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Telecom, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2020) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The abundance of radio signals and their increasing number creates interferences on adjacent signals and, sometimes, with co-channel communication. This paper will discuss the effect of continuous wave interference, generally emitted by hackers or military forces, on a radio communication receiver, specifically with the digital video broadcasting for satellite second generation (DVB-S2) communication standard. It investigates the general effect of the interference on a quadrature phase-shift keying signal over each part of the DVB-S2 receiver. It also focuses on the impact of the center frequency and power of the interference on the critical blocks of a DVB-S2 receiver. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Chaotic System with a Line Equilibrium: Analysis and Its Applications to Secure Communication and Random Bit Generation
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 283-296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030019 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 435
Abstract
In this study, a novel two-parameter, three-dimensional chaotic system is constructed. The system has no linear terms and its equilibrium is a line, so it is a system with hidden attractors. The system is first studied by computation of its bifurcation diagrams and [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel two-parameter, three-dimensional chaotic system is constructed. The system has no linear terms and its equilibrium is a line, so it is a system with hidden attractors. The system is first studied by computation of its bifurcation diagrams and diagram of Lyapunov exponents. Then, the system is applied to two encryption related problems. First, the problem of secure communications is considered, using the symmetric chaos shift keying modulation method. Here, the states of the chaotic system are combined with a binary information signal in order to mask it, safely transmit it through a communication channel, and successfully reconstruct the information at the receiver end. In the second problem, the states of the system are utilized to design a simple rule to generate a bit sequence that possesses random properties, and is thus suitable for encryption related applications. For both applications, simulations are performed through Matlab to verify the soundness of the designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies on Communications 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Dependable Wireless System with Shortened Code Using Distance Information between Integrated Terminals
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 266-282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030018 - 07 Dec 2020
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Since wireless systems allow for easier access to communication paths than wired systems, it is necessary to improve their dependability against cyberterrorists. To make wireless systems more dependable, additional measures at the lower layer are required, in addition to those at the upper [...] Read more.
Since wireless systems allow for easier access to communication paths than wired systems, it is necessary to improve their dependability against cyberterrorists. To make wireless systems more dependable, additional measures at the lower layer are required, in addition to those at the upper layers. Our proposal uses an integrated terminal-like cellular phone which has multiple radio access technologies (RATs) such as cellular, wireless local area network (LAN), Bluetooth, and an ultra-wide band (UWB). We propose to communicate information encoded by shortened code using multiple RATs. Redundancy by RATs and their error correction capability can simultaneously improve wiretap resistance and attack resistance. A codeword of shortened code is obtained by removing a part of a codeword of popular code. A decoder can improve the error correction capability if the removed part is known. By using shortened codes, the dependability can be further enhanced because the error correction capability between the legitimate receiver and the cyberterrorist can make a difference. To do this, it is necessary to securely share the removed part between the sender and receiver. Our proposal is to securely measure the distance between the sender and receiver using UWB and use it as the removed part. It was confirmed that the secrecy capacity is improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Interference and Mitigation Using Notch Filter for the DVB-S2 Standard
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 242-265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030017 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
The abundance of radio signals and their increasing number creates interferences on adjacent signals and sometimes, with co-channel communication. Jammers, which are operated by hackers or by military forces, are another source of smart and powerful interferences. This paper will discuss the effect [...] Read more.
