Special Issue "Clostridioides difficile Infection: Immune Response and Anti-virulence Strategies"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Avi Peretz
Guest Editor
1. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, Safed 13100, Israel
2. The Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Baruch Padeh Medical Center, Poriya 15208, Israel
Interests: infectious diseases; C. difficile; bacterial virulence; strain typing; biofilm creation; immune response; disease severity; quick diagnosis; biomarkers

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. CDI manifestations range from asymptomatic colonization and mild diarrhoea to severe infection with toxic megacolon and even death. Therefore, there is a great need to reveal the pathways underlying CDI pathogenesis and to develop anti-virulence agents.

C. difficile virulence is attributed to spore formation, toxin production, the presence of flagella, etc. While bacterial contribution to disease hallmark is well studied, recently it has become clear that the immune response to C. difficile has a predominant impact on clinical outcomes.

During appearance of bacterial infections, such as CDI, the innate immune system is activated, primarily in the intestinal mucus. This reaction leads to the secretion of various inflammatory mediators that propagate the inflammatory process.

Characterization of the host immune response to CDI on the one hand and bacterial virulence factors on the other hand will provide a better understanding of CDI pathogenesis and its implication and hopefully aid in identifying immune biomarkers that may serve to predict disease severity and outcomes. Additionally, this research may be used for the development of new treatments. The current issue of Toxins will focus on the immune response to CDI and current strategies against bacterial virulence.

Dr. Avi Peretz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • C. difficile
  • virulence
  • toxins
  • immune response
  • cytokines
  • immune biomarkers
  • treatment

Published Papers

There is no accepted submissions to this special issue at this moment.
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