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CivilEng, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Experimental values obtained for the bond strength of reinforcement embedded in concrete are influenced by the test setup and load configuration. Due to the pressure sensitivity of the bonded interface to lateral restraining exerted by the specimen form, unconservative estimates of bond strength are obtained from standard testing methods. Extensive FEA modeling illustrates the increased development capacity of the anchorage in the presence of lateral restraint, which is accompanied by a higher corresponding increase in bond strength and highlights the test setups that will lead to conservative estimates of this property. View this paper.
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Article
Thermal Analysis of Mass Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 254-270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010014 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
In this study, the early age thermal properties of a concrete mix containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) were investigated and incorporated in a finite-element model. A two-term exponential degree of hydration function was proposed to better capture the early age behavior. [...] Read more.
In this study, the early age thermal properties of a concrete mix containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) were investigated and incorporated in a finite-element model. A two-term exponential degree of hydration function was proposed to better capture the early age behavior. An FEM program (ABAQUS) was used to predict the temperature time-history of three 1.2-m (4-ft) cubes cast with a mix design containing 50% replacement of the cement by weight with GGBFS. The FEM predictions match well with the experimental temperature measurements. Results show that using the measurements of the thermal properties, an accurate estimation of the temperature difference can be obtained for a concrete mix containing GGBFS, and engineers can use the estimated temperature difference to take preventative measures to minimize the risk of thermal cracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Rheology, Mechanical Properties and Porosity of Ternary Alkali-Activated Binders Based on Mining Mud Waste with Waste Glass and Metakaolin
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 236-253; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010013 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Alkali-activated materials have the potential to replace Portland cement in certain applications. To better understand these binders’ properties, it is relevant to study their rheological behaviour at early ages, like in the case of Portland cement paste. There are already many studies on [...] Read more.
Alkali-activated materials have the potential to replace Portland cement in certain applications. To better understand these binders’ properties, it is relevant to study their rheological behaviour at early ages, like in the case of Portland cement paste. There are already many studies on the rheological behaviour of these materials in the available literature, using fly ash, metakaolin, and ground granulated blast furnace slag as precursors. However, this study discusses the rheological behaviour, mechanical properties, and porosity of ternary alkali-activated binders based on mining mud waste, waste glass, and metakaolin. The precursor consisted of a volume mix of 70% of tungsten mining waste mud, 15% glass waste, and 15% of metakaolin. The activator was a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. Five activator/precursor (A/P) ratios (0.37, 0.38, 0.39, 0.40, and 0.4) were studied. The result showed that the activator/precursor ratio affects the rheology of paste and their rheological behaviour fit the Bingham model. The relative yield stress (g) and plastic viscosity (h) increased inversely with the A/P ratio, while the workability increased proportionally. Furthermore, some empirical models are proposed to describe the characteristic of yield stress: plastic viscosity and spread diameter versus the A/P ratio and time with a correlation between the rheological parameters and the spread diameter. The increase in A/P ratio has also followed a decrease in compressive strength in all tested samples for all the ages. As expected, an increase of the porosity accompanied the increase of the A/P ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Reality Capture of Buildings Using 3D Laser Scanners
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 214-235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010012 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
The urgent need to improve performance in the construction industry has led to the adoption of many innovative technologies. 3D laser scanners are amongst the leading technologies being used to capture and process assets or construction project data for use in various applications. [...] Read more.
The urgent need to improve performance in the construction industry has led to the adoption of many innovative technologies. 3D laser scanners are amongst the leading technologies being used to capture and process assets or construction project data for use in various applications. Due to its nascent nature, many questions are still unanswered about 3D laser scanning, which in turn contribute to the slow adaptation of the technology. Some of these include the role of 3D laser scanners in capturing and processing raw construction project data. How accurate are the 3D laser scanner or point cloud data? How does laser scanning fit with other wider emerging technologies such as building information modeling (BIM)? This study adopts a proof-of-concept approach, which in addition to answering the aforementioned questions, illustrates the application of the technology in practice. The study finds that the quality of the data, commonly referred to as point cloud data, is still a major issue as it depends on the distance between the target object and 3D laser scanner’s station. Additionally, the quality of the data is still very dependent on data file sizes and the computational power of the processing machine. Lastly, the connection between laser scanning and BIM approaches is still weak as what can be done with a point cloud data model in a BIM environment is still very limited. The aforementioned findings reinforce existing views on the use of 3D laser scanners in capturing and processing construction project data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
A Risk Management Database Framework Implementation for Transportation Asset Management
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 193-213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010011 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 674
Abstract
A 2017 survey of the state of practice on how agencies are developing their risk-based asset management plan shows that state highway agencies are increasingly adapting the way they do business to include explicit considerations of risks. At the moment, this consideration of [...] Read more.