The abundance of radio signals and their increasing number creates interferences on adjacent signals and sometimes, with co-channel communication. Jammers, which are operated by hackers or by military forces, are another source of smart and powerful interferences. This paper will discuss the effect of the continuous wave interference (CWI) on a radio communication receiver, specifically with the Digital Video Broadcasting for Satellite Second Generation (DVB-S2) communication standard. It investigates the general effect of the interference on a Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal over each part of the DVB-S2 receiver. It also focuses on the impact of the center frequency and power of the interference on the critical blocks of a DVB-S2 receiver. This study also tries to determine the deviation from the normal operation in the format of mathematical expressions and simulation results. Based on the obtained results, there is a vulnerability in the chain of the receiver’s blocks that allows a smart jammer to affect the device with low power interference. The notch filter is utilized as a solution to mitigate the interference. In addition, the effects of this technique on the system’s performance are studied. The simulation results show that there is a great improvement after CWI removal according to the Jamming to Signal Ratio (JSR), the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and the Bit Error Rate (BER). In some cases, the JSR was reduced by 15 dB, the SNR was improved by 10 dB and BER also improved by 7 dB. However, the notch filter deletes some information from the original signal. This study introduces new ways to clarify the tradeoff between the amount of interference power reduction and removed bandwidth from the signal with notch filtering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cluster-Based Channel Assignment Technique in IEEE 802.11 Networks
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 228-241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030016 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Channel assignment has become a critical configuration task in Wi-Fi networks due to the increasing number and density of devices which use the same frequency band in the radioelectric spectrum. There have been a number of research efforts that propose how to assign [...] Read more.
Channel assignment has become a critical configuration task in Wi-Fi networks due to the increasing number and density of devices which use the same frequency band in the radioelectric spectrum. There have been a number of research efforts that propose how to assign channels to the access points of Wi-Fi networks. However, most of them ignore the effect of clients (also called stations or STAs) in channel assignment, instead focusing only on access points (APs). In this paper, we claim that considering STAs in the channel assignment procedure yields better solutions in comparison with those obtained when STAs are ignored. To evaluate this hypothesis we have proposed a heuristic technique that includes the effect of interferences produced by STAs. Results show that taking STAs into account clearly improves the performance of the solutions both in terms of the achieved utility and in terms of the variability of results. We believe that these results will be useful to the design of future channel assignment techniques which consider the effect of STAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Communication Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Noncoherent Detection in Massive MIMO Systems via Digital Beamspace Preprocessing
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 211-227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030015 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Noncoherent detection in massive multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) uplink systems provides a low-complexity alternative to its coherent counterpart. Requiring no actual channel knowledge but the per-user induced power at the base station, comparable performance as channel-estimation-based detection can be achieved when the users are located [...] Read more.
Noncoherent detection in massive multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) uplink systems provides a low-complexity alternative to its coherent counterpart. Requiring no actual channel knowledge but the per-user induced power at the base station, comparable performance as channel-estimation-based detection can be achieved when the users are located in the near-field of the base station. However, noncoherent detection fails in scenarios where users are in the far-field due to an insufficient capability to separate the users in terms of their spatially induced power. For this purpose, a dielectric lens or an analog beamforming structure can be employed, which are capable to focus the power of the incident waves to a smaller subset of the antennas at the base station. These so-called analog beamspace techniques have been demonstrated to enable again the noncoherent detection scheme. Analogous to a spatial Fourier transform, beamspace techniques can be also realized in the digital domain offering more flexibility. Its applicability to noncoherent detection is studied in this paper. It is shown numerically that by means of digital beamspace preprocessing, considerable performance gains can be achieved. Applied in dominant line-of-sight channels, a large number of users can be accommodated and the residual performance gap to coherent detection with perfect channel knowledge is minimal. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Improved GreenOFDM Scheme for PAPR Reduction
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 196-210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030014 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an improvement to a recent Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) reduction technique for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), the GreenOFDM. This technique, which is inspired by SeLected Mapping (SLM), generates several waveform candidates using a given number of Inverse [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose an improvement to a recent Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) reduction technique for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), the GreenOFDM. This technique, which is inspired by SeLected Mapping (SLM), generates several waveform candidates using a given number of Inverse Fast Fourier Transforms (IFFT), and selects the one with the lowest PAPR for the transmission of the OFDM symbol. For U IFFTs, GreenOFDM provides better PAPR reduction capabilities than SLM-OFDM as it increases the number of waveform candidates from U (for SLM-OFDM) to U2/4. In this work, we propose an extension of the GreenOFDM that further increases the number of waveform candidates by a factor of 4 (from U2/4 to U2), or equivalently reduces by a factor of 2 the number of IFFTs for a same PAPR performance. Compared to SLM-OFDM, the improved GreenOFDM technique reduces the complexity by requiring only the square-root of the number of IFFTs for a same PAPR reduction performance. Furthermore, exciting methods for additional complexity reduction are also implemented and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ensuring Uninterrupted MTC Service Availability during Emergencies Using LTE/5G Public Mobile Land Networks
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 181-195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030013 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 717
Abstract
During emergencies LTE/5G-based public mobile land networks (PLMNs) restrict network access by normal users, which means a lack of service reliability which limits application of LTE/5G for machine-type communication (MTC) in critical applications, such as power systems This paper shows how existing LTE/5G [...] Read more.
