news presented in a social media format, and participants were also more likely to share the former, revealing a more cautious attitude towards social media as a source of news. Full article
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Article
Religion and Workers’ Associations for Decent Work in Spain
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050169 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 963
Abstract
This paper analyzes the role of Catholic religious organizations and worker groups in their commitment to achieve the promotion of decent working conditions. Methodologically, critical discourse analysis (CDA) and the valuation of social anthropology applied to social and political regulations are used. The [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the role of Catholic religious organizations and worker groups in their commitment to achieve the promotion of decent working conditions. Methodologically, critical discourse analysis (CDA) and the valuation of social anthropology applied to social and political regulations are used. The results show that defending decent work means putting people at the heart of matters and considering work a fundamental right for the dignity of human life. Conclusions show that actions such as guaranteeing workers’ rights, extending social protections, and promoting social dialogue are seen as essential in achieving the aim of decent work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Article
Asian Americans’ Indifference to Black Lives Matter: The Role of Nativity, Belonging and Acknowledgment of Anti-Black Racism
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050168 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
This paper assesses how ongoing historical racism and nativism as embedded within U.S. culture requires new and important dialogues about the omnipresence of White supremacy and its interconnected mechanisms that divide communities along the lines of race and perceived in-group status. To assess [...] Read more.
This paper assesses how ongoing historical racism and nativism as embedded within U.S. culture requires new and important dialogues about the omnipresence of White supremacy and its interconnected mechanisms that divide communities along the lines of race and perceived in-group status. To assess the role of immigration as it is understood through paradigms of White supremacy and systemic racism, the current study examines individual-level predictors of indifference to the BLM movement based on nativity status among Asian Americans—a racialized pan-ethnic group that is comprised of predominantly foreign-born members. Using the 2016 Collaborative Multiracial Post-Election Survey, one of the few nationally representative surveys that include detailed information about the Black Lives Matter movement, our study includes 1371 Asian immigrants (i.e., foreign-born Asian Americans) and 1635 U.S.-born Asian Americans. Results demonstrate that reporting indifference to the BLM movement differ by nativity such that foreign-born Asian Americans were significantly more likely to report indifference to the BLM movement compared to their U.S.-born Asian American counterparts. However, the impact of nativity disappears once we account for sense of belonging and acknowledgement of anti-Black racism. The sense of belonging was significant in predicting indifference to the BLM movement among U.S.-born Asian Americans only. The findings contribute to our understanding of racial sense making for Asian Americans as well as an understanding of how White supremacy translates to anti-Black racism through multiple and interconnected mechanisms for the maintenance of White supremacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
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Article
Child Safety Assessment: Do Instrument-Based Decisions Concur with Decisions of Expert Panels?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050167 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 941
Abstract
To make decisions on children’s immediate safety, child welfare agencies have been using safety assessment instruments for decades. However, very little research on the quality of these instruments has been conducted. This study is the first to inspect the concurrent validity of a [...] Read more.
To make decisions on children’s immediate safety, child welfare agencies have been using safety assessment instruments for decades. However, very little research on the quality of these instruments has been conducted. This study is the first to inspect the concurrent validity of a child safety assessment instrument by comparing its outcomes to a different measure of immediate child safety. It was examined to what extent decisions of practitioners using a safety assessment instrument concur with decisions of child maltreatment expert panels. A total of 26 experts on immediate child safety participated in 7 expert panels, in which the safety of children as described in 24 vignettes was discussed. Additionally, 74 practitioners rated the same vignettes using the ARIJ safety assessment instrument. The instrument-based safety decisions of practitioners concurred for a small majority with the safety decisions reached by the expert panels (58% agreement). Expert panels often identified more types of immediate safety threats than practitioners using the instrument; however, the latter group more often deemed the child to be in immediate danger than the first group. These findings provide indications on how the instrument can be improved and give insight into how immediate safety decisions are made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Muslim Solidarity and the Lack of Effective Protection for Rohingya Refugees in Southeast Asia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050166 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Southeast Asia has the weakest normative frameworks for refugee protection of any region in the world apart from the Middle East. Only two out of ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have signed the 1951 International Refugee Convention. [...] Read more.
