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Cardiac Stimulation in the Third Millennium: Where Do We Head from Here?

1
Unit of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Università Alma Mater Studiorum di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
Over the years, pacemakers have evolved from a life-saving tool to prevent asystole to a device to treat heart rhythm disorders and heart failure, aiming at improving both cardiac function and clinical outcomes. Cardiac stimulation nowadays aims to correct the electrophysiologic roots of mechanical inefficiency in different structural heart diseases. This has led to awareness of the concealed risks of customary cardiac pacing that can inadvertently cause atrioventricular and inter-/intra-ventricular dyssynchrony, and has promoted the development of new pacing modalities and the use of stimulation sites different from the right atrial appendage and the right ventricular apex. The perspective of truly physiologic pacing is the leading concept of the continued research in the past 30 years, which has made cardiac stimulation procedure more sophisticated and challenging. In this article, we analyze the emerging evidence in favor of the available strategies to achieve an individualized physiologic setting in bradycardia pacing. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac stimulation; atrioventricular coupling; physiologic pacing; clinical outcome; individualized therapy cardiac stimulation; atrioventricular coupling; physiologic pacing; clinical outcome; individualized therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Biffi, M.; Spadotto, A.; Piemontese, G.P.; Toniolo, S.; Bartoli, L.; Sorrentino, S.; Minguzzi, A.; Massaro, G.; Capobianco, C.; Statuto, G. Cardiac Stimulation in the Third Millennium: Where Do We Head from Here? Hearts 2021, 2, 15-35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hearts2010003

AMA Style

Biffi M, Spadotto A, Piemontese GP, Toniolo S, Bartoli L, Sorrentino S, Minguzzi A, Massaro G, Capobianco C, Statuto G. Cardiac Stimulation in the Third Millennium: Where Do We Head from Here? Hearts. 2021; 2(1):15-35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hearts2010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biffi, Mauro; Spadotto, Alberto; Piemontese, Giuseppe P.; Toniolo, Sebastiano; Bartoli, Lorenzo; Sorrentino, Sergio; Minguzzi, Alessandro; Massaro, Giulia; Capobianco, Claudio; Statuto, Giovanni. 2021. "Cardiac Stimulation in the Third Millennium: Where Do We Head from Here?" Hearts 2, no. 1: 15-35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/hearts2010003

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