A 2017 survey of the state of practice on how agencies are developing their risk-based asset management plan shows that state highway agencies are increasingly adapting the way they do business to include explicit considerations of risks. At the moment, this consideration of risk is not linked to data. Hence, there is a lack of integration of risk management in driving strategic cross-asset programming and decision-making. This paper proposes and implements a risk management database framework as the missing piece in the full implementation of a risk-based transportation asset management program. This risk management database framework utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Application Programming Interface (API) to implement a risk management database of all the relevant variables an agency needs for risk modeling to improve risk monitoring, risk register updates, and decision-making. This approach allows the use of existing enterprise as well as legacy data collection systems, which eliminates the need for any capital-intensive implementation cost. Furthermore, it provides transportation agencies with the ability to track risk in quantitative terms, a framework for prioritizing risk, and the development of an actionable plan for risk mitigation. In this paper, the implementation of the fully integrated GIS-enabled risk management database employs the Iowa department of transportation (DOT) data and risk register. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing Risk in Engineering Asset Management)
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Article
BIM Interoperability Analyses in Structure Design
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 174-192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010010 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 925
Abstract
The building information modelling (BIM) methodology supports collaborative works, based on the centralization of all information in a federated BIM model and on an efficient level of interoperability between BIM-based platforms. Concerning the structure design, the interoperability capacity of the most used software [...] Read more.
The building information modelling (BIM) methodology supports collaborative works, based on the centralization of all information in a federated BIM model and on an efficient level of interoperability between BIM-based platforms. Concerning the structure design, the interoperability capacity of the most used software presents limitations that must be identified and alternative solutions must be proposed. This study analyzes the process of transfer of structure models between modeling and structure analysis tools. Distinct building cases were performed in order to recognize the type of limitations verified in the transfer processes concerning two-way data flow between several software. The study involves the modeling software ArchiCAD 2020, Revit 2020, and AECOsim 2019 and the structure analyzes tools SAP 2020, Robot 2020, and ETABS 22020. The transfer processes are realized in two ways: using the native data format; using a universal standard data transfer, the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. The level of maturity of BIM in structure design is still relatively low, caused essentially by interoperability problems, but despite the limitations detected, this study shows throughout the development of several building case, that the methodology has clear advantages in the development of the structure project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Development of Roughness Prediction Models for Laos National Road Network
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 158-173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010009 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The International Roughness Index (IRI) has been accepted globally as an essential indicator for assessing pavement condition. The Laos Road Management System (RMS) utilizes a default Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) IRI prediction model. However, developed IRI values have shown the need to [...] Read more.
The International Roughness Index (IRI) has been accepted globally as an essential indicator for assessing pavement condition. The Laos Road Management System (RMS) utilizes a default Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) IRI prediction model. However, developed IRI values have shown the need to calibrate the IRI prediction model. Data records are not fully available for Laos yet, making it difficult to calibrate IRI for the local conditions. This paper aims to develop an IRI prediction model for the National Road Network (NRN) based on the available Laos RMS database. The Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis technique was applied to develop two new IRI prediction models for Double Bituminous Surface Treatment (DBST) and Asphalt Concrete (AC) pavement sections. The final database consisted of 83 sections with 269 observations over a 1850 km length of DBST NRN and 29 sections with 122 observations over a 718 km length of AC NRN. The proposed models predict IRI as a function of pavement age and Cumulative Equivalent Single-Axle Load (CESAL). The model’s parameter analysis confirmed their significance, and R2 values were 0.89 and 0.84 for DBST and AC models, respectively. It can be concluded that the developed models can serve as a useful tool for engineers maintaining paved NRN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Study on High Performance Polymer-Modified Cement Grouts
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 134-157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010008 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Engineers worldwide use various additives or chemical admixtures, such as polymer latexes, to improve the properties of cementitious materials for many construction projects. In this paper, the influence of acrylic or epoxy resin emulsions, along with a polycarboxylate superplasticiser on some basic properties [...] Read more.