During emergencies LTE/5G-based public mobile land networks (PLMNs) restrict network access by normal users, which means a lack of service reliability which limits application of LTE/5G for machine-type communication (MTC) in critical applications, such as power systems This paper shows how existing LTE/5G features can be used to differentiate MTC of devices in a microgrid from other MTC or human-to-human (H2H) communication and ensure that these microgrid devices have service during emergencies, which enables use of LTE/5G communication to co-ordinate the use of distributed energy resources (DER) in microgrids, so that they can autarkically perform blackout recovery of an islanded microgrid. It is shown that this method allows the blackout recovery 100 times faster than with a conventional black start. The microgrid blackout recovery is demonstrated using the LTE/5G PLMN Access Barring feature. The disadvantage of using PLMN-based Access Barring is the need to define two separate PLMNs in one radio cell, which is an inefficient use of radio spectrum. However, this can be avoided by using the Extended Access Class Barring (EAB) override or application-specific congestion control (ACDC) features of the CAT-M1 low-power wide-area MTC technology, which are included in LTE and 5G standards. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rapid Estimation of TVWS: A Probabilistic Approach Based on Sensed Signal Parameters
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 161-180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030012 - 29 Sep 2020
Viewed by 583
Abstract
The current demand for a wireless electromagnetic spectrum is higher than ever before due to rapid technological development in the field of information and communication technologies that has resulted in monumental growth in data-centric services. The usage of idle TV channels in the [...] Read more.
The current demand for a wireless electromagnetic spectrum is higher than ever before due to rapid technological development in the field of information and communication technologies that has resulted in monumental growth in data-centric services. The usage of idle TV channels in the Television Ultra High Frequencies (TV-UHF) band (500–698 MHz), also known as Television White Spaces (TVWS), is a relatively new and promising concept for wireless connectivity that can be used to cater to the demand. A challenge in this setting is to figure out a fast and cost-effective method of TVWS presence estimation, such as the use of open hardware and software tools, reducing sensing time. This article proposes a Rapid Estimation Method (REM) for TVWS estimation that uses the statistical information of the sensed signals. Our probabilistic approach analyzes the collected parameters of more than eight million data samples taken by scanning the TV-UHF spectrum in the city of Windsor, ON, Canada. The calculated statistical parameters and a group of auxiliary parameters were combined to estimate rapidly the amount of TVWS available in the sensed locations. By applying the proposed rapid estimation method, the presence of TVWS was identified and verified with an accuracy of about 76% according to the results obtained, the average variation when comparing the calculated and detected probabilities of TVWS was in a range of 15%, and the method could be a viable solution to the spectrum need. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Networks Routing Using an Arrow-Based Description
Telecom 2020, 1(3), 150-160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/telecom1030011 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 600
Abstract
In this paper, an improved routing algorithm suitable for planar networks—static Zigbee and mesh networks included—is shown. The algorithm is based on the cycle description of the graph, and on a new graph model based on arrow description, which is outlined. We show [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved routing algorithm suitable for planar networks—static Zigbee and mesh networks included—is shown. The algorithm is based on the cycle description of the graph, and on a new graph model based on arrow description, which is outlined. We show that the newly developed model allows for a faster algorithm for finding a direct and a return path in the network. The newly developed model allows further interpretations of the relationships in any simple planar graphs. Examples showing the implementation of the newly developed model are presented too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies on Communications 2020)
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