Southeast Asia has the weakest normative frameworks for refugee protection of any region in the world apart from the Middle East. Only two out of ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have signed the 1951 International Refugee Convention. Nevertheless, the 2012 ASEAN Human Rights Declaration explicitly mentions the right to seek and receive asylum ‘in accordance with the laws of such State and applicable international agreements’ (ASEAN 2012). One of the litmus tests for this right has been the regional treatment of the Rohingya, a Muslim minority from Myanmar that faces forced displacement, discrimination, and large-scale state violence. Based on media content analysis and a scientific literature review, this paper sheds light on how ASEAN’s most prominent Muslim member countries, Indonesia and Malaysia, advocate on behalf of the forcibly displaced Rohingya. In particular, this paper focuses on competing forms of political interventions and shifting notions of Muslim solidarity. While Indonesia and Malaysia have been very vocal in bilateral, regional, and international forums to criticise the Myanmar government for their violation of basic human rights, both countries remain highly reluctant to offer sanctuary to Rohingya refugees, of which several thousand have attempted to reach Indonesia and Malaysia. This research finds that the notion of Muslim solidarity remains a symbolic rhetoric primarily directed at domestic audiences and the failure to render effective protection to refugees has rather increased over the last five years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Displaced People in Exceptional Times)
Article
School Inquiry in Secondary Education: The Experience of the Fiesta de la Historia Youth Congress in Seville
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050165 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
In secondary education, the focus of history teaching must be on the development of global citizenship. The present research was a study contextualized in the Fiesta de la Historia Youth Congress in Seville (Spain). A documentary analysis with a descriptive and interpretive design [...] Read more.
In secondary education, the focus of history teaching must be on the development of global citizenship. The present research was a study contextualized in the Fiesta de la Historia Youth Congress in Seville (Spain). A documentary analysis with a descriptive and interpretive design was made of 63 projects of inquiry that pupils carried out. The main objectives were to assess the incidence of the proposal in terms of participation, and to determine whether the pupils’ projects followed a logic of inquiry about socially relevant problems which favors the construction of global citizenship. The results point to a low incidence of schools participating in this initiative. The projects of inquiry analyzed present, for the most part, themes related to the historical and social heritage of the locality. The proposals are approached as problems of a specific discipline and are worked on through a method based on a pseudoscientific research process. The findings indicate the need to continue implementing initiatives based on school inquiry that allow the teaching of history to be articulated around relevant social problems, with the objective being to develop citizenship skills. Full article
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Article
The Consensus on Citizenship Education Purposes in Teacher Education
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050164 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Although education for democratic citizenship has long been a powerful rationale for social studies education, researchers still report a significant gap between this purpose and what is really taught in classrooms. Explanations of this phenomenon vary, but literature on citizenship education (CE) research [...] Read more.
Although education for democratic citizenship has long been a powerful rationale for social studies education, researchers still report a significant gap between this purpose and what is really taught in classrooms. Explanations of this phenomenon vary, but literature on citizenship education (CE) research has largely interpreted this gap as a result of (preservice) teachers’ political worldviews or lack of civic experiences. Other evidence, however, suggests that teacher socialization processes generate conventions about what is necessary, possible, and reasonable in CE that go beyond teachers’ political views and behaviors. This mixed-method study, developed at a Spanish university, aims to explore the understandings of CE shared by preservice teachers with different political ideologies and levels of civic engagement. The findings of this study have deep implications for teacher education courses aimed at fostering CE and the curricular inclusion of current social issues. Full article
Article
Racialization and Aporophobia: Intersecting Discriminations in the Experiences of Non-Western Migrants and Spanish Roma
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050163 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
In this article, we address a gap in the scholarship on (super)diversity, discrimination and racism by placing the experiences of non-western migrants and Roma people in the same conceptual framework of stigmatization based on racialization and aporophobia. Including a (formally non-recognized) national minority, [...] Read more.