Engineers worldwide use various additives or chemical admixtures, such as polymer latexes, to improve the properties of cementitious materials for many construction projects. In this paper, the influence of acrylic or epoxy resin emulsions, along with a polycarboxylate superplasticiser on some basic properties (rheological behaviour, setting time, bleeding, strength) of thick cement grouts is presented. The experimental approach included the use of different polymer dosages mixed with grouts made of low water to cement ratios. The laboratory tests revealed that the incorporation of acrylic resin in grouts marginally affected the viscosity, whereas a significant increase in viscosity was obtained when an epoxy resin was added. Regardless of the prolonged setting times, both polymers improved the development of early or final strength. An acrylic resin dosage ranging from 0.25% to 0.75% and an epoxy resin dosage from 5% to 7.5% displayed the highest strength values, at all water to cement ratios. Additionally, all the polymer-modified grouts exhibited a higher bleed capacity, a fact that is significantly important where the bleeding of the grouts is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Review
Earthquake Early Warning Systems as an Asset Risk Management Tool
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 120-133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010007 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Losses due to strong seismic events can amount to millions or billions of US dollars and can affect regions for large periods of time, even severely undermining the economy. Earthquake early warning systems have proven to be helpful tools to mitigate the social [...] Read more.
Losses due to strong seismic events can amount to millions or billions of US dollars and can affect regions for large periods of time, even severely undermining the economy. Earthquake early warning systems have proven to be helpful tools to mitigate the social and economic impact on communities and businesses. Recent case studies are briefly described, followed by examples of proactive measures for assets, infrastructure, citizens education and empowerment, complementary to earthquake early warning systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing Risk in Engineering Asset Management)
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Article
An Integrated Approach for Failure Analysis of Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 87-119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010006 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to identify the most important natural gas pipeline failure causes and interrelation analysis. In this research, the rough analytic hierarchy process (Rough-AHP) is used to identify the natural gas pipeline failure causes rank order. Then a [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to identify the most important natural gas pipeline failure causes and interrelation analysis. In this research, the rough analytic hierarchy process (Rough-AHP) is used to identify the natural gas pipeline failure causes rank order. Then a combination of rough decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and interpretive structural modeling (ISM) method is applied to generate the level of importance. The comparison of traditional DEMATEL and Rough-DEMATEL are also performed to establish the cause-effect interrelation diagram. Finally, the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is combined with Rough DEMATEL and ISM to identify the interrelation analysis among the most crucial failure causes. As a result, the energy supply company and government policymaker can take necessary safety plan and improve the operation. The main outcome of this study is to improve the security management and reduce the potential failure risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing Risk in Engineering Asset Management)
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Article
Study of the Bond Capacity of FRCM- and SRG-Masonry Joints
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 68-86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010005 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) and steel-reinforced grout (SRG) have been increasingly applied as externally bonded reinforcement to masonry members in the last few years. Unlike fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), FRCM and SRG have good performance when exposed to (relatively) high temperature and good compatibility [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) and steel-reinforced grout (SRG) have been increasingly applied as externally bonded reinforcement to masonry members in the last few years. Unlike fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), FRCM and SRG have good performance when exposed to (relatively) high temperature and good compatibility with inorganic substrates, and they can be applied to wet surfaces and at (reasonably) low temperatures. Although numerous studies investigated the mechanical properties and bond performance of various FRCM and SRG, new composites have been developed recently, and their performance still needs to be assessed. In this study, the bond behavior of three FRCM composites and one SRG composite applied to a masonry substrate is investigated. Sixteen single-lap direct shear tests (four tests for each composite) are performed. The FRCM studied comprised one layer of carbon, PBO (polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole), or alkali-resistant (AR)-glass bidirectional textile embedded within two cement-based matrices. The SRG composite comprised one layer of a unidirectional stainless-steel cord textile embedded within a lime-based matrix. The results show a peculiar bond behavior and failure mode for each composite. Based on these results, the behavior of the carbon and PBO FRCM is modeled solving the bond differential equation with a trilinear cohesive material law (CML). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Application of Artificial Neural Network to Predict Load Bearing Capacity and Stiffness of Perforated Masonry Walls
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 48-67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010004 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Perforations adversely affect the structural response of unreinforced masonry walls (UMW) by reducing the wall’s load bearing capacity, which can cause serious structural damage. In the absence of a reliable procedure to accurately predict the load bearing capacity and stiffness of perforated masonry [...] Read more.
