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Review

Noncontact Sensing of Contagion

1
School of Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095, Australia
2
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
3
The Chahl Medical Practice, P.O. Box 2300, Dangar, NSW 2309, Australia
4
Electrical Engineering Technical College, Middle Technical University, Al Doura, Baghdad 10022, Iraq
5
Joint and Operations Analysis Division, Defence Science and Technology Group, Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carosena Meola
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a pandemic. We review and reduce the clinical literature on diagnosis of COVID-19 through symptoms that might be remotely detected as of early May 2020. Vital signs associated with respiratory distress and fever, coughing, and visible infections have been reported. Fever screening by temperature monitoring is currently popular. However, improved noncontact detection is sought. Vital signs including heart rate and respiratory rate are affected by the condition. Cough, fatigue, and visible infections are also reported as common symptoms. There are non-contact methods for measuring vital signs remotely that have been shown to have acceptable accuracy, reliability, and practicality in some settings. Each has its pros and cons and may perform well in some challenges but be inadequate in others. Our review shows that visible spectrum and thermal spectrum cameras offer the best options for truly noncontact sensing of those studied to date, thermal cameras due to their potential to measure all likely symptoms on a single camera, especially temperature, and video cameras due to their availability, cost, adaptability, and compatibility. Substantial supply chain disruptions during the pandemic and the widespread nature of the problem means that cost-effectiveness and availability are important considerations. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; vital signs; remote sensor; thermal camera imaging; video camera imaging COVID-19; vital signs; remote sensor; thermal camera imaging; video camera imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khanam, F.-T.-Z.; Chahl, L.A.; Chahl, J.S.; Al-Naji, A.; Perera, A.G.; Wang, D.; Lee, Y.H.; Ogunwa, T.T.; Teague, S.; Nguyen, T.X.B.; McIntyre, T.D.; Pegoli, S.P.; Tao, Y.; McGuire, J.L.; Huynh, J.; Chahl, J. Noncontact Sensing of Contagion. J. Imaging 2021, 7, 28. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging7020028

AMA Style

Khanam F-T-Z, Chahl LA, Chahl JS, Al-Naji A, Perera AG, Wang D, Lee YH, Ogunwa TT, Teague S, Nguyen TXB, McIntyre TD, Pegoli SP, Tao Y, McGuire JL, Huynh J, Chahl J. Noncontact Sensing of Contagion. Journal of Imaging. 2021; 7(2):28. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging7020028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khanam, Fatema-Tuz-Zohra; Chahl, Loris A.; Chahl, Jaswant S.; Al-Naji, Ali; Perera, Asanka G.; Wang, Danyi; Lee, Y.H.; Ogunwa, Titilayo T.; Teague, Samuel; Nguyen, Tran X.B.; McIntyre, Timothy D.; Pegoli, Simon P.; Tao, Yiting; McGuire, John L.; Huynh, Jasmine; Chahl, Javaan. 2021. "Noncontact Sensing of Contagion" J. Imaging 7, no. 2: 28. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jimaging7020028

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