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Diabetology, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 4 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Another Player in the Field: Involvement of Glycotoxins and Glycosative Stress in Insulin Secretion and Resistance
Diabetology 2020, 1(1), 24-36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diabetology1010004 - 11 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The term glycotoxins includes the group of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their precursors, most of them highly reactive intermediary compounds, such as methylglyoxal (MG). Glycotoxins were initially thought to participate in the development of diabetic complications because of their increased formation from [...] Read more.
The term glycotoxins includes the group of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their precursors, most of them highly reactive intermediary compounds, such as methylglyoxal (MG). Glycotoxins were initially thought to participate in the development of diabetic complications because of their increased formation from glucose. However, they also form and accumulate in tissues since the early stages of disease, such as metabolically unhealthy obesity and prediabetes. Such accumulation has been suggested to result from dysregulated activity of detoxification systems, such as the glyoxalase system, as well as increased dietary consumption, namely from high-glucose and high-fructose foods processed at high temperatures. Although some studies may have used supraphysiological doses, in vitro systems and animal models have shown glycotoxin-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, dietary glycotoxin restriction was shown to improve insulin resistance in humans and glyoxalase (GLO)-1 upregulation improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. This review summarizes the current knowledge about glycotoxin involvement in the development of insulin resistance, the mechanisms involved and the usefulness of GLO-1 modulation, and a possible therapeutic strategy to improve insulin sensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Diabetology: A New Online Diabetes Journal. What Role Can It Play in a Crowded Field?
Diabetology 2020, 1(1), 22-23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diabetology1010003 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
As a general physician with an interest in endocrinology, more than half of my patients have type 2 diabetes invariably accompanied by obesity, and in almost all cases at least one complication of diabetes [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Sexual Dysfunction in Diabetic Women: An Update on Current Knowledge
Diabetology 2020, 1(1), 11-21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diabetology1010002 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. Therefore, updated knowledge of all diabetic complications and their management is essential for the proper treatment of these patients. Sexual [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. Therefore, updated knowledge of all diabetic complications and their management is essential for the proper treatment of these patients. Sexual dysfunctions are one of the long-term complications of DM in both genders. However, female sexuality is still a taboo and sexual concerns are often overlooked, underdiagnosed, and untreated. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the relationship between sexual function and DM in women. In particular, we evaluated the prevalence, etiology, diagnostic approaches, and current treatment options of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Difference in Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Sex-Gender Differences in Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetology 2020, 1(1), 1-10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diabetology1010001 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the main causes of visual loss in individuals aged 20–64 years old. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study, sex-gender difference in DR in a large sample of type 2 [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the main causes of visual loss in individuals aged 20–64 years old. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study, sex-gender difference in DR in a large sample of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). 20,611 T2DM regularly attending the units for the last three years were classified as having: (a) No DR (NDR), (b) nonproliferative DR (NPDR), or (c) preproliferative/proliferative DR (PPDR). DR of all grades was present in 4294 T2DM (20.8%), with a significant higher prevalence in men as compared to women (22.0% vs. 19.3% p < 0.0001). Among DR patients, both NPDR and PPDR were significantly more prevalent in men vs. women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0016, respectively). Women had similar age and BMI, but longer diabetes duration, worse glycemic metabolic control, and more prevalence of hypertension and chronic renal failure (CRF) of any grade vs. men. No significant differences between sexes were evident in term of drug therapy for diabetes and associate pathologies. Conclusions: In this large sample of T2DM, men show higher prevalence of DR vs. women, in spite of less represented risk factors, suggesting that male sex per se might be a risk factor for DR development. Full article
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