Next Article in Journal
Production of a PET//LDPE Laminate Using a Reversibly Crosslinking Packaging Adhesive and Recycling in a Small-Scale Technical Plant
Next Article in Special Issue
Laboratory Properties of Waste PET Plastic-Modified Asphalt Mixes
Previous Article in Journal
Biocrude Production via Non-Catalytic Supercritical Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Fucus vesiculosus Seaweed Processing Residues
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mechanical Properties of Tin Slag Mortar
Article

Estimating the Cost-Competitiveness of Recycling-Based Geopolymer Concretes

1
Department of Industrial Management, LUT University, 53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
2
Department of Sustainability Science, LUT University, 53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Neves and Ana Cristina Freire
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 5 July 2021
The cement industry is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale. Consequently, there has been an increasing interest, in both academia and business, in low-carbon concretes in which Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is partially or fully replaced with industrial side streams. However, the realization of the environmental benefits of such materials depends on how competitive they are in the construction market, where low costs are a major competitive factor. This is not straightforward, as many types of concretes exist. Raw material prices vary, and costs can be influenced by governmental regulations via carbon pricing. This study presents a case study estimating the cost prices of four different geopolymer concretes with different material compositions and carbon footprints, considering the raw material price variability and the potential impact of carbon emissions regulation (carbon price). The case study demonstrates how material mix cost comparisons can be made openly and systematically. The results imply that carbon pricing, at the rates currently applied, does not significantly change the cost price difference between traditional and geopolymer concretes. Instead, cost-competitiveness of low carbon concretes depends heavily on the material mix type and the availability of critical side streams. View Full-Text
Keywords: recycling; concrete; costs; carbon footprint; carbon price recycling; concrete; costs; carbon footprint; carbon price
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rintala, A.; Havukainen, J.; Abdulkareem, M. Estimating the Cost-Competitiveness of Recycling-Based Geopolymer Concretes. Recycling 2021, 6, 46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6030046

AMA Style

Rintala A, Havukainen J, Abdulkareem M. Estimating the Cost-Competitiveness of Recycling-Based Geopolymer Concretes. Recycling. 2021; 6(3):46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6030046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rintala, Annastiina, Jouni Havukainen, and Mariam Abdulkareem. 2021. "Estimating the Cost-Competitiveness of Recycling-Based Geopolymer Concretes" Recycling 6, no. 3: 46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6030046

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop