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Open AccessArticle

Understanding Antimicrobial Use Contexts in the Poultry Sector: Challenges for Small-Scale Layer Farms in Kenya

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi PO Box 30470, Kenya
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State Department of Livestock Production, Livestock Fisheries and Cooperative, Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi PO Box 34188, Kenya
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State Department of Veterinary Services, Livestock Fisheries and Cooperative, Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi PO Box 34188, Kenya
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 00153 Rome, Italy
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Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Veterinary Medicines Directorate, Surrey KT15 3LS, UK
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College of Veterinary Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala PO Box 7022, Uganda
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
The poultry sector contributes significantly to Kenya’s food and economic security. This contribution is expected to rise dramatically with a growing population, urbanization, and preferences for animal-source foods. Antimicrobial resistance is putting the poultry sector in Kenya—and worldwide—at risk of production losses due to the failure of medicines for animal (and human) health. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance has been linked to overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in poultry and other sectors. Previous studies have documented poultry farmer antimicrobial use but without systematic consideration of the contexts (i.e., drivers) as important targets for behavior change, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To improve understanding of antimicrobial use patterns in poultry systems, we conducted a mixed-methods knowledge, attitudes, and practices study of 76 layer farms in Kiambu County; Kenya. We found that commonly used antibiotics were often labeled for prophylactic, growth promotion, and egg production improvement purposes. Antimicrobial use was also motivated by the presence of diseases/disease symptoms, most of which could instead be managed through infection prevention measures. The results suggest that improving vaccination and biosecurity practices on farms and engaging with drug-makers to ensure proper labeling and marketing of antimicrobial drugs may represent important areas of opportunity for social behavior change communication and/or behavioral science interventions (i.e., nudges) to reduce disease burdens and promote prudent antimicrobial use. We conclude our findings with suggestions for further research into the behavioral insights at play in these scenarios to fuel future intervention development. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial use; poultry; Kenya; biosecurity; antimicrobial resistance; mixed-methods; antibiotic; drug; behavior antimicrobial use; poultry; Kenya; biosecurity; antimicrobial resistance; mixed-methods; antibiotic; drug; behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kiambi, S.; Mwanza, R.; Sirma, A.; Czerniak, C.; Kimani, T.; Kabali, E.; Dorado-Garcia, A.; Eckford, S.; Price, C.; Gikonyo, S.; Byarugaba, D.K.; Caudell, M.A. Understanding Antimicrobial Use Contexts in the Poultry Sector: Challenges for Small-Scale Layer Farms in Kenya. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 106. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020106

AMA Style

Kiambi S, Mwanza R, Sirma A, Czerniak C, Kimani T, Kabali E, Dorado-Garcia A, Eckford S, Price C, Gikonyo S, Byarugaba DK, Caudell MA. Understanding Antimicrobial Use Contexts in the Poultry Sector: Challenges for Small-Scale Layer Farms in Kenya. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(2):106. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kiambi, Stella; Mwanza, Rosemary; Sirma, Anima; Czerniak, Christine; Kimani, Tabitha; Kabali, Emmanuel; Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro; Eckford, Suzanne; Price, Cortney; Gikonyo, Stephen; Byarugaba, Denis K.; Caudell, Mark A. 2021. "Understanding Antimicrobial Use Contexts in the Poultry Sector: Challenges for Small-Scale Layer Farms in Kenya" Antibiotics 10, no. 2: 106. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020106

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