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Article

Assessment of Motor Dysfunction with Virtual Reality in Patients Undergoing [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT Brain Imaging

1
Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2
Department of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3
Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
4
Department of Neurology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
5
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Brian D. Ross
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
[123I]FP-CIT SPECT has been valuable for distinguishing Parkinson disease (PD) from essential tremor. However, its performance for quantitative assessment of motor dysfunction has not been established. A virtual reality (VR) application was developed and compared with [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT for detection of severity of motor dysfunction. Forty-four patients (21 males, 23 females, age 64.5 ± 12.4) with abnormal [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT underwent assessment of bradykinesia, activities of daily living, and tremor with VR. Support vector machines (SVM) machine learning models were applied to VR and SPECT data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated greater area under the curve (AUC) for VR (0.8418, 95% CI 0.6071–0.9617) compared with brain SPECT (0.5357, 95% CI 0.3373–0.7357, p = 0.029) for detection of motor dysfunction. Logistic regression identified VR as an independent predictor of motor dysfunction (Odds Ratio 326.4, SE 2.17, p = 0.008). SVM for prediction of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) demonstrated greater R-squared of 0.713 (p = 0.008) for VR, compared with 0.0764 (p = 0.361) for brain SPECT. This study demonstrates that VR can be safely used in patients prior to [123I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging and may improve prediction of motor dysfunction. This test has the potential to provide a simple, objective, quantitative analysis of motor symptoms in PD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; Parkinson disease; motor dysfunction; SPECT; UPDRS virtual reality; Parkinson disease; motor dysfunction; SPECT; UPDRS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vu, J.P.; Yamin, G.; Reyes, Z.; Shin, A.; Young, A.; Litvan, I.; Xie, P.; Obrzut, S. Assessment of Motor Dysfunction with Virtual Reality in Patients Undergoing [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT Brain Imaging. Tomography 2021, 7, 95-106. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tomography7020009

AMA Style

Vu JP, Yamin G, Reyes Z, Shin A, Young A, Litvan I, Xie P, Obrzut S. Assessment of Motor Dysfunction with Virtual Reality in Patients Undergoing [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT Brain Imaging. Tomography. 2021; 7(2):95-106. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tomography7020009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vu, Jeanne P., Ghiam Yamin, Zabrina Reyes, Alex Shin, Alexander Young, Irene Litvan, Pengtao Xie, and Sebastian Obrzut. 2021. "Assessment of Motor Dysfunction with Virtual Reality in Patients Undergoing [123I]FP-CIT SPECT/CT Brain Imaging" Tomography 7, no. 2: 95-106. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tomography7020009

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