Perforations adversely affect the structural response of unreinforced masonry walls (UMW) by reducing the wall’s load bearing capacity, which can cause serious structural damage. In the absence of a reliable procedure to accurately predict the load bearing capacity and stiffness of perforated masonry walls subjected to in-plane loadings, this study presents a novel approach to measure these parameters by developing simple but practical equations. In this regard, the Multi-Pier (MP) method as a numerical approach was employed along with the application of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The simulated responses of centrally perforated UMW by the MP method were validated utilizing full-scale experimental walls. The validated MP model was used to generate a simulated database. The simulated database includes results of analyses for 49 different configurations of perforated masonry walls and their corresponding solid masonry walls. The effect of the area and shape of the perforations on the UMW’s behavior was evaluated by the MP method. Following the outcomes of the verified MP method, the ANN is trained to develop empirical equations to accurately predict the reduction in the load bearing capacity and initial stiffness due to the perforation of UMW. The results of this study indicate that the perforations have a significant effect on the structural capacity of the UMW subjected to in-plane loadings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Proposal of Methodology for Evaluation of a Vertical Shanty Building in Beira, Mozambique
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 35-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010003 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
Emerging economies are in an almost winless situation: they would benefit from improving the extremely poor economic situation, making them self-reliant and economically productive. However, the poor fight for daily survival and, therefore, cannot afford to improve themselves. This article describes the state [...] Read more.
Emerging economies are in an almost winless situation: they would benefit from improving the extremely poor economic situation, making them self-reliant and economically productive. However, the poor fight for daily survival and, therefore, cannot afford to improve themselves. This article describes the state of the “Grande Hotel” in the city of Beira, Mozambique, built-in Portuguese colonial times, a real vertical shanty building that is occupied by approximately 1000 inhabitants trapped in poverty. To carry out any constructive intervention in a building or an urban complex, it is necessary to carry out a rehabilitation project that is developed based on a diagnosis of the building understudy, its main deteriorations, the causes, mechanisms of action, evolution, and possible treatments to be used for its repair. Analysis methods are necessary for the conservation of buildings since trying to stop, or correct buildings’ deterioration without a diagnosis of their problems or a prognosis on their evolution is a risky procedure with a high percentage of failure chances. The use of an appropriate methodology for diagnosing the damage present in the “Grande Hotel” and its prediction of evolution and development should directly impact a better quality of rehabilitation projects in the neighborhood where the building is located. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Career Stars in Civil Engineering)
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Article
Analytical Investigation on the Effect of Test Setup on Bond Strength
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 14-34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010002 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 846
Abstract
Experimental procedures used for the study of reinforcement to concrete bond have been hampered for a long time by inconsistencies and large differences in the obtained behavior, such as bond strength and mode of failure, depending on the specimen form and setup used [...] Read more.
Experimental procedures used for the study of reinforcement to concrete bond have been hampered for a long time by inconsistencies and large differences in the obtained behavior, such as bond strength and mode of failure, depending on the specimen form and setup used in the test. Bond is controlled by the mechanics of the interface between reinforcement and concrete, and is sensitive to the influences of extraneous factors, several of which underlie, but are not accounted for, in conventional pullout test setups. To understand and illustrate the importance of specimen form and testing arrangement, a series of computational simulations are used in the present work on eight distinct variants of conventional bar pullout test setups that are used routinely in experimental literature for the characterization of bond-slip laws. The resulting bond strength increase generated by unaccounted confining stress fields that arise around the bar because of the boundary conditions of the test setup is used to classify the tests with respect to their relevance with the intended use of the results. Of the pullout setups examined, the direct tension pullout test produced the most conservative bond strength results, completely eliminating the contributions from eccentricity and passive confinement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connections in Concrete)
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Article
Testing and Evaluation of Anchor Channels under Fatigue Loading
CivilEng 2021, 2(1), 1-13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/civileng2010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Cast-in anchor channels are used to connect steel components to concrete structures e.g., for elevators, cranes or machines, where repeated load cycles require verification against fatigue failure. The fatigue resistance of anchor channels may be determined by tests according to the interactive method, [...] Read more.
Cast-in anchor channels are used to connect steel components to concrete structures e.g., for elevators, cranes or machines, where repeated load cycles require verification against fatigue failure. The fatigue resistance of anchor channels may be determined by tests according to the interactive method, which provides a complete description of the S/N curve from one to infinite load cycles according to the current assessment document. This procedure differs from conventional fatigue concepts, which do not consider loads that are part of low cycle fatigue, but also question the general existence of an endurance limit. An alternative approach presented in this paper is based on the assumption that the S/N curve can be approximated by a bilinear function. The procedure for the evaluation of fatigue tests on anchor channels embedded in concrete is described. A comparison with the current qualification criteria is given by a test example to discuss the applicability of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connections in Concrete)
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