Next Article in Journal
Assessment of the Accumulation Ability of Festuca rubra L. and Alyssum saxatile L. Tested on Soils Contaminated with Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cu
Next Article in Special Issue
Biowaste-Derived Humic-like Substances Improve Growth and Quality of Orange Jasmine (Murraya paniculata L. Jacq.) Plants in Soilless Potted Culture
Previous Article in Journal
Multi-Criteria Analysis of Smart Cities on the Example of the Polish Cities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fermentation of Biodegradable Organic Waste by the Family Thermotogaceae
Article

Valorization of Agri-Food Waste from Pistachio Hard Shells: Extraction of Polyphenols as Natural Antioxidants

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ezio Riggi, Raffaela Maria Balestrini and Edoardo Marco Napoli
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 30 April 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 8 May 2021
The agricultural processing industry usually generates a remarkable amount of by-products rich in bioactive compounds, which can be exploited for agri-food or nutraceutical applications. Pistachio’s hard shell is one of the major by-products from pistachio industrial processing. The aim of this work was the evaluation of pistachio shells as a potential source of natural antioxidants. We evaluated different extraction procedures by measuring total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidative activity (DPPH, TEAC and ORAC). The microwave-assisted ethanol extract turned out to be the most promising and was fractionated by XAD-16 column chromatography, affording six fractions analyzed through HPLC/ESI-MS/MS and 1H-NMR to identify the main antioxidative constituents. Fractions Fr4–Fr6 demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity. Gallic acid and a monogalloylglusose isomer are the main phenolic constituents of Fr4. Both simple and complex phenolics, such as flavonoids and hydrolysable tannins, were identified in fractions Fr5 and Fr6; pentagalloylglucose and kaempferol, well-known for their antioxidant activity, are the most abundant constituents. The results highlighted that the proposed methodology can be an effective way to recover bioactive phenolic compounds from pistachio hard shell, making this by-product a promising source of compounds with potential applications in food and healthcare sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; flavonoids; tannins; antioxidants; food supplements; waste valorization; HPLC-MS characterization polyphenols; flavonoids; tannins; antioxidants; food supplements; waste valorization; HPLC-MS characterization
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cardullo, N.; Leanza, M.; Muccilli, V.; Tringali, C. Valorization of Agri-Food Waste from Pistachio Hard Shells: Extraction of Polyphenols as Natural Antioxidants. Resources 2021, 10, 45. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10050045

AMA Style

Cardullo N, Leanza M, Muccilli V, Tringali C. Valorization of Agri-Food Waste from Pistachio Hard Shells: Extraction of Polyphenols as Natural Antioxidants. Resources. 2021; 10(5):45. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10050045

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cardullo, Nunzio, Melania Leanza, Vera Muccilli, and Corrado Tringali. 2021. "Valorization of Agri-Food Waste from Pistachio Hard Shells: Extraction of Polyphenols as Natural Antioxidants" Resources 10, no. 5: 45. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10050045

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop