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Environmental Transformation and the Current State of Hydrogeological Condition in the Wojkowice Area—Southern Poland

1
Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
2
Institute of Geography, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Pedagogical University of Krakow, Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland
3
Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicoletta Santangelo
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 20 May 2021
Based on the analysis and interpretation of maps, remote sensing data published in the literature, and environmental reconnaissance, this article discusses environmental transformations in the Wojkowice area in southern Poland (up to the year 2020). A comprehensive analysis was carried out concerning spatial development, mining activity, hydrogeological conditions and the biotic environment. The current state of the hydrogeological conditions was also characterized. Mining activity in the vicinity of the studied town caused significant changes in its relief, which contributed to its area dropping by about 5 m. In fact, these terrain forms are overgrown by various forms of vegetation that colonized these areas both naturally and as a result of forest reclamation. The contemporary vegetation of Wojkowice differs from the potential natural vegetation, which is an indicator of the complete anthropogenization of the natural environment. Over 100 years of industrial activity in Wojkowice has also contributed to a strong transformation of the groundwater. There has been a quantitative depletion of usable groundwater in the Triassic and Carboniferous formations. With inflows to the ore mines of up to 17 m3/min, the groundwater table has dropped by more than 60 m. The aquifer of Muschelkalk has been practically drained. At present, wells extract the waters from the Röth aquifer. There has been a major transformation of groundwater chemistry. The waters of the Triassic carbonate complex are anthropogenically transformated and are characterized by increased mineralization, multi-ionic types and usually with a quality class III and IV, and, therefore, they require some treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: landscape transformations; relief transformations; hydrogeological conditions; vegetation transformations; Wojkowice; Poland landscape transformations; relief transformations; hydrogeological conditions; vegetation transformations; Wojkowice; Poland
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MDPI and ACS Style

Różkowski, J.; Rahmonov, O.; Zarychta, R.; Zarychta, A. Environmental Transformation and the Current State of Hydrogeological Condition in the Wojkowice Area—Southern Poland. Resources 2021, 10, 54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10050054

AMA Style

Różkowski J, Rahmonov O, Zarychta R, Zarychta A. Environmental Transformation and the Current State of Hydrogeological Condition in the Wojkowice Area—Southern Poland. Resources. 2021; 10(5):54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10050054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Różkowski, Jacek, Oimahmad Rahmonov, Roksana Zarychta, and Adrian Zarychta. 2021. "Environmental Transformation and the Current State of Hydrogeological Condition in the Wojkowice Area—Southern Poland" Resources 10, no. 5: 54. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10050054

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