In this article, we address a gap in the scholarship on (super)diversity, discrimination and racism by placing the experiences of non-western migrants and Roma people in the same conceptual framework of stigmatization based on racialization and aporophobia. Including a (formally non-recognized) national minority, the Spanish Roma, in such an analysis implies moving from a framework of superdiversity applied to immigrants to a broader one, which also applies the notion of superdiversity to the racialized citizens of a country, shifting the focus from inner-group features to exogenous othering processes by the mainstream society. We aim to also contribute to the literature on the race–class binary with our empirically grounded analysis of how racialization and aporophobia intersect in the negative stereotyping of people who are cast as outsiders based on both their race/ethnicity and (assumed) socio-economic status. Data from several different research projects on migrant and Roma inclusion/exclusion in Spain were used for the analysis, which focuses on the intersections between race and class in the narratives on exclusion and discrimination by 185 migrant and Roma men and women that were interviewed between 2004 and 2021. The analysis shows that our Roma and migrant respondents perceive forms of discrimination based on racialization and aporophobia that are similar in several ways. In turn, the “double stigmatization” experienced by many of our respondents reinforces their actual precariousness, which may be understood both as a cause and consequence of this stigmatization. We found that these experiences were salient in the narratives of both non-western migrant and Roma respondents who find themselves part of a “racialized underclass” and struggle with finding ways to exit the vicious circle of devalued identities and material deprivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racialized Citizenship in Superdiverse Europe)
Review
Gender Equality and Modernity in Portugal. An Analysis on the Obstacles to Gender Equality in Highly Qualified Professions
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050162 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
In this review article, we argue that the transformations related to the modernisation of Portuguese society triggered by the implementation of democracy did not fully accommodate gender equality. In particular, when we consider the areas where the most progress has been made in [...] Read more.
In this review article, we argue that the transformations related to the modernisation of Portuguese society triggered by the implementation of democracy did not fully accommodate gender equality. In particular, when we consider the areas where the most progress has been made in keeping with a broadly shared urge for modernisation, education and science; whereas women have contributed to boosting the Portuguese population’s level of education, thus inverting the worst legacy of the dictatorship and developing scientific research, gender inequalities are still visible in highly qualified professions. Reviewing the results of studies from different professions, science, medicine and engineering, our analysis illustrates several factors that hinder not only the recognition of women’s competences and merit at work but also their career opportunities. Some of these factors are rooted in the type of gender ideology that was central to the propaganda of the dictatorship, thereby establishing continuity with the previous regime that seems particularly difficult to break in the absence of women’s voices to raise awareness on gender equality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Relations at Work: Persistent Patterns and Social Change)
Review
Married Too Young? The Behavioral Ecology of ‘Child Marriage’
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050161 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
For girls and women, marriage under 18 years is commonplace in many low-income nations today and was culturally widespread historically. Global health campaigns refer to marriage below this threshold as ‘child marriage’ and increasingly aim for its universal eradication, citing its apparent negative [...] Read more.
For girls and women, marriage under 18 years is commonplace in many low-income nations today and was culturally widespread historically. Global health campaigns refer to marriage below this threshold as ‘child marriage’ and increasingly aim for its universal eradication, citing its apparent negative wellbeing consequences. Here, we outline and evaluate four alternative hypotheses for the persistence of early marriage, despite its associations with poor wellbeing, arising from the theoretical framework of human behavioral ecology. First, early marriage may be adaptive (e.g., it maximizes reproductive success), even if detrimental to wellbeing, when life expectancy is short. Second, parent–offspring conflict may explain early marriage, with parents profiting economically at the expense of their daughter’s best interests. Third, early marriage may be explained by intergenerational conflict, whereby girls marry young to emancipate themselves from continued labor within natal households. Finally, both daughters and parents from relatively disadvantaged backgrounds favor early marriage as a ‘best of a bad job strategy’ when it represents the best option given a lack of feasible alternatives. The explanatory power of each hypothesis is context-dependent, highlighting the complex drivers of life history transitions and reinforcing the need for context-specific policies addressing the vulnerabilities of adolescence worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
Are Mothers and Daughters Most Important? How Gender, Childhood Family Dissolution and Parents’ Current Living Arrangements Affect the Personal Care of Parents
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050160 - 03 May 2021
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
This study examines adult children’s propensity to provide personal care to older mothers and fathers. The theory of intergenerational solidarity facilitates the understanding of commitment and support between adult children and parents. Solidarity may depend on childhood events as well as the current [...] Read more.
This study examines adult children’s propensity to provide personal care to older mothers and fathers. The theory of intergenerational solidarity facilitates the understanding of commitment and support between adult children and parents. Solidarity may depend on childhood events as well as the current situation, and we therefore focus on whether there was a parental breakup in childhood and the parent’s current living arrangements. We also focus on the gendered aspects of the relations as earlier research has found stronger matrilinear relationships. The propensity for personal care was analyzed with regression analysis using the 2012 Swedish Generations and Gender Survey. The results show that daughters are more likely than sons to provide personal care to both parents. Parental breakup in childhood does not change the propensity of personal care to any parent. The probability of receiving care is higher for lone mothers than for mothers living with the father, but not for repartnered mothers. Adult children’s care provision does not differ for lone fathers and fathers living with the mother, but children are more likely to provide care to lone fathers than to repartnered fathers. We interpret this to indicate that repartnering weakens ties to fathers but not mothers. The results indicate that the child’s gender and the parent’s living arrangements operate differently with regard to care for mothers and fathers. The most common pattern is care provided from daughters to mothers. For example, daughters of lone mothers are more likely to provide care than sons in the same situation. We conclude that intergenerational solidarity is not affected by parental breakup in childhood but that present living arrangements affect such solidarity in gendered ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
Article
Networks, Innovation and Knowledge Transfer in Tourism Industry: An Empirical Study of SMEs in Portugal
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050159 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
The present study aims to investigate how commercialisation and knowledge transfer between the SMEs of the tourism sector and the higher education institutions (HEIs) are made, as well as to find out whether the SMEs of the tourism sector are part of tourism [...] Read more.
The present study aims to investigate how commercialisation and knowledge transfer between the SMEs of the tourism sector and the higher education institutions (HEIs) are made, as well as to find out whether the SMEs of the tourism sector are part of tourism networks, and what their motivations are. We used a qualitative methodology, applying the triangulation method to eight SMEs and one HEI. The results indicate that the commercialisation and knowledge transfer between the SMEs and the HEIs are not effective. SMEs are part of regional networks of business innovation; however, they do not participate in R&D activities with HEIs. Some suggestions were made to SMEs, HEIs, and regional governments to speed up commercialisation and knowledge transfer in the tourism sector. We adapted the Triple Helix Model to the tourism sector, thus creating the “Triple Helix in the Tourism Context”. Only a few studies have researched knowledge commercialisation in the tourism sector, a gap that this article aims to compensate. Full article
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Article
The Persistent Adivasi Demand for Land Rights and the Forest Rights Act 2006 in Kerala, India
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050158 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
This paper asks whether the Forest Rights Act (FRA) passed by the Government of India in 2006 could provide effective access and ownership rights to land and forests for the adivasi communities of Kerala, thereby leading to an enhancement of their entitlements. The [...] Read more.
This paper asks whether the Forest Rights Act (FRA) passed by the Government of India in 2006 could provide effective access and ownership rights to land and forests for the adivasi communities of Kerala, thereby leading to an enhancement of their entitlements. The study was conducted in Wayanad district using qualitative methods of data collection. The FRA, it would seem, raised high expectations in the State Government circles and the Adivasi community. This was at a time when the Government of Kerala was grappling with a stalemate in the implementation of its own laws on adivasi land rights, due to the organized resistance from the settler-farmers and the non-adivasi workers employed in the plantations that were established to provide employment for adivasis. Our analysis shows that due to the inherent problems within the FRA as well as its complex and contested implementation, the FRA could not achieve the promised objectives of correcting historical injustice and provide effective land rights to the adivasis of Wayanad. The role played by the conservation lobby in thwarting the efforts of the Left government is discussed. While granting nominal possession rights (Record of Rights) to the dwelling sites of a small community of adivasis (Kattunaicker, who were traditional forest dwellers), the FRA has failed to provide them with substantive access and ownership rights to land and forests. The adivasis who were able to gain some rights to land have been those who were involved in land occupation struggles. The study reiterates the importance of struggles in gaining effective rights in land. Full article
Article
The Double-Edged Sword of Health and Safety: COVID-19 and the Policing and Exclusion of Migrant Asian Massage Workers in North America
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050157 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Migrant Asian massage workers in North America first experienced the impacts of COVID-19 in the final weeks of January 2020, when business dropped drastically due to widespread xenophobic fears that the virus was concentrated in Chinese diasporic communities. The sustained economic devastation, which [...] Read more.
Migrant Asian massage workers in North America first experienced the impacts of COVID-19 in the final weeks of January 2020, when business dropped drastically due to widespread xenophobic fears that the virus was concentrated in Chinese diasporic communities. The sustained economic devastation, which began at least 8 weeks prior to the first social distancing and shelter in place orders issued in the U.S. and Canada, has been further complicated by a history of aggressive policing of migrant massage workers in the wake of the war against human trafficking. Migrant Asian massage businesses are increasingly policed as locales of potential illicit sex work and human trafficking, as police and anti-trafficking initiatives target migrant Asian massage workers despite the fact that most do not provide sexual services. The scapegoating of migrant Asian massage workers and criminalization of sex work have led to devastating systemic and interpersonal violence, including numerous deportations, arrests, and deaths, most notably the recent murder of eight people at three Atlanta-based spas. The policing of sex workers has historically been mobilized along fears of sexually transmitted disease and infection, and more recently, within the past two decades, around a moral panic against sex trafficking. New racial anxieties around the coronavirus as an Asian disease have been mobilized by the state to further cement the justification of policing Asian migrant workers along the axes of health, migration, and sexual labor. These justifications also solidify discriminatory social welfare regimes that exclude Asian migrant massage workers from accessing services on the basis of the informality and illegality of their work mixed with their precarious citizenship status. This paper draws from ethnographic participant observation and survey data collected by two sex worker organizations that work primarily with massage workers in Toronto and New York City to examine the double-edged sword of policing during the pandemic in the name of anti-trafficking coupled with exclusionary policies regarding emergency relief and social welfare, and its effects on migrant Asian massage workers in North America. Although not all migrant Asian massage workers, including those surveyed in this paper, provide sexual services, they are conflated, targeted, and treated as such by the state and therefore face similar barriers of criminalization, discrimination, and exclusion. This paper recognizes that most migrant Asian massage workers do not identify as sex workers and does not intend to label them as such or reproduce the scapegoating rhetoric used by law enforcement. Rather, it seeks to analyze how exclusionary attitudes and policies towards sex workers are transferred onto migrant Asian massage workers as well whether or not they provide sexual services. Full article
Article
Involved Is an Interesting Word”: An Empirical Case for Redefining School-Based Parental Involvement as Parental Efficacy
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050156 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
School-based parental involvement is a common practice in the United States, and yet there is an emerging view that parents’ involvement in schools may have little if any academic benefit for their children. However, such conclusions are often based on narrowly construed survey [...] Read more.
School-based parental involvement is a common practice in the United States, and yet there is an emerging view that parents’ involvement in schools may have little if any academic benefit for their children. However, such conclusions are often based on narrowly construed survey questions, such as “Did you attend PTA in the past year?”. In our study, we re-examine commonly used measurements of school-based parental involvement using 130 interviews with parents and administrators across three diverse elementary schools. We compare conventional survey measures of school-based parental involvement with our own qualitative assessments of parental efficacy. Notably, we find that highly efficacious parents employed a wide range of involvement strategies, undetected by some traditional metrics of involvement (i.e., attending PTA meetings). As expected, we also find that efficacious parents were largely advantaged themselves and concentrated in advantaged schools. However, school contexts can play a powerful role in shaping the reception of parents’ engagement with schools—the presence of a Spanish immersion program transformed how teachers and administrators interpreted the involvement activities of Latinx parents. Our results point to the importance of (1) recasting parental involvement as parental efficacy and (2) integrating school contexts to understand how efficacy can be more effectively encouraged and deployed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Schooling)
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Article
The Interlocking Processes Constraining the Struggle for Sanctuary in the Trump Era: The Case of La Puente, CA
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/socsci10050155 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1280
Abstract
By 10 January 2017, activists in the predominately Latina/o working class city of La Puente, California had lobbied the council to declare the city a sanctuary supporting immigrants, people of color, Muslims, LGBTQ people, and people with disabilities. The same community members urged [...] Read more.
By 10 January 2017, activists in the predominately Latina/o working class city of La Puente, California had lobbied the council to declare the city a sanctuary supporting immigrants, people of color, Muslims, LGBTQ people, and people with disabilities. The same community members urged the school district to declare itself a sanctuary. While community members rejoiced in pushing elected officials to pass these inclusive resolutions, there were multiple roadblocks reducing the potential for more substantive change. Drawing on city council and school board meetings, resolutions and my own involvement in this sanctuary struggle, I focus on a continuum of three overlapping and interlocking manifestations of white supremacist heteronormative patriarchy: neoliberal diversity discourses, institutionalized policies, and a re-emergence of high-profiled white supremacist activities. Together, these dynamics minimized, contained and absorbed community activism and possibilities of change. They reinforced the status quo by maintaining limits on who belongs and sustaining intersecting hierarchies of race, immigration status, gender, and sexuality. This extended case adds to the scant scholarship on the current sanctuary struggles, including among immigration scholars. It also illustrates how the state co-opts and marginalizes movement language, ideas, and people, providing a cautionary tale about the forces that restrict more transformative